People - Ancient Egypt: Antef VII
SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD 17th Dynasty. The Hyksos invade and conquer. Eventually the Theban
princes regain power. Kamose defeats the Hyksos.
Intef VII in Wikipedia
Nubkheperre Intef VII (or Antef) was an Egyptian king of the Seventeenth dynasty of Egypt at Thebes during the Second Intermediate Period, when Egypt
was divided by rival dynasties including the Hyksos in Lower Egypt. He is known to be the brother of Intef VI and perhaps the son of Sekhemre Shedtawy
Sobekemsaf I. Intef VII is one of the best attested kings of this Dynasty who restored numerous damaged temples in Upper Egypt as well as constructing
a new temple at Gebel Antef.
Intef VII ruled from Thebes, and was buried in a tomb in the necropolis of Dra' Abu el-Naga'. The grave was originally covered with a small pyramid
(approximately 11 m at the base, rising to a height of approx. 13 m.) Auguste Mariette found two broken obelisks with complete Fivefold Titulary,
which was then subsequently lost when being transported to the Cairo Museum.
Intef VII's wife was Sobekemsaf, who perhaps came from a local family based at Edfu. On an Abydos stela mentioning a building of the king are the
words king's son, head of the bowmen Nakht. He might be a son of Intef VII although this is far from certain.
The best preserved building from Intef VII's reign is the remains of a small chapel at Koptos. Four walls that have been reconstructed show the king
in front of Min and show him crowned by Horus and by another god. The reliefs are executed in raised and sunken relief.. Also at Koptos, a decree
was found on a stela referring to the actions of Intef VII against an unnamed enemy. At Abydos several stone fragments were found, including
columns which attest to some kind of restoration work. Finally, a block was found near Luxor with the king's name on it. On this block Intef VII
is called the son of king Sobekemsaf, who was perhaps Sekhemre Shedtawy Sobekemsaf I. On a stela found at Abydos, mention is made of a House of Intef.
This most likely refers to a building belonging to Intef VII.
Nebkheperre Intef's wooden coffin
Intef VII's tomb was rediscovered by Daniel Polz, the deputy director of the German Archaeological Institute in 2001. A Reuters report dated 29 June
2001 concerning the discovery of his royal tomb (see 'Egyptian royal tomb discovered.') states:
"In a [historic] first, a joint team of German and Egyptian archaeologists has unearthed a royal tomb dating back to the 17th Dynasty which likely
belonged to a king whose great-grandsons swept out foreign rulers and paved the way for the New Kingdom - Ancient Egypt's "Golden Age". The German
Institute of Archaeology in Cairo (DAI), in announcing the find, said they are convinced the 3500-year-old tomb belonged to Nub-Kheper-Ra Intef, a
monarch of the late 17th Dynasty. A time of political turmoil and confusion, the 17th Dynasty has failed to provide archaeologists with a royal tomb
for study-until now....The tomb is located across the Nile from modern-day Luxor in the northern portion of the Theban necropolis, at the entrance to
the Valley of the Kings. The area, referred to as Dra' Abu el-Naga', has long been felt to be the burial place of kings and private individuals of
the 17th and early 18th dynasties.
According to archaeologists, the "remnants of the tomb consist of the lower part of a small mud-brick pyramid surrounded by an enclosure wall, also
built of mud bricks." In front of the pyramid lies a burial shaft where the toppled head of a life-size royal sandstone statue of the pharaoh was
found. The pyramid-complex and the burial shaft is unequivocally that of Nub-Kheper-Ra Intef, according to Dr Daniel Polz, the lead excavator and
deputy director of DAI.
Other discoveries included "a small funerary chapel of a private individual" adjacent to the pyramid, but outside the enclosure wall. The inner walls
of the chapel were decorated with depictions of its owner, as well as his name and titles. According to these inscriptions the tomb owner, Teti, was a
"treasurer" or "chancellor" of the king. On one of the walls, there remains a large cartouche (the royal name-ring) showing the name of king Nub-
Kheper-Ra Intef. The 17th Dynasty at the end of the Second Intermediate Period - the era between the Middle and New Kingdoms - was characterized by
the rule of the Hyksos, foreign invaders of an Asiatic origin who ruled in the northern part of Egypt contemporaneously with the kings of the 17th
Dynasty in Thebes.
Following numerous military campaigns against them, the Hyksos rulers were eventually expelled from Egypt by Kamose, the last king of the 17th Dynasty
and his brother, Ahmose, the first king of the 18th Dynasty which saw a unified Egypt rise to unprecedented wealth and power. It is believed that Nub-
Kheper-Ra Intef, one of the immediate predecessors of Kamose and Ahmose, could actually have been their great-grandfather. Experts said the discovery
of King Nub-Kheper-Ra Intef's tomb, the first find of a royal tomb from the 17th Dynasty, along with its location, architecture and contents, could
shed new light on the hitherto unknown burials of those Egyptian kings who laid the foundations of Egypt's "Golden Age" - the New Kingdom.
[The] German archaeologist Polz and his team were led to the tomb by information obtained from a 3000-year-old papyrus and the works of an American
archaeologist who made reference to the tomb, but never found it himself. The papyrus mentioned an attempt by robbers to plunder the royal tomb by
digging a tunnel from another tomb belonging to a private individual. The robbers, however, failed to reach the royal tomb. Then in the 19th Century,
another group of robbers found the royal tomb, removed the golden casket and sold it without disclosing where they found it-the casket eventually
ended up in the British Museum in London.
Polz and his team also found what appeared to be evidence of the removal of two obelisks from the tomb of King Nub-Kheper-Ra Intef. The obelisks were
reportedly removed from the tomb in 1881 on orders of the then French director of the Council of Antiquities in Cairo, who wanted them transferred to
old Cairo Museum. Unfortunately, the boat with the heavy obelisks sank in the Nile, some 10 kilometres from Luxor. Polz and his team plan to continue
excavation work on the tomb in October to discover what lies in another room believed to be located below the burial shaft.
Kim Ryholt: The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c.1800-1550 B.C. by Museum Tuscalanum Press. ISBN 87-7289-421-0,
394-95 File 17/2 (list of sources)
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