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December 14    Scripture

Bible Books: Philippians
The Book of Philippians in the Bible

Philippians in the Bible. A Missionary Epistle. Paul speaks of his imprisonment, his love for the Philippians. He exhorts them to godliness and warns them of legalism. -Outline of the Books of the Bible

PHILIPPIANS [NEW TESTAMENT] [PAULINE] [EPISTLES OF PAUL]


Epistle to Philippians in Easton's Bible Dictionary was written by Paul during the two years when he was "in bonds" in Rome (Phil. 1:7-13), probably early in the year A.D. 62 or in the end of 61. The Philippians had sent Epaphroditus, their messenger, with contributions to meet the necessities of the apostle; and on his return Paul sent back with him this letter. With this precious communication Epaphroditus sets out on his homeward journey. "The joy caused by his return, and the effect of this wonderful letter when first read in the church of Philippi, are hidden from us. And we may almost say that with this letter the church itself passes from our view. To-day, in silent meadows, quiet cattle browse among the ruins which mark the site of what was once the flourishing Roman colony of Philippi, the home of the most attractive church of the apostolic age. But the name and fame and spiritual influence of that church will never pass. To myriads of men and women in every age and nation the letter written in a dungeon at Rome, and carried along the Egnatian Way by an obscure Christian messenger, has been a light divine and a cheerful guide along the most rugged paths of life" (Professor Beet). The church at Philippi was the first-fruits of European Christianity. Their attachment to the apostle was very fervent, and so also was his affection for them. They alone of all the churches helped him by their contributions, which he gratefully acknowledges (Acts 20:33-35; 2 Cor. 11:7-12; 2 Thess. 3:8). The pecuniary liberality of the Philippians comes out very conspicuously (Phil. 4:15). "This was a characteristic of the Macedonian missions, as 2 Cor. 8 and 9 amply and beautifully prove. It is remarkable that the Macedonian converts were, as a class, very poor (2 Cor. 8:2); and the parallel facts, their poverty and their open-handed support of the great missionary and his work, are deeply harmonious. At the present day the missionary liberality of poor Christians is, in proportion, really greater than that of the rich" (Moule's Philippians, Introd.). The contents of this epistle give an interesting insight into the condition of the church at Rome at the time it was written. Paul's imprisonment, we are informed, was no hindrance to his preaching the gospel, but rather "turned out to the furtherance of the gospel." The gospel spread very extensively among the Roman soldiers, with whom he was in constant contact, and the Christians grew into a "vast multitude." It is plain that Christianity was at this time making rapid advancement in Rome. The doctrinal statements of this epistle bear a close relation to those of the Epistle to the Romans. Compare also Phil. 3:20 with Eph. 2:12, 19, where the church is presented under the idea of a city or commonwealth for the first time in Paul's writings. The personal glory of Christ is also set forth in almost parallel forms of expression in Phil. 2:5-11, compared with Eph. 1:17-23; 2:8; and Col. 1:15-20. "This exposition of the grace and wonder of His personal majesty, personal self- abasement, and personal exaltation after it," found in these epistles, "is, in a great measure, a new development in the revelations given through St. Paul" (Moule). Other minuter analogies in forms of expression and of thought are also found in these epistles of the Captivity.
http://www.bible-history.com/eastons/P/Philippians,+Epistle+to/


Epistle to the Philippians in Fausset's Bible Dictionary INTERNAL EVIDENCE. The style, thought, and doctrine agree with Paul's. The incidental allusions confirm his authorship. Paley (Hor. Paul. 7) instances the mention of the object of Epaphroditus' journey to Rome, his sickness; the Philippian contribution to Paul's wants (Philemon 1:7; Philemon 2:25-30; Philemon 4:10-18); Timothy's having been long with Paul at Philippi (Philemon 1:1; Philemon 2:19); Paul's being for long a prisoner at Rome (Philemon 1:12-14; Philemon 2:17-28); his willingness to die for Christ (Philemon 1:23, compare 2 Corinthians 5:8); the Philippians having seen his maltreatment at Philippi (Philemon 1:29-30; Philemon 2:1-2). EXTERNAL EVIDENCE. Polycarp (ad Philipp. 3 and 11, A.D. 107); so that Christians who heard Paul's epistle read for the first time may have spoken with Polycarp. Marcion in Tertullian (A D. 140) acknowledges its authenticity. So the Muratorian Fragment; Irenaeuns (adv. Haer, 4:18, section 4); Clemens Alex. (Paedagog. 1, 1:10); the epistle to the churches of Lyons and Vienne (A. D. 177) in Eusebius (H. E., 5:2); Tertullian (Resurr. Carnis, 23); Origen (Celsus, 1, 3:122); Cyprian (Testim. against the Jews, 3:39). OBJECT. To thank them for contributions sent by Epaphroditus, who in returning takes back the epistle. Also to express Christian sympathy, and to exhort to imitation of Christ in humility and lowly love, instead of existing dissensions, as between Euodias and Syntyche (Philemon 4:2), and to warn against Judaizers. In this epistle alone are no positive censures; no doctrinal error or schism had as yet sprung up. DIVISIONS. I. Address: his state as a prisoner, theirs, his sending Epaphroditus to them (Philippians 1; 2). Epaphroditus probably was a presbyter of the Philippian church, who cheered Paul in iris imprisonment by bringing the Philippian token of love and liberality. By the fatigues of the journey that "brother, companion in labour, and fellow soldier" brought on himself dangerous sickness (Philemon 2:25-30). But now being well he "longed" to return to his Philippian flock and relieve them of their anxiety about him. So Paul takes the opportunity of sending an epistle by him. II. Caution against Judaizers, contrasting his own former legalism with his present following Christ as his all (Philippians 3)...
http://www.bible-history.com/faussets/P/Philippians,+the+epistle+to+the/


Epistle to the Philippians in Smiths Bible Dictionary was St. Paul from Rome in A.D. 62 or 63. St. Paul's connection with Philippi was of a peculiar character, which gave rise to the writing of this epistle. St. Paul entered its walls A.D. 52. Ac 16:18 There, at a greater distance from Jerusalem than any apostle had yet penetrated, the long-restrained energy of St, Paul was again employed in laying the foundation of a Christian church, Philippi was endeared to St. Paul not only by the hospitality of Lydia, the deep sympathy of the converts, and the remarkable miracle which set a seal on his preaching, but, also by the successful exercise of his missionary activity after a long suspense, and by the happy consequences of his undaunted endurance of ignominies which remained in his memory, Phm 1:30 after the long interval of eleven years. Leaving Timothy and Luke to watch over the infant church, Paul and Silas went to Thessalonica, 1Th 2:2 whither they were followed by the alms of the Philippians, Phm 4:16 and thence southward. After the lapse of five years, spent chiefly at Corinth and Ephesus, St. Paul passed through Macedonia, A.D. 57, on his way to Greece, and probably visited Philippi for the second time, and was there joined by Timothy. He wrote at Philippi his second Epistle to the Corinthians. On returning from Greece, Ac 20:4 he again found a refuge among his faithful Philippians, where he spent some days at Easter, A.D. 58, with St. Luke, who accompanied him when he sailed from Neapolis. Once more, in his Roman captivity, A.D. 62, their care of him revived-again. They sent Epaphroditus bearing their alms for the apostle's support, and ready also to tender his personal service. Phm 2:25 St. Paul's aim in writing is plainly this: while acknowledging the alms of the Philippians and the personal services of their messenger, to give them some information respecting his own condition, and some advice respecting theirs. Strangely full of joy and thanksgiving amidst adversity, like the apostle's midnight hymn from the depth of his Philippian dungeon, this epistle went forth from his prison at Rome. In most other epistles he writes with a sustained effort to instruct, or with sorrow, or with indignation; he is striving to supply imperfect or to correct erroneous teaching, to put down scandalous impurity or to schism in the church which he addresses. But in this epistle, though he knew the Philippians intimately and was not blind to the faults and tendencies to fault of some of them, yet he mentions no evil so characteristic of the whole Church as to call for general censure on his part or amendment on theirs. Of all his epistles to churches, none has so little of an official character as this.
http://www.bible-history.com/smiths/P/Philippians,+Epistle+to+the/


Epistle to the Philippians in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE LITERATURE I. Paul and the Church at Philippi. Paul was on his second missionary journey in the year 52 AD. He felt that he was strangely thwarted in many of his plans. He had had a most distressing illness in Galatia. The Spirit would not permit him to preach in Asia, and when he essayed to enter Bithynia the Spirit again would not suffer it. Baffled and perplexed, the apostle with his two companions, Silas and Timothy, went on to the seacoast and stopped in Troas. Here at last his leading became clear. A vision of a man from Macedonia convinced him that it was the will of God that he should preach in the western continent of Europe. The way was opened at once. The winds were favorable. In two days he came to Neapolis. At once he took the broad paved way of the Via Egnatia up to the mountain pass and down on the other side to Philippi, a journey of some 8 miles. There was no synagogue at Philippi, but a little company of Jews gathered for Sabbath worship at "a place of prayer" (proseuche, Acts 16:13), about a mile to the West of the city gate on the shore of the river Gangites (see PROSEUCHA). Paul and his companions talked to the women gathered there, and Lydia was converted. Later, a maid with the spirit of divination was exorcised. Paul and Silas were scourged and thrown into prison, an earthquake set them free, the jailer became a believer, the magistrates repented their treatment of men who were Roman citizens and besought them to leave the city (Acts 16:6-40). Paul had had his first experience of a Roman scourging and of lying in the stocks of a Roman prison here at Philippi, yet he went on his way rejoicing, for a company of disciples had been formed, and he had won the devotion of loyal and loving hearts for himself and his Master (see PHILIPPI). That was worth all the persecution and the pain. The Christians at Philippi seem to have been Paul's favorites among all his converts. He never lost any opportunity of visiting them and refreshing his spirit with their presence in the after- years. Six years later he was resident in Ephesus, and having sent Titus to Corinth with a letter to the Corinthians and being in doubt as to the spirit in which it would be received, he appointed a meeting with Titus in Macedonia, and probably spent the anxious days of his waiting at Philippi. If he met Titus there, he may have written 2 Corinthians in that city (2 Cor 2:13; 7:6). Paul returned to Ephesus, and after the riot in that city he went over again into Macedonia and made his third visit to Philippi. He probably promised the Philippians at this time that he would return to Philippi to celebrate the Easter week with his beloved converts there. He went on into Greece, but in 3 months he was back again, at the festival of the resurrection in the year 58 AD (Acts 20:2,6). We read in 1 Tim 1:3 that Paul visited Macedonia after the Roman imprisonment. He enjoyed himself among the Philippians. They were Christians after his own heart. He thanks God for their fellowship from the first day until now (Phil 1:5). He declares that they are his beloved who have always obeyed, not in his presence only, but much more in his absence (Phil 2:12). With fond repetition he addresses them as his brethren, beloved and longed for, his joy and crown, his beloved (Phil 4:1). This was Paul's favorite church, and we can gather from the epistle good reason for this fact...
http://www.bible-history.com/isbe/P/PHILIPPIANS,+THE+EPISTLE+TO+THE/


Epistle to the Philippians in Wikipedia The Epistle of Paul to the Philippians, usually referred to simply as Philippians, is the eleventh book in the New Testament. Biblical scholars agree that it was written by St. Paul to the church of Philippi. This authentic Pauline letter was written c 62.[1]Paul's composition of Philippians is "universally accepted" (Beare, p. 1) by the academic community, both ancient and modern. It is possible that the kenosis passage in Philippians 2:5-11 may have been a Christian hymn that Paul quoted. Philippians 2:5-11:...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Philippians


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