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February 27    Scripture

Bible Books: Galatians
The Book of Galatians in the Bible

Galatians in the Bible. Saved by Grace, Never by Law. Paul refutes the errors of legalism and examines the proper place of grace in the Christianís life. -Outline of the Books of the Bible

GALATIANS [NEW TESTAMENT] [PAULINE] [EPISTLES OF PAUL]


Epistle to Galatians in Easton's Bible Dictionary The genuineness of this epistle is not called in question. Its Pauline origin is universally acknowledged. Occasion of. The churches of Galatia were founded by Paul himself (Acts 16:6; Gal. 1:8; 4:13, 19). They seem to have been composed mainly of converts from heathenism (4:8), but partly also of Jewish converts, who probably, under the influence of Judaizing teachers, sought to incorporate the rites of Judaism with Christianity, and by their active zeal had succeeded in inducing the majority of the churches to adopt their views (1:6; 3:1). This epistle was written for the purpose of counteracting this Judaizing tendency, and of recalling the Galatians to the simplicity of the gospel, and at the same time also of vindicating Paul's claim to be a divinely- commissioned apostle. Time and place of writing. The epistle was probably written very soon after Paul's second visit to Galatia (Acts 18:23). The references of the epistle appear to agree with this conclusion. The visit to Jerusalem, mentioned in Gal. 2:1-10, was identical with that of Acts 15, and it is spoken of as a thing of the past, and consequently the epistle was written subsequently to the council of Jerusalem. The similarity between this epistle and that to the Romans has led to the conclusion that they were both written at the same time, namely, in the winter of A.D. 57-8, during Paul's stay in Corinth (Acts 20:2, 3). This to the Galatians is written on the urgency of the occasion, tidings having reached him of the state of matters; and that to the Romans in a more deliberate and systematic way, in exposition of the same great doctrines of the gospel...
http://www.bible-history.com/eastons/G/Galatians,+Epistle+to/


Epistle to the Galatians in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE LITERATURE When and to whom, precisely, this letter was written, it is difficult to say; its authorship and purpose are unmistakable. One might conceive it addressed by the apostle Paul, in its main tenor, to almost any church of his Gentilemission attracted to Judaism, at any point within the years circa 45-60 AD. Some plausibly argue that it was the earliest, others place it among the later, of the Pauline Epistles. This consideration dictates the order of our inquiry, which proceeds from the plainer to the more involved and disputable parts of the subject. I. The Authorship. 1. Position of the Dutch School: The Tubingen criticism of the last century recognized the four major epistles of Paul as fully authentic, and made them the corner-stone of its construction of New Testament history. Only Bruno Bauer (Kritik. d. paulin. Briefe, 1850- 52) attacked them in this sense, while several other critics accused them of serious interpolations; but these attempts made little impression. Subsequently, a group of Dutch scholars, beginning with Loman in his Quaestiones Paulinae (1882) and represented by Van Manen in the Encyclopedia Biblica (art. "Paul"), have denied all the canonical epistles to the genuine Paul. They postulate a gradual development in New Testament ideas covering the first century and a half after Christ, and treat the existing letters as "catholic adaptations" of fragmentary pieces from the apostle's hand, produced by a school of "Paulinists" who carried their master's principles far beyond his own intentions. On this theory, Galatians, with its advanced polemic against the law, approaching the position of Marcion (140 AD), was work of the early 2nd century. Edwin Johnson in England (Antiqua Mater, 1887), and Steck in Germany (Galaterbrief, 1888), are the only considerable scholars outside of Holland who have adopted this hypothesis; it is rejected by critics so radical as Scholten and Schmiedel (see the article of the latter on "Galatians" in EB). Knowling has searchingly examined the position of the Dutch school in his Witness of the Epistles (1892)--it is altogether too arbitrary and uncontrolled by historical fact to be entertained; see Julicher's or Zahn's Introduction to New Testament (English translation), to the same effect. Attempts to dismember this writing, and to appropriate it for other hands and later times than those of the apostle Paul, are idle in view of its vital coherence and the passionate force with which the author's personality has stamped itself upon his work; the Paulinum pectus speaks in every line. The two contentions on which the letter turns-- concerning Paul's apostleship, and the circumcision of GentileChristians--belonged to the apostle's lifetime: in the fifth and sixth decades these were burning questions; by the 2nd century the church had left them far behind...
http://www.bible-history.com/isbe/G/GALATIANS,+EPISTLE+TO+THE/


Epistle to the Galatians in Wikipedia The Epistle of Paul to the Galatians, usually referred to simply as Galatians, is the ninth book of the New Testament. It is a letter from Paul of Tarsus to a number of Early Christian communities in the Roman province of Galatia in central Anatolia. The author is principally concerned with the controversy surrounding Gentile Christians and the Mosaic Law within Early Christianity, see also Paul of Tarsus and Judaism. Along with the Epistle to the Romans, it is the most theologically significant of the Pauline epistles, and has been particularly influential in Protestant thought...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epistle_to_the_Galatians


The Epistle to the Galatians in Fausset's Bible Dictionary Written by Paul, as the style proves. The heading and allusions to the apostle of the Gentiles in the first person throughout confirm his authorship (Galatians 1:1; Galatians 1:13-24; Galatians 2:1-14). Irenaeus (Adv. Haer., 3:7, sec. 2, referring to Galatians 3:19), Polycarp (Philippians 3, quoting Galatians 4:26; Galatians 6:7), Justin Martyr (Orat. ad Graecos, alluding to Galatians 4:12; Galatians 5:20), Tertullian (De Praescr., 60), uphold his authorship. The character of the Gallic Celts given by Caesar (B. G., Galatians 4:5) accords with that described in this epistle: "the infirmity of the Gauls is, they are fickle in their resolves, fond of change, and not to be trusted." So Thierry: "flank, impetuous, impressible, eminently intelligent, but extremely inconstant, fond of show, perpetually quarreling, the fruit of excessive vanity." This description is not altogether inapplicable to their descendants in France and Ireland. They received Paul at first with all affection, but soon wavered in their allegiance to the gospel, and hearkened as eagerly to Judaizing teachers as they had before to him (Galatians 4:14-16). Many Jews resided in Ancyra (Josephus, Ant. 16:62); among these probably, as elsewhere, he began his ministry, and from them perhaps emanated the Judaizers who almost induced the Gentile Christians (Galatians 4:8-9), who constituted the majority of the Galatian church, to undergo circumcision (Galatians 1:6; Galatians 3:1; Galatians 3:3; Galatians 5:2-3; Galatians 6:12-13). Accustomed, when pagan, to the mystic worship of Cybele prevalent in the neighboring Phrygia, they the more readily were led to believe that the full privileges of Christianity could only be attained by submitting to elaborate ceremonial symbolism (Galatians 4:9- 11; Galatians 5:7-12)...
http://www.bible-history.com/faussets/G/Galatians,+the+epistle+to+the/


The Epistle to the Galatians in Smiths Bible Dictionary was written by the apostle St. Paul not long after his journey through Galatia and Phrygia, Ac 18:23 and probably in the early portion of his two-and-a-half-years stay at Ephesus, which terminated with the Pentecost of A.D. 57 or 58. The epistle appears to have been called forth by the machinations of Judaizing teachers, who, shortly before the date of its composition, had endeavored to seduce the churches of this province into a recognition of circumcision, Ga 5:2,11,12; 6:12 seq., and had openly sought to depreciate the apostolic claims of St. Paul. Comp. Ga 1:1,11 "Since the days of Luther the Epistle to the Galatians has always been held in high esteem as the gospel's banner of freedom. To it and the Epistle to the Romans we owe most directly the springing up and development of the ideas and energies of the Reformation." --Meyer.
http://www.bible-history.com/smiths/G/Galatians,+The+Epistle+to+the/


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