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October 18    Scripture

Bible Names H-M: Herod Antipas


Antipas and Archelaus The only significant event that occurred early in Antipas' career was in 6 A.D. when a delegation of Jews and Samaritans as well as Philip and Antipas went to Rome to bring about the downfall of his brother Archelaus. Although Antipas remained a tetrarch, he at least gained the dynastic title "Herod" which was of great significance both to his subjects and to the political and social circles of the Roman world. This title given by the emperor may have been a replacement of the title king.
http://www.bible-history.com/Herod_Antipas/ANTIPASAntipas_and_Archelaus.htm


Antipas and Jesus Antipas' relationship to Jesus is seen in three events. The first event is when Herod Antipas first began to hear about Jesus and concluded that this one is "John the Baptist resurrected from the dead" (Matt 14:1, 2; Mark 6:14-16; Luke 9:7-9). It may have been that he was plagued with his own guilt and the possibility that perhaps God had anointed John the Baptist. He is the one that had John beheaded, and forced to do so. Now this new preacher, Jesus, was gaining even more popularity than John and what was he to do? Antipas wanted to see Jesus but was not able to do so because Jesus not only withdrew from his territories, but also Antipas did not want to use force because he might rouse the people again as with John. The second event to is when Jesus was on His final journey to Jerusalem. Some of the Pharisees came to Jesus and stated that He had better remove Himself from Herod Antipas' territories because he sought to kill Jesus (Luke 13:31-33). Jesus replied by saying, "Go tell that fox" that He would continue His ministry of healing the sick and casting out demons for a short time at least, but only after He had finished His work would He go to Jerusalem to perish. Antipas saw the potential danger of Christ's influence on the people and wanted Him to leave his domains by threatening to kill Him. Antipas did not dare to use force because there was no evidence that Jesus was causing potential trouble and the people had not forgiven Antipas for his treatment of John the Baptist whom they considered a prophet. But Jesus saw through Antipas' scheme and called him a "fox" (the animal which is weak and uses cunning deceit to achieve its aims), hence a crafty coward. Jesus was to finish His ministry there for a short time and though Antipas killed John the Baptist in his territory, he did not scare Jesus nor control His fate. The final event was when Jesus was tried by Antipas in 29 A.D. (Luke 23:6-12). Pilate was intimidated by the Jewish leaders who had insisted on Jesus' execution but Pilate found no guilt in Him. He found the easiest solution was to send Jesus to Antipas who was in Jerusalem for the Passover when he heard that Jesus was from Galilee. Another reason for handing Jesus over to Antipas was for diplomatic courtesy in order to improve his relationship with Antipas which had been damaged by the Galilean massacre (Luke 13 :1) and by the incident over the votive shields being brought into Jerusalem by Pilate (Philo Legatio ad Gaium 299-304). This incident was reported by Antipas (and other Herods) to Tiberius who ordered Pilate to remove the shields immediately. Pilate had overstepped himself and was anxious to appease. Antipas did not presume on Pilate's gesture but after mocking Jesus, Antipas sent Jesus back. The one thing that was accomplished in this trial was the reconciliation of Antipas and Pilate. note: Many scholars consider this story as legendary since it is not in the other gospels. Luke probably included it because Theophilus, who was the addressee of the gospel and probably a Roman officer, would have been interested in the reconciliation between Antipas and Pilate (Luke 23 :12). Certainly if Theophilus were a Roman official he would have been interested in the relationship of the Herods and the prefects of Judea. Since the other gospels did not have a particular interest in the Herods one can see the reason for the omission of this event, especially since it adds nothing to the progression of the trial of Christ. There are some scholars who think that the source of the story is Acts 4:25, 26 (which quotes Ps 2 :1, 2) but upon close examination the opposite is true. Other scholars say that the story’s origin is in the Gospel of Peter but if one examines the Gospel of Peter, he will see no real parallel with Luke's account of Antipas' trial of Jesus. In fact the Gospel of Peter holds Antipas responsible for Jesus' death where there is nothing of this in Luke.
http://www.bible-history.com/Herod_Antipas/ANTIPASAntipas_and_Jesus.htm


Antipas and John the Baptist The situation for which Herod Antipas was remembered most was with the imprisonment and death of John the Baptist (Matt 14:3-12; Mark 6:1729; Luke 3:19, 20; Jos. Antiq. xviii. 5. 2 ; 116-119) . Antipas had married the daughter (name unknown) of Aretas IV, the Nabatean king, which probably was instigated by Augustus who was known to favor intermarriages among the various rulers for the sake of peace in the Roman empire. This marriage would have not only made for peace between the Jews and the Arabs, but also Aretas' territory served as a buffer between Rome and Parthia. Hence they were married around 14 A.D. Around 15 years later (29 A.D.) Antipas made a journey to Rome. On his way he paid a visit to his half brother Herod (Philip) who had apparently lived in one of the coastal cities of Palestine. Antipas fell in love with his Philip's wife Herodias who was also Philip’s own niece. She seemed was a very ambitious woman and this was her opportunity to become the wife of a tetrarch. She agreed to marry Antipas on his return from Rome upon the condition that Aretas' daughter must be cast out (Jos. Antiq. xviii. 5. 1 ; 109, 110) . Aretas' daughter got wind of the arrangement and quickly fled to her father. This divorce was not only a personal insult to Aretas but also a breach of a political alliance which later led to a retaliation by Aretas. Not long after Aretas' daughter had departed, Antipas and Herodias were married. John the Baptist spoke boldly against this marriage and therefore Antipas imprisoned him. John's denouncement was that Antipas had married his brother Philip's Wife. The Mosaic law forbad the marriage of a brother's wife (Lev 18:16; 20:21) with the exception of raising children to a deceased childless brother by levirate marriage (Deut 25:5; Mark 12 :19) . Antipas’ brother Philip also had offspring (Salome), and Philip was still alive! Also see The Question About Philip Herodias was not satisfied to leave John in prison and so at a suitable time she arranged for a banquet, probably for Antipas' birthday, at Machaerus in Perea in order to get rid of John. Her daughter Salome danced before Antipas' dignitaries and he promised her with an oath that he would give her anything up to half of his kingdom. Being advised by her mother, she requested John the Baptist's head on a platter. Antipas was sorry that he had made the promise under oath but due to the presence of his guests he had to follow through with the request. Consequently John the Baptist's ministry had come to an end in around 31-32 A.D.
http://www.bible-history.com/Herod_Antipas/ANTIPASAntipas_and_John_the_Baptist.htm


Antipas and Rome In 36 A.D. Aretas made an attack on Antipas and defeated Antipas' army. The Jews saw this defeat as a divine retribution upon Antipas for his execution of John the Baptist (Jos. Antiq. 5. 1. 2 ; 116, 119) . Tiberius ordered Vitellius, governor of Syria, to help Antipas but before he attacked Aretas he with Antipas went up to Jerusalem to celebrate a feast (probably Pentecost in 37 A.D.). While in Jerusalem Vitellius received the news of Tiberius' death (March 16, 37 A.D.) and consequently called off his expedition against Aretas until he received commands from the new emperor Caligula. Caligula upon his accession gave his friend Agrippa I, brother of Herodias, the land of Philip as well as the tetrarch of Lysanius with the title of king (Jos. Antiq. xviii. 6. 10 ; 225, 239). Later Agrippa went to Palestine (August of 38 A.D.). Due to Agrippa's acquisition of the title of king, Herodias prodded Antipas to go to Rome to seek the same title. Finally in A.D. 39 Antipas with Herodias went to Rome but meanwhile Agrippa dispatched one of his freedmen to Rome to bring accusations against Antipas which resulted in Antipas' banishment to exile at Lugdunum Convenarum, now SaintBertrand de Comminges of France. Although Herodias did not have to go into exile she chose to follow her husband. Antipas' territories were given to Agrippa (Jos. Antiq. 7. 1-2 ; 240-255; War ii. 9. 6 ; 181-183) .
http://www.bible-history.com/Herod_Antipas/ANTIPASAntipas_and_Rome.htm


Antipas Scripture - Revelation 2:13 I know thy works, and where thou dwellest, [even] where Satan's seat [is]: and thou holdest fast my name, and hast not denied my faith, even in those days wherein Antipas [was] my faithful martyr, who was slain among you, where Satan dwelleth.
http://www.bible-history.com/kjv/Revelation/2/


Conclusion about Herod Antipas Herod illustrates well, the need of man for a Savior. His royalty and great wealth allowed him to live a large life. As a magnified cut away of a city map helps us to see the territory in greater detail, the largeness of Herod’s fallen nature can also help us see our own condition. A humble seeker of God may be able to find portions of his own fallen character, that under different circumstances, could also enlarge on a grand scale for all to see and historians to record. Yet, thankfully, we have a savior to spare us from our own sin, and when we sin, to use His truth to turn us back to Himself, that He might bestow on us His mercy and love, which is larger than all the sin in the world.
http://www.bible-history.com/Herod_Antipas/ANTIPASConclusion.htm


Herod Antipas Coin This coin of Herod Antipas was struck at Tiberias with the name of Herod the Tetrarch and a palm-branch (28 A.D.)
http://www.bible-history.com/Herod_Antipas/ANTIPASCoin_of_Herod_Antipas.htm


Herod Antipas in Easton's Bible Dictionary Herod's son by Malthace (Matt. 14:1; Luke 3:1, 19; 9:7; Acts 13:1).
http://www.bible-history.com/eastons/H/Herod+Antipas/


Herod Antipas in Naves Topical Bible -2. Tetrarch of Galilee (Herod Antipas) Lu 3:1; 23:7 Incest of Mt 14:3,4; Mr 6:17-19 Beheads John the Baptist Mr 6:16-28; Mt 14:3-11 Desires to see Jesus Lu 9:7,9; 23:8 Tyranny of Lu 13:31,32 Jesus tried by Lu 23:6-12,15; Ac 4:27
http://www.bible-history.com/naves/H/HEROD/


Herod Antipas in Smiths Bible Dictionary II. HEROD ANTIPAS was the son of Herod the Great by Malthake, a Samaritan. He first married a daughter of Aretas, "king of Arabia Petraea," but afterward Herodias, the wife of his half-brother, Herod Philip. Aretas, indignant at the insult offered to his daughter, found a pretext for invading the territory of Herod, and defeated him with great loss. This defeat, according to the famous passage in Josephus, was attributed by many to the murder of John the Baptist, which had been committed by Antipas shortly before, under the influence of Herodias. Mt 14:4 ff.; Mark 6:17 ff.; Luke 3:19 At a later time the ambition of Herodias proved the cause of her husband's ruin. She urged him to go to Rome to gain the title of king, cf. Mr 6:14 but he was opposed at the court of Caligula by the emissaries of Agrippa, and condemned to perpetual banishment at Lugdunum, A.D. 39. Herodias voluntarily shared his punishment, and he died in exile. Pilate took occasion from our Lord's residence in Galilee to bend him for examination, Lu 23:6 ff., to Herod Antipas, who came up to Jerusalem to celebrate the Passover. The city of Tiberias, which Antipas founded and named in honor of the emperor, was the most conspicuous monument of his long reign.
http://www.bible-history.com/smiths/H/Herod/


Herod Antipas in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE 3. Herod Antipas: Herod Antipas was the son of Herod the Great and Malthace, a Samaritan woman. Half Idumean, half Samaritan, he had therefore not a drop of Jewish blood in his veins, and "Galilee of the Gentiles" seemed a fit dominion for such a prince. He ruled as "tetrarch" of Galilee and Peraea (Lk 3:1) from 4 BC till 39 AD. The gospel picture we have of him is far from prepossessing. He is superstitious (Mt 14:1 f), foxlike in his cunning (Lk 13:31 f) and wholly immoral. John the Baptist was brought into his life through an open rebuke of his gross immorality and defiance of the laws of Moses (Lev 18:16), and paid for his courage with his life (Mt 14:10; Ant, XVIII, v, 2). On the death of his father, although he was younger than his brother Archelaus (Ant., XVII, ix, 4 f; BJ, II, ii, 3), he contested the will of Herod, who had given to the other the major part of the dominion. Rome, however, sustained the will and assigned to him the "tetrarchy" of Galilee and Peraea, as it had been set apart for him by Herod (Ant., XVII, xi, 4). Educated at Rome with Archelaus and Philip, his half-brother, son of Mariamne, daughter of Simon, he imbibed many of the tastes and graces and far more of the vices of the Romans. His first wife was a daughter of Aretas, king of Arabia. But he sent her back to her father at Petra, for the sake of Herodias, the wife of his brother Philip, whom he had met and seduced at Rome. Since the latter was the daughter of Aristobulus, his half-brother, and therefore his niece, and at the same time the wife of another half-brother, the union between her and Antipas was doubly sinful. Aretas repaid this insult to his daughter by a destructive war (Ant., XVIII, v, 1). Herodias had a baneful influence over him and wholly dominated his life (Mt 14:3-10). He emulated the example of his father in a mania for erecting buildings and beautifying cities. Thus, he built the wall of Sepphoris and made the place his capital. He elevated Bethsaida to the rank of a city and gave it the name "Julia," after the daughter of Tiberius. Another example of this inherited or cultivated building-mania was the work he did at Betharamphtha, which he called "Julias" (Ant., XVIII, ii, 1). His influence on his subjects was morally bad (Mk 8:15). If his life was less marked by enormities than his father's, it was only so by reason of its inevitable restrictions. The last glimpse the Gospels afford of him shows him to us in the final tragedy of the life of Christ. He is then at Jerusalem. Pilate in his perplexity had sent the Saviour bound to Herod, and the utter inefficiency and flippancy of the man is revealed in the account the Gospels give us of the incident (Lk 23:7-12; Acts 4:27). It served, however, to bridge the chasm of the enmity between Herod and Pilate (Lk 23:12), both of whom were to be stripped of their power and to die in shameful exile. When Caius Caligula had become emperor and when his scheming favorite Herod Agrippa I, the bitter enemy of Antipas, had been made king in 37 AD, Herodias prevailed on Herod Antipas to accompany her to Rome to demand a similar favor. The machinations of Agrippa and the accusation of high treason preferred against him, however, proved his undoing, and he was banished to Lyons in Gaul, where he died in great misery (Ant., XVIII, vii, 2; BJ, II, ix, 6).
http://www.bible-history.com/isbe/H/HEROD/


Herod Antipas in Wikipedia (short for Antipatros) (before 20 BC – after 39 AD) was a first century AD ruler of Galilee and Perea, who bore the title of tetrarch ("ruler of a quarter"). He is best known today for accounts in the New Testament of his role in events that led to the executions of John the Baptist and Jesus of Nazareth, and through their portrayal in modern media, such as film. After inheriting his territories when the kingdom of his father Herod the Great was divided upon his death in 4 BC, Antipas ruled them as a client state of the Roman Empire. He was responsible for building projects at Sepphoris and Betharamphtha, and more important for the construction of his capital Tiberias on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee. Named in honor of his patron, the emperor Tiberius, the city later became a center of rabbinic learning...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herod_antipas


Herod Antipas on Bible History Online Antipas and Archelaus , Antipas and Jesus , Antipas and John the Baptist ,t Antipas and Rome , Antipas the Tetrarch , Coin of Herod Antipas , Family Background , , Genealogy Chart , Map of New Testament Israel , Maps and Images , Overview , Scriptures , The Question About Philip , Timeline ,
http://www.bible-history.com/links.php?cat=44&sub=1379&cat_name=Bible+Names+H-M&subcat_name=Herod+Antipas


Herod Antipas the Tetrarch Herod Antipas ruled from 4 B.C.-39 A.D. He was the son of Herod and Malthace ( a Samaritan) born 20 B.C. and the younger brother of Archelaus. Of all the Herodians, Herod Antipas is the most prominent in the New Testament, for he was the tetrarch over Galilee and Perea, the two areas in which John the Baptist and Christ did most of their ministry. When Antipas returned from Rome to begin his rule in the domains allotted to him by Augustus Caesar, he found much of his new territories in ruin because of the rebellion at the feast of Pentecost in 4 B.C. He had to restore order and rebuild what had been destroyed. His father Herod the Great was one of the greatest builders of the ancient world and he had also founded cities. Antipas desired to follow in his fathers footsteps. He began by rebuilding Sepphoris which was the largest city in Galilee and his capital city until he built Tiberias. He probably completed the task around 10 A.D. and it is very possible that Joseph, Mary's husband, ran his trade as a carpenter (Matt 13:55; Mark 6:3) during its rebuilding, since Nazareth was only four miles to the south/southwest of Sepphoris. Antipas then rebuilt the second major city called Livias (or Julias) of Perea in honor of Livia, the wife of Augustus. Antipas completed this city in 13 A.D. Out of the 12 cities that the Herodian family had built, Tiberias should be considered as one of the most important. It was the first city in Jewish history to be founded within the municipal framework of a Greek polls. It was built in honor of the reigning Emperor Tiberius. It is important to note that while they were building the city of Tiberias they struck upon a cemetery. Antipas destroyed the cemetery and because of that the Jewish authorities considered it unclean and Antipas had difficulty in getting any Jews to settle there let alone the devout Jews. He offered free houses and lands and exemption from taxes for the first few years if anyone moved into the new city. It was completed 23 A.D. and became Antipas' capital.
http://www.bible-history.com/Herod_Antipas/ANTIPASAntipas_the_Tetrarch.htm


Herod Antipas Timeline 40 BC Herod the Great appointed King of Judea by Marc Anthony in Rome. 20 BC Herod begins to rebuild the Great Temple in Jerusalem in an attempt to restore it to its former splendor as under Solomon. 20 BC Antipas is born to Herod the Great (an Idumaean) and Malthace ( a Samaritan) 4 BC Jesus of Nazareth born in Roman Palestine (by some estimates). 4 BC Herod the Great dies. 4 BC Herod Antipas becomes Tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea 14 - 37 AD Tiberius I emperor of Rome, b. 42 BC. 18 AD Caiaphas become high priest in Jerusalem (until 36). 26 AD Jesus begins his public ministry. 26 (until 36 AD) Pontius Pilate is governor of Judea. 26 AD John the Baptist wanders and preaches. Jesus baptized. [Luke 3,1-2] (15th year of Tiberius). 27 AD John the Baptist is beheaded on orders from Herod Antipas. 29 AD Pontius Pilate sends Jesus to Antipas in Jerusalem Herod Antipas send Jesus back to Pontius Pilate for trial Jesus of Nazareth is crucified in Jerusalem. 39 AD Herod Antipas is banished to Lyons in Gaul. Herodias comes to join Antipas in exile.
http://www.bible-history.com/Herod_Antipas/ANTIPASTimeline.htm


Herod in Hitchcock's Bible Names son of a hero
http://www.bible-history.com/hitchcock/H/Herod/


Herodian Genealogy Chart Descendants of Herod and his Wives
http://www.bible-history.com/Herod_Antipas/ANTIPASGenealogy_Chart.htm


Introduction to Herod Antipas BKA 112 – Herod Antipas. This Bible Knowledge Accelerator program contains a very brief overview of the life and history of Herod Antipas.
http://www.bible-history.com/Herod_Antipas/ANTIPASIntroduction.htm


Map of New Testament Israel Political map of Palestine during New Testament times, when Pontius Pilate was procurator of Judea and Herod was Tetrarch of Galilee (Luke 3:1). The primary locations mentioned in the New Testament are listed; those with an underline are not found in the New Testament but were important in Old Testament times.
http://www.bible-history.com/Herod_Antipas/ANTIPASMap_of_New_Testament_Palestine.htm


Overview of Herod Antipas Herod Antipas became Tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea (4 B.C.–39 A.D.). He built the purely Hellenistic city of Tiberias over a cemetery and lost favor with the Jews because of this "unclean" capital city. After renouncing his first wife he married Herodias, the former wife of his half brother Herod Philip, who brought her daughter Salome with her to Antipas’ court. When John the Baptist accused Antipas of adultery, the king, after Salome’s dance and at the instigation of Herodias, had him beheaded in prison. This Herod Antipas was Jesus’ earthly king who Jesus called "that fox", and Pontius Pilate later sent Jesus, during the trial, to Herod, who happened to be in Jerusalem at the time. Herod Antipas ordered his soldiers to mock Jesus and sent him back to the Roman procurator (Luke 23:6-16). He is the Herod of the gospels and died in exile in the year 39 A.D.
http://www.bible-history.com/Herod_Antipas/ANTIPASOverview.htm


Scriptures about Herod Antipas Luke 3:1-2 3:1 Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea, Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, his brother Philip tetrarch of Iturea and the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias tetrarch of Abilene, 2 while Annas and Caiaphas were high priests, the word of God came to John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness.
Luke 23:6-18 6 When Pilate heard of Galilee, he asked if the Man were a Galilean. 7 And as soon as he knew that He belonged to Herod's jurisdiction, he sent Him to Herod, who was also in Jerusalem at that time. 8 Now when Herod saw Jesus, he was exceedingly glad; for he had desired for a long time to see Him, because he had heard many things about Him, and he hoped to see some miracle done by Him. 9 Then he questioned Him with many words, but He answered him nothing. 10 And the chief priests and scribes stood and vehemently accused Him. 11 Then Herod, with his men of war, treated Him with contempt and mocked Him, arrayed Him in a gorgeous robe, and sent Him back to Pilate. 12 That very day Pilate and Herod became friends with each other, for previously they had been at enmity with each other. 13 Then Pilate, when he had called together the chief priests, the rulers, and the people, 14 said to them, "You have brought this Man to me, as one who misleads the people. And indeed, having examined Him in your presence, I have found no fault in this Man concerning those things of which you accuse Him; 15 no, neither did Herod, for I sent you back to him; and indeed nothing deserving of death has been done by Him. 16 I will therefore chastise Him and release Him" 17(for it was necessary for him to release one to them at the feast). 18 And they all cried out at once, saying, "Away with this Man"
Matt 14:1-12 14:1 At that time Herod the tetrarch heard the report about Jesus 2 and said to his servants, "This is John the Baptist; he is risen from the dead, and therefore these powers are at work in him." 3 For Herod had laid hold of John and bound him, and put him in prison for the sake of Herodias, his brother Philip's wife. 4 Because John had said to him, "It is not lawful for you to have her." 5 And although he wanted to put him to death, he feared the multitude, because they counted him as a prophet. 6 But when Herod's birthday was celebrated, the daughter of Herodias danced before them and pleased Herod. 7 Therefore he promised with an oath to give her whatever she might ask. 8 So she, having been prompted by her mother, said, "Give me John the Baptist's head here on a platter." 9 And the king was sorry; nevertheless, because of the oaths and because of those who sat with him, he commanded it to be given to her. 10 So he sent and had John beheaded in prison. 11 And his head was brought on a platter and given to the girl, and she brought it to her mother.
Mark 6:14-21 14 Now King Herod heard of Him, for His name had become well known. And he said, "John the Baptist is risen from the dead, and therefore these powers are at work in him." 15 Others said, "It is Elijah." And others said, "It is the Prophet, or like one of the prophets." 16 But when Herod heard, he said, "This is John, whom I beheaded; he has been raised from the dead!" 17 For Herod himself had sent and laid hold of John, and bound him in prison for the sake of Herodias, his brother Philip's wife; for he had married her. 18 For John had said to Herod, "It is not lawful for you to have your brother's wife." 19 Therefore Herodias held it against him and wanted to kill him, but she could not; 20 for Herod feared John, knowing that he was a just and holy man, and he protected him. And when he heard him, he did many things, and heard him gladly.
Luke 9:7-9 7 Now Herod the tetrarch heard of all that was done by Him; and he was perplexed, because it was said by some that John had risen from the dead, 8 and by some that Elijah had appeared, and by others that one of the old prophets had risen again. 9 And Herod said, "John I have beheaded, but who is this of whom I hear such things?" So he sought to see Him.
Luke 13:31-33 31 On that very day some Pharisees came, saying to Him, "Get out and depart from here, for Herod wants to kill You." 32 And He said to them, "Go, tell that fox, 'Behold, I cast out demons and perform cures today and tomorrow, and the third day I shall be perfected.' 33 Nevertheless I must journey today, tomorrow, and the day following; for it cannot be that a prophet should perish outside of Jerusalem.
Acts 4:27-28 27 "For truly against Your holy Servant Jesus, whom You anointed, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles and the people of Israel, were gathered together 28 to do whatever Your hand and Your purpose determined before to be done.
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The Family Background of Herod Antipas Herod was the name of a variety of members of the royal dynasty which originated in Edom or Idumea after it had been forced to adopt the Jewish religion by John Hyrcanus in 125 B.C. This family ruled in Palestine as vassals of the Romans. The history of this dynasty, which succeeded that of the Maccabees, largely relates to the political history of Palestine during this whole period. Herod I (the Great) was son of Antipater and made king by the Romans in 40 B.C. He managed to keep hold of his throne in the face of the many changes in the government at Rome. His kingdom comprised Judea, Samaria, Galilee, Idumea, Batanea, and Peraea, which was approximately the same size as the kingdom of David and Solomon. Although Herod had exceptional leadership skills, he was extremely disliked by the Jews. His attitude toward the Maccabean dynasty, to which he was related by marriage, along with his insolence and cruelty, angered them all the more. He even had his brother-in-law and several of his wives and sons executed. He forced heavy taxes and brutally repressed any rebellions. But it was by his policy of Hellenistic culture that he greatly wounded the Jews. The construction of a race-course, a theater, and an amphitheater in Jerusalem, his wide support of the emperor cult in the East, and the construction of pagan temples in foreign cities at his own expense could not be forgiven, even though he restored and reconstructed the Temple of Jerusalem and continually pleaded the cause of the Jews of the Diaspora to the emperor to his own gains. There was no close tie between the king and his people; he remained an Edomite and a friend of Rome, only holding on to his power by the use of a merciless military force. This is the same Herod the Great who massacred the children of Bethlehem (Matt. 2). Herod suddenly died in 4 B.C. After his death, the Emperor Augustus made three of Herod’s sons the rulers of different parts of their father's kingdom. One son, Archelaus (Matt. 2), obtained Judea and Samaria. He was a tyrant like his father and lacked his fathers ambition and talent. He irritated the Jews and Samaritans so intensely that Augustus deposed him in 6 A.D. and placed a Roman procurator over his kingdom. Another son, Herod Antipas, became tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea (4 B.C.- 39 A.D.) . He built the purely Hellenistic city of Tiberias. After renouncing his first wife he married Herodias, the former wife of his half brother Herod Philip, who brought her daughter Salome with her to Antipas' court. When John the Baptist accused Antipas of adultery, the king, after Salome's dance and at the instigation of Herodias, had him beheaded in prison. This Herod was Jesus' earthly ruler, and Pilate sent Jesus, in the course of his trial, to Herod who was in Jerusalem at the time for the Passover. Herod ordered his soldiers to mock Jesus and sent him back to the Roman procurator (Luke 23:6-16). He is the Herod of the Gospels and he died in exile in the year 39. Herod's third son, Philip, was put in charge of the provinces between the Jordan and Damascus. He is supposed to have been a humane ruler. His capital was Caesarea Philippi. In the year 30 he married Salome, whose father was his half brother and whose mother was his niece. He died in 34 A.D. Agrippa I, Herodias' brother, succeeded him. Agrippa acquired Antipas' tetrarchy in the year 40 and Samaria and Judea came under his rule in 41, so that he finally reigned over the entire kingdom of his grandfather. He was the only Herod who, though at heart a Hellenist, tried by his policies to win the support of the more orthodox Jews. But in spite of these policies he put James the Apostle to death and imprisoned Peter (Acts 12). His death, which took place in 44, is also mentioned in the New Testament. His son, Agrippa II (27-100 A.D.), never ruled in Jerusalem. By inheritance and the favor of the Romans he finally acquired a fairly large kingdom to the North of Palestine. The Jews only came in contact with him because he had supervision of the temple and appointed the high priests. In the New Testament he is mentioned as having paid a visit to Festus, the procurator, at Caesarea, where Paul delivered a speech before him (Acts 25). It also says that his sister, Bernice, during the Jewish War, became Titus' mistress. His sister Drusilla, married to the procurator Felix, heard Paul speak (Acts 24). With Agrippa II's death, the Herodian dynasty disappeared from the stage of history.
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