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February 21    Scripture

Bible Books: Job
The Book of Job in the Bible

Job in the Bible. The Problem of Evil and Suffering. A righteous man tested by God. Deals with God's sovereignty. -Outline of the Books of the Bible

JOB [OLD TESTAMENT] [POETICAL]


Author of The Book of Job Author - Job (According to Tradition). It is uncertain exactly when the book was written and who wrote it but Jewish tradition says Job was its author.
http://www.bible-history.com/studybible/Job/


Book of Job in Easton's Bible Dictionary A great diversity of opinion exists as to the authorship of this book. From internal evidence, such as the similarity of sentiment and language to those in the Psalms and Proverbs (see Ps. 88 and 89), the prevalence of the idea of "wisdom," and the style and character of the composition, it is supposed by some to have been written in the time of David and Solomon. Others argue that it was written by Job himself, or by Elihu, or Isaiah, or perhaps more probably by Moses, who was "learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and mighty in words and deeds" (Acts 7:22). He had opportunities in Midian for obtaining the knowledge of the facts related. But the authorship is altogether uncertain. As to the character of the book, it is a historical poem, one of the greatest and sublimest poems in all literature. Job was a historical person, and the localities and names were real and not fictious. It is "one of the grandest portions of the inspired Scriptures, a heavenly-repleished storehouse of comfort and instruction, the patriarchal Bible, and a precious monument of primitive theology. It is to the Old Testament what the Epistle to the Romans is to the New." It is a didactic narrative in a dramatic form. This book was apparently well known in the days of Ezekiel, B.C. 600 (Ezek. 14:14). It formed a part of the sacred Scriptures used by our Lord and his apostles, and is referred to as a part of the inspired Word (Heb. 12:5; 1 Cor. 3:19). The subject of the book is the trial of Job, its occasion, nature, endurance, and issue. It exhibits the harmony of the truths of revelation and the dealings of Providence, which are seen to be at once inscrutable, just, and merciful. It shows the blessedness of the truly pious, even amid sore afflictions, and thus ministers comfort and hope to tried believers of every age. It is a book of manifold instruction, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, and for instruction in righteousness (2 Tim. 3:16). It consists of, (1.) An historical introduction in prose (ch. 1,2). (2.) The controversy and its solution, in poetry (ch. 3-42:6). Job's desponding lamentation (ch. 3) is the occasion of the controversy which is carried on in three courses of dialogues between Job and his three friends. The first course gives the commencement of the controversy (ch. 4-14); the second the growth of the controversy (15-21); and the third the height of the controversy (22-27). This is followed by the solution of the controversy in the speeches of Elihu and the address of Jehovah, followed by Job's humble confession (42:1-6) of his own fault and folly. (3.) The third division is the historical conclusion, in prose (42:7-15). Sir J. W. Dawson in "The Expositor" says: "It would now seem that the language and theology of the book of Job can be better explained by supposing it to be a portion of Minean [Southern Arabia] literature obtained by Moses in Midian than in any other way. This view also agrees better than any other with its references to natural objects, the art of mining, and other matters."
http://www.bible-history.com/eastons/J/Job,+Book+of/


Book of Job in Smiths Bible Dictionary This book has given rise to much discussion and criticism, some believing the book to be strictly historical; others a religious fiction; others a composition based upon facts. By some the authorship of the work was attributed to Moses, but it is very uncertain. Luther first suggested the theory which, in some form or other, is now most generally received. He says, "I look upon the book of Job as a true history, yet I do not believe that all took place just as it is written, but that an ingenious, pious and learned man brought it into its present form." The date of the book is doubtful, and there have been many theories upon the subject. It may be regarded as a settled point that the book was written long before the exile, probably between the birth of Abraham and the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt --B.C. 2000-1800. If by Moses, it was probably written during his sojourn in Midian. "The book of Job is not only one of the most remarkable in the Bible, but in literature. As was said of Goliath's sword, 'There is none like it;' none in ancient or in modern literature." --Kitto. "A book which will one day, perhaps, be seen towering up alone far above all the poetry of the world." --J.A. Froude. "The book of Job is a drama, and yet subjectively true. The two ideas are perfectly consistent. It may have the dramatic form, the dramatic interest, the dramatic emotion, and yet be substantially a truthful narrative. The author may have received it in one of three ways: the writer may have been an eyewitness; or have received it from near contemporary testimony; or it may have reached him through a tradition of whose substantial truthfulness he has no doubt. There is abundant internal evidence that the scenes and events recorded were real scenes and real events to the writer. He gives the discussions either as he had heard them or as they had been repeated over and over in many an ancient consensus. The very modes of transmission show the deep impression it had made in all the East, as a veritable as well as marvellous event." --Tayler Lewis. the design of the book. --Stanley says that "The whole book is a discussion of that great problem of human life: what is the intention of Divine Providence in allowing the good to suffer?" "The direct object is to show that, although goodness has a natural tendency to secure a full measure of temporal happiness, yet that in its essence it is independent of such a result. Selfishness in some form is declared to be the basis on which all apparent goodness rests. That question is tried in the case of Job." --Cook. Structure of the book.- The book consists of five parts: -- I. Chs. 1-3. The historical facts. II. Chs. 4-31. The discussions between Job and his three friends. III. Chs. 32-37. Job's discussion with Elihu. IV. Chs. 38-41. The theophany --God speaking out of the storm. V. Ch. 42. The successful termination of the trial. It is all in poetry except the introduction and the close...
http://www.bible-history.com/smiths/J/Job,+Book+of/


Book of Job in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE LITERATURE I. Introductory. 1. Place in the Canon: The greatest production of the Hebrew Wisdom literature, and one of the supreme literary creations of the world. Its place in the Hebrew Canon corresponds to the high estimation in which it was held; it stands in the 3rd section, the "writings" (kethubhim) or Hagiographa, next after the two great anthologies Psalms and Proverbs; apparently put thus near the head of the list for weighty reading and meditation. In the Greek Canon (which ours follows), it is put with the poetical books, standing at their head. It is one of 3 Scripture books, the others being Psalms and Proverbs, for which the later Hebrew scholars (the Massoretes) employed a special system of punctuation to mark its poetic character. 2. Rank and Readers: The Book of Job was not one of the books designated for public reading in the synagogues, as were the Pentateuch and the Prophets, or for occasional reading at feast seasons, as were the 5 megilloth or rolls. It was rather a book for private reading, and one whose subject-matter would appeal especially to the more cultivated and thoughtful classes. Doubtless it was all the more intimately valued for this detachment from sanctuary associations; it was, like Proverbs, a people's book; and especially among the cultivators of Wisdom it must have been from its first publication a cherished classic. At any rate, the patriarch Job (though whether from the legend or from the finished book is not clear; see JOB) is mentioned as a well-known national type by Ezek 14:14,20; and James, writing to Jewish Christians (5:11), refers to the character of patriarch as familiar to his readers. It was as one of the great classic stories of their literature, rather than as embodying a ritual or prophetic standard, that it was so universally known and cherished...
http://www.bible-history.com/isbe/J/JOB,+BOOK+OF/


Book of Job in Wikipedia The Book of Job (Hebrew: אִיוֹב‎ ʾ iyov) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. It relates the story of Job, his trials at the hands of Satan, his theological discussions with friends on the origins and nature of his suffering, his challenge to God, and finally a response from God. The Book itself comprises a didactic poem set in a prose framing device and has been called "the most profound and literary work of the entire Old Testament".[1] The Book itself, along with its numerous exegeses, are attempts to address the problem of evil, i.e. the problem of reconciling the existence of evil or suffering in the world with the existence of God...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Job


Date of The Book of Job Date - 2180 BC Approximately. It is uncertain exactly when the book was written and who wrote it but Jewish tradition says Job was its author. It is interesting that the name of Yahweh appears over and over in the book of Job, and his name was unknown prior to the time of Moses (Exodus 6:2-3). The name of the Egypt is used in poetic form a couple times (Job 9:12-13, Job 26:12-13) and when it is used this way there is implications that the author of the book new about the exodus from Egypt.
http://www.bible-history.com/old-testament/bookofjob.html


Greek Name of The Book of Job Greek Name - Iob (Greek form of the Hebrew)
http://www.bible-history.com/studybible/Job/


Hebrew Name of The Book of Job Hebrew Name - Iyov "object of enmity" (meaning uncertain)
http://www.bible-history.com/studybible/Job/


Job in Easton's Bible Dictionary persecuted, an Arabian patriarch who resided in the land of Uz (q.v.). While living in the midst of great prosperity, he was suddenly overwhelmed by a series of sore trials that fell upon him. Amid all his sufferings he maintained his integrity. Once more God visited him with the rich tokens of his goodness and even greater prosperity than he had enjoyed before. He survived the period of trial for one hundred and forty years, and died in a good old age, an example to succeeding generations of integrity (Ezek. 14:14, 20) and of submissive patience under the sorest calamities (James 5:11). His history, so far as it is known, is recorded in his book.
http://www.bible-history.com/eastons/J/Job/


Job in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE job ('iyobh, meaning of name doubtful; some conjecturing "object of enmity," others "he who turns," etc., to God; both uncertain guesses; Iob): The titular hero of the Book of Job, represented as a wealthy and pious land-holder who lived in patriarchal times, or at least conditions, in the land of Uz, on the borders of Idumea. Outside of the Book of Job he is mentioned by Ezekiel (Ezek 14:14,20) as one of 3 great personages whose representative righteousness would presumably avail, if that of any individuals could, to redeem the nation; the other two being Noah, an ancient patriarch, and Daniel, a contemporary of the prophet. It is difficult to determine whether Job was an actual personage or not. If known through legend, it must have been on account of some such experience as is narrated in the book, an experience unique enough to have become a potent household word; still, the power and influence of it is due to the masterly vigor and exposition of the story. It was the Job of literature, rather than the Job of legend, who lived in the hearts of men; a character so commanding that, albeit fictitious, it could be referred to as real, just as we refer to Hamlet or Othello. It is not the way of Hebrew writers, however, to evolve literary heroes from pure imagination; they crave an authentic basis of fact. It is probable that such a basis, in its essential outlines, existed under the story of Job. It is not necessary to suppose, however, that the legend or the name was known to Israel from ancient times. Job is introduced (Job 1:1) as if he had not been known before. The writer, who throughout the book shows a wide acquaintance with the world, doubtless found the legend somewhere, and drew its meanings together for an undying message to his and all times.
http://www.bible-history.com/isbe/J/JOB/


Main events in The Book of Job The principal events in Job are: The beginning prologue Job 1:1-2:13. Dialogs and debates 3:1-27:23. Job's complaint 3:1-26 The first debate: 1-14:22 The second debate 15:1-21:34 The third debate 22:1-27:23 What is wisdom 28:1-28 The speeches 29:1-42:6 Job's speech 29:1-31:40 Elihu's speech 32:1-37:24 Yahweh's speech 38:1-42:6
http://www.bible-history.com/studybible/Job/


Outline of The Book of Job Quick Overview of Job. – –1-2– –The historical background of Job – – 3-31 – – Job's dialogue with his three friends – – 32- 37 – – the speeches of Elihu – – 38-41 – – God intervenes and gives His speech– – 42 – – the conclusion of this matter
http://www.bible-history.com/studybible/Job/


Summary of The Book of Job The big question in the book of Job is why do the righteous suffer? But this is not actually the main question in the book, the big question is seen in Job 1:9-11..."Why does Job remain faithful to God?" The book goes on with the story about God and Satan arguing over Jobs reasons for obeying God and Job has various catastrophes which causes him to lose everything in order to test him of his faithfulness as to whether or not Job is serving God because of His wealth and God"s blessings of prosperity. There are also jobs friends who make a case against Job siding with what Satan was accusing Job of, their point of view was the Job was only serving God because of his wealth and prosperity. Job continually refutes them. Joe desired to know the reason for his suffering and God remains silent concerning this. Instead the Lord asks Job questions that are too difficult for Job to answer, and God's point is that there are many things that Job will experience and mankind experiences in life that do not have a clear explanation, and it is more wise to not question God's wisdom. Gervis situation was no different than what is common to man.
http://www.bible-history.com/studybible/Job/


The Book of Job in the Picture Study Bible Study Bible featuring Job with information, images, and notes on many important subjects from the ancient world. Archaeological notes, geographical notes, ancient documents and manuscripts, cultural notes, theological notes, articles from scholars, information about ancient history, ancient customs, ancient temples, ancient monuments, and a close look at people, places, and events from the ancient world that are explained in an easy to understand format.
http://www.bible-history.com/studybible/Job/


Theme of The Book of Job Main Theme - Trusting the Lord in the midst of evil and suffering
http://www.bible-history.com/old-testament/bookofjob.html


Type of Jesus in The Book of Job Types and Shadows - In Job Jesus is the ever-living redeemer
http://www.bible-history.com/old-testament/bookofjob.html


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