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August 18    Scripture

Bible Books: Song of Solomon
The Book of the Song of Solomon in the Bible

Song of Solomon in the Bible. The Glorification of Wedded Love. A song between Solomon and his Shulammite bride displaying the love between a man and a woman. -Outline of the Books of the Bible

SONG OF SOLOMON [OLD TESTAMENT] [POETICAL]


Author of the Book of the Song of Solomon Author - Solomon (According to Tradition). The first verse of the Book of the Song of Solomon mentions King Solomon as its author, and this is why it is often called the Song of Solomon. It is also referred to as Canticles (Latin) or the Song of Songs (Hebrew) because it is considered the finest of all songs.
http://www.bible-history.com/old-testament/bookofsongofsolomon.html


Canticles in Smiths Bible Dictionary (Song of Songs), entitled in the Authorized Version THE SONG OF SOLOMON. It was probably written by Solomon about B.C. 1012. It may be called a drama, as it contains the dramatic evolution of a simple love-story. Meaning.-- The schools of interpretation may be divided into three: the mystical or typical, the allegorical, and the literal. 1. The mystical interpretation owes its origin to the desire to find a literal basis of fact for the allegorical. This basis is either the marriage of Solomon with Pharoah's daughter or his marriage with an Israelitish woman, the Shulamite. 2. The allegorical. According to the Talmud the beloved is taken to be God; the loved one, or bride, is the congregation of Israel. In the Christian Church the Talmudical interpretation, imported by Origen, was all but universally received. 3. The literal interpretation. According to the most generally-received interpretation of the modern literalists, the Song is intended to display the victory of humble and constant love over the temptations of wealth and royalty. Canonicity.-- The book has been rejected from the Canon by some critics; but in no case has its rejection been defended on external grounds. It is found in the LXX. and in the translations of Aquila, Symmachus and Theodotion. It is contained in the catalog given in the Talmud,a nd in the catalogue of Melito; and in short we have the same evidence for its canonicity as that which is commonly adduced for the canonicity of any book of the Old Testament.
http://www.bible-history.com/smiths/C/Canticles/


Date of the Book of the Song of Solomon Date - 1014 BC Approximately
http://www.bible-history.com/old-testament/bookofsongofsolomon.html


Date of the Book of the Song of Solomon Date - 1014 BC Approximately. There is no way to know the exact historical circumstances behind this event. We know it was Solomon because it mentions him by name, but it is uncertain whether he married a Shulamite woman of Israel, or Pharaoh's daughter. Others have included a third person, a shepherd who the girl of Shulam is in love with despite the kings desire for her. This book was included in the Septuagint (Greek translation of the Hebrew Canon) and was known in the time of Jesus as part of the Hebrew Scriptures though some critics doubt it should be in the Bible.
http://www.bible-history.com/old-testament/bookofsongofsolomon.html


Greek Name of the Book of the Song of Solomon Greek Name - Asma Asmaton (Greek form of the Hebrew)
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Hebrew Name of the Book of the Song of Solomon Hebrew Name - Shiyr Hashirim "Song of songs"
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Main Divisions of the Book of the Song of Solomon Chapter 1:1-2:7 - The bride expresses her deep desire to be with her lover and sings praises about him. Chapter 2:8-3:5 - The affections between the bride and her lover becomes more intimate, and she pours out more praise on the one she loves was very elaborate and exquisite analogies from nature. Chapter 3:6-5:1 - King Solomon gives his praise, as does the bride, and the engagement takes place. Chapter 5:2-6:9 - The bridegroom goes away for a period of time, and during his absence the bride longs for his return and continues to give him praises. Chapter 6:10-8:4 - This section contains some very descriptive verses describing the beauty of the bride. Chapter 8:5-14 - The conclusion deals with the durable eternal bond of consummated love.
http://www.bible-history.com/old-testament/bookofsongofsolomon.html


Outline of the Book of the Song of Solomon Quick Overview of Song of Solomon. – –1:1-2:7 – – the bride and her beloved – – 2:8-3:5 – – the lovers seek out and find one another – – 3:6-4:16 – – the bridegroom pursues his bride– – 5:1-7:9 – – the bride waits earnestly for the bridegroom – – 7:10-8:14 – – the lovers reunite and their love is consummated.
http://www.bible-history.com/old-testament/bookofsongofsolomon.html


Solomon in Easton's Bible Dictionary peaceful, (Heb. Shelomoh), David's second son by Bathsheba, i.e., the first after their legal marriage (2 Sam. 12). He was probably born about B.C. 1035 (1 Chr. 22:5; 29:1). He succeeded his father on the throne in early manhood, probably about sixteen or eighteen years of age. Nathan, to whom his education was intrusted, called him Jedidiah, i.e., "beloved of the Lord" (2 Sam. 12:24, 25). He was the first king of Israel "born in the purple." His father chose him as his successor, passing over the claims of his elder sons: "Assuredly Solomon my son shall reign after me." His history is recorded in 1 Kings 1-11 and 2 Chr. 1-9. His elevation to the throne took place before his father's death, and was hastened on mainly by Nathan and Bathsheba, in consequence of the rebellion of Adonijah (1 Kings 1:5-40). During his long reign of forty years the Hebrew monarchy gained its highest splendour. This period has well been called the "Augustan age" of the Jewish annals. The first half of his reign was, however, by far the brighter and more prosperous; the latter half was clouded by the idolatries into which he fell, mainly from his heathen intermarriages (1 Kings 11:1-8; 14:21, 31). Before his death David gave parting instructions to his son (1 Kings 2:1-9; 1 Chr. 22:7-16; 28). As soon as he had settled himself in his kingdom, and arranged the affairs of his extensive empire, he entered into an alliance with Egypt by the marriage of the daughter of Pharaoh (1 Kings 3:1), of whom, however, nothing further is recorded. He surrounded himself with all the luxuries and the external grandeur of an Eastern monarch, and his government prospered. He entered into an alliance with Hiram, king of Tyre, who in many ways greatly assisted him in his numerous undertakings. (See HIRAM For some years before his death David was engaged in the active work of collecting materials (1 Chr. 29:6-9; 2 Chr. 2:3-7) for building a temple in Jerusalem as a permanent abode for the ark of the covenant. He was not permitted to build the house of God (1 Chr. 22:8); that honour was reserved to his son Solomon. (See TEMPLE ―T0003610.)...
http://www.bible-history.com/eastons/S/Solomon/


Solomon in Fausset's Bible Dictionary Shlomoh in Hebrew. Second child of David by Bathsheba. Josephus makes Solomon last born of David's sons (Ant. 7:14, section 2). His history is contained in 2 Samuel 12:24-25; 1 Chronicles 22:6-16; 1 Chronicles 22:1 Kings 1-11; 2 Chronicles 1-9. The leading events of his life were selected, under inspiration: namely, his grandeur, extensive commerce, and wisdom, etc. (1 Kings 9:10-10:29), from "the book of the Acts of Solomon"; his accession and dedication of the temple (1 Kings 1 - 1 Kings 8:66) from "the book of Nathan the prophet"; his idolatry and its penal consequences (1 Kings 11) from "the book of Ahijah the Shilonite and the visions of Iddo the seer." Psalm 72 was his production under the Spirit. Its objective character accords with Solomon's other writings, whereas subjective feeling characterizes David's psalms. Solomon's glorious and wide kingdom typifies Messiah's. The Nile, Mediterranean, and Euphrates, were then Israel's bounds (1 Kings 4:21; 2 Chronicles 9:26) as promised in Genesis 15:18; Deuteronomy 11:24. From thence Messiah is to reign to the ends of the earth (Deuteronomy 11:8; Isaiah 9:5-6; Isaiah 11; Zechariah 9:10; see Micah 5:4; Numbers 24:19). "The song of degrees," i.e. for Israelites going up to the great feasts at Jerusalem (Psalm 127), was also Solomon's. It has no trace of the sadness which pervades "the songs of degrees" without titles, and which accords with the post captivity period. The individual comes into prominence here, whereas they speak more of the nation and church. The theme suits Solomon who occupied chiefly the domestic civic territory. The main thought answers to Proverbs 10:22, "so God giveth His beloved sleep," i.e. undisturbed repose and wealth without the anxieties of the worldly, in a way they know not how (Mark 4:27). So God gave to His beloved S. in sleep (Hengstenberg supplies "in"); Matthew 6:25; Matthew 6:34. Jedidiah ("beloved of Jehovah," Psalm 127:2) was his God- given name (Psalm 60:5). Solomon evidently refers (Psalm 60:2) to his own experience (1 Kings 3:5-13; 1 Kings 4:20- 25), yet in so unstudied a way that the coincidence is evidently undesigned, and so confirms the authenticity of both psalm and independent history. (See PROVERBS; CANTICLES, THE SONG OF SOLOMON; ECCLESIASTES, THE BOOK OF.)...
http://www.bible-history.com/faussets/S/Solomon/


Solomon in Smiths Bible Dictionary (peaceful). I. Early life and occasion to the throne. -- Solomon was the child of David's old age, the last born of all his sons. 1Ch 3:5 The yearnings of the "man of war" led him to give to the new-horn infant the name of Solomon (Shelomoth, the peaceful one). Nathan, with a marked reference to the meaning of the king's own name (David, the darling, the beloved one), calls the infant Jedidiah (Jedid'yah), that is, the darling of the Lord. 2Sa 11:24,25 He was placed under the care of Nathan from his earliest infancy. At first, apparently, there was no distinct purpose to make him the heir. Absalom was still the king's favorite son, 2Sa 13:37; 18:33 and was looked on by the people as the destined successor. 2Sa 14:13; 15:1-6 The death of Absalom when Solomon was about ten years old left the place vacant, and David pledged his word in secret to Bath-sheba that he, and no other, should be the heir. 1Ki 1:13 The words which were spoken somewhat later express, doubtless, the purpose which guided him throughout. 1Ch 28:9, 20 His son's life should not he as his own had been, one of hardships and wars, dark crimes and passionate repentance, but, from first to last, be pure, blameless, peaceful, fulfilling the ideal of glory and of righteousness after which he himself had vainly striven. The glorious visions of Ps 72:1 ... may be looked on as the prophetic expansion of these hopes of his old age. So far,all was well. Apparently his influence over his son's character was one exclusively for good. Nothing that we know of Bath-sheba lends us to think of her as likely to mould her son's mind and heart to the higher forms of goodness. Under these influences the boy grew up. At the age of ten or eleven he must have passed through the revolt of Absalom, and shared his father's exile. 2Sa 15:16 He would be taught all that priests or Levites or prophets had to teach. When David was old and feeble, Adonijah, Solomon's older brother attempted to gain possession of the throne; but he was defeated, and Solomon went down to Gihon and was proclaimed and anointed king. A few months more and Solomon found himself, by his father's death, the sole occupant of the throne. The position to which he succeeded was unique. Never before, and never after, did the kingdom of Israel take its place among the great monarchies of the East. Large treasures, accumulated through many years, were at his disposal. II. Personal appearance. --Of Solomon's personal appearance we have no direct description, as we have of the earlier kings. There are, however, materials for filling up the gap...
http://www.bible-history.com/smiths/S/Solomon/


Solomon in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE LITERATURE I. Early Life. Solomon was the son of David and Bath-sheba, and became the 3rd king of Israel. 1. Name and Meaning: He was so named by his mother (2 Sam 12:24, Qere; see TEXT AND MANUSCRIPTS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT; TEXT OF THE OLD TESTAMENT), but by the prophet Nathan, or by his father (Vulgate), he was called Jedidiah--"loved of Yahweh." The name "Solomon" is derived from the root meaning "to be quiet" or "peaceful," and Solomon was certainly the least warlike of all the kings of Israel or Judah, and in that respect a remarkable contrast to his father (so 1 Ch 22:9). His name in Hebrew compares with Irenaeus in Greek, Friedrich in German, and Selim in Arabic; but it has been suggested that the name should be pronounced shillumah, from the word denoting "compensation," Bath-sheba's second son being given in compensation for the loss of the first (but see 3, below). 2. Sources: The oldest sources for the biography of Solomon are doubtless the "Annals of Solomon" referred to in 1 Ki 11:41, the "history of Nathan the prophet," the "prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite" and the "visions of Iddo the seer," mentioned in 2 Ch 9:29, all which may be merely the relative sections of the great book of the "Annals of the Kings" from which our Books of Kings and Chronicles are both derived. These ancient works are, of course, lost to us save in so far as they have been embodied in the Old Testament narrative. There the life of South is contained in 2 Sam 12:24 f; 1 Ki 1 through 11; 1 Ch 22 through 2 Ch 9. Of these sources 2 Sam 12:24 f and 1 Ki 1; 2 are much the oldest and in fact form part of one document, 2 Sam 9 through 20; 1 Ki 1; 2 dealing with the domestic affairs of David, which may well be contemporary with the events it describes. The date of the composition of the Books of Chronicles is about 300 BC--700 years after the time of Solomon--and the date of the Books of Kings, as a completed work, must, of course, be later than the exile. Nothing of importance is gained from citations from early historians in Josephus and later writers. Far and away the best source for, at least, the inner life of Solomon would be the writings ascribed to him in the Old Testament, could we be sure that these were genuine (see below)...
http://www.bible-history.com/isbe/S/SOLOMON/


Song of Solomon in Easton's Bible Dictionary called also, after the Vulgate, the "Canticles." It is the "song of songs" (1:1), as being the finest and most precious of its kind; the noblest song, "das Hohelied," as Luther calls it. The Solomonic authorship of this book has been called in question, but evidences, both internal and external, fairly establish the traditional view that it is the product of Solomon's pen. It is an allegorical poem setting forth the mutual love of Christ and the Church, under the emblem of the bridegroom and the bride. (Compare Matt. 9:15; John 3:29; Eph. 5:23, 27, 29; Rev. 19:7-9; 21:2, 9; 22:17. Compare also Ps. 45; Isa. 54:4-6; 62:4, 5; Jer. 2:2; 3:1, 20; Ezek. 16; Hos. 2:16, 19, 20.)
http://www.bible-history.com/eastons/S/Solomon,+Song+of/


Song of Solomon in the Picture Study Bible Study Bible information, images, and notes on many important subjects from the ancient world. Archaeological notes, geographical notes, ancient documents and manuscripts, cultural notes, theological notes, articles from scholars, information about ancient history, ancient customs, ancient temples, ancient monuments, and a close look at people, places, and events from the ancient world that are explained in an easy to understand format.
http://www.bible-history.com/studybible/Song+of+Solomon/


Song of Songs Importance to the Jews The Song of Solomon was so important to the Jews that one of the most famous rabbi's in history, Rabbi Aqiba (90-135 AD) said that "the entire world, from the beginning until now, does not outweigh the day in which Shiyr Hashirim (Song of Songs) was given to Israel."
http://www.bible-history.com/old-testament/bookofsongofsolomon.html


Song of Songs in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE LITERATURE The full title in Hebrew is "The Song of Songs, which is Solomon's." The book is called by some Canticles, and by others Solomon's Song. The Hebrew title implies that it is the choicest of all songs, in keeping with the dictum of Rabbi `Aqiba (90-135 AD) that "the entire world, from the beginning until now, does not outweigh the day in which Canticles was given to Israel." I. Canonicity. Early Jewish and Christian writers are silent as to the Song of Songs. No use is made of it by Philo. There is no quotation from it in the New Testament, nor is there any clear allusion to it on the part of our Lord or the apostles. The earliest distinct references to the Song of Songs are found in Jewish writings of the 1st and 2nd centuries AD (4 Esdras 5:24,26; 7:26; Ta`anith 4:8). The question of the canonicity of the Song was debated as late as the Synod of Jamnia (circa 90 AD), when it was decided that Canticles was rightly reckoned to "defile the hands," i.e. was an inspired book. It should be borne in mind that the Song of Songs was already esteemed by the Jews as a sacred book, though prior to the Synod of Jamnia there was probably a goodly number of Jewish teachers who did not accept it as canonical. Selections from Canticles were sung at certain festivals in the temple at Jerusalem, prior to its destruction by Titus in 70 AD (Ta`anith 4:8). The Mishna pronounces an anathema on all who treat Canticles as a secular song (Sanhedhrin, 101a). The latest date for the composition of the Song of Songs, according to critics of the advanced school, is toward the close of the 3rd century BC. We may be sure that it was included in the Kethubhim before the ministry of our Lord, and so was for Him a part of the Scriptures. II. Text. Most scholars regard the text of Canticles as comparatively free from corruption. Gratz, Bickell, Budde and Cheyne have suggested a good many emendations of the traditional text, a few of which commend themselves as probable corrections of a faulty text, but most of which are mere guesses without sufficient confirmation from either external or internal evidence. For details see Budde's able commentary, and articles by Cheyne in JQR and Expository Times for 1898-99 and in the The Expositor, February, 1899...
http://www.bible-history.com/isbe/S/SONG+OF+SONGS/


Song of Songs in Wikipedia The Song of Songs (Hebrew, שיר השירים, Shir ha-Shirim), is a book of the Hebrew Bible—one of the five megillot (scrolls)— found in the last section of the Tanakh, known as the Ketuvim (or "writings"). It is also known as the Song of Solomon, Solomon's Song of Songs, or as Canticles, the latter from the shortened and anglicized Vulgate title Canticum Canticorum (Latin, "Song of Songs").[1] It is known as Āisma in the Septuagint, which is short for Āisma āismatōn (Greek, ᾌσμα ᾀσμάτων, "Song of Songs").[2] The protagonists of the Song of Songs are a woman (identified in one verse as "the Shulamite")[3] and a man, and the poem suggests movement from courtship to consummation. For instance, the man proclaims: "As the lily among thorns, so is my love among the daughters." The woman answers: "As the apple tree among the trees of the wood, so is my beloved among the sons. I sat down under his shadow with great delight, and his fruit was sweet to my taste."[4][5] Additionally, the Song includes a chorus, the "daughters of Jerusalem."...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Song_of_Solomon


Summary of the Book of the Song of Solomon It is clear that this poem is a wedding song and it reveals the glories of love. It exalts physical love, erotic love, and everything about love. The time is springtime and two lovers are full of passion and delight. The words in the poem are very descriptive and romantic. When their love is finally consummated the bond is so durable that nothing can destroy it. The poem is clearly describing God's love for his people, he is the bridegroom and his people are his bride. He is deeply in love with them and ultimately there will be a wedding day, and how excited they both are for that day.
http://www.bible-history.com/old-testament/bookofsongofsolomon.html


Theme of the Song of Solomon Theme - The beauty of love
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Type of Jesus in the Song of Solomon Types and Shadows - In the Song of Solomon Jesus is the husband who loves His beautiful bride and will return to consummate the marriage.
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