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June 25    Scripture

Bible Books: 2 Kings
The Book of Second Kings in the Bible

2 Kings in the Bible. History of the Divided Kingdom. All 19 kings of Israel were bad; therefore, they were taken captive to Assyria (722 B.C.). In Judah, 8 of 20 rulers were seeking the Lord the rest were into idolatry. The Babylonian Captivity (586 BC). -Outline of the Books of the Bible

2 KINGS [OLD TESTAMENT] [HISTORICAL]


2 Kings in Wikipedia The Books of Kings (Hebrew: Sefer melakhim, ספר מלכים‎) are books included in the Hebrew Bible. They were originally written in Hebrew and are recognised as scripture by Judaism and Christianity. According to Biblical chronology, the events in the Books of Kings occurred between the 10th and 6th centuries BCE. The books contain accounts of the kings of the ancient Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy) and the Kingdom of Judah. They contain the annals of the Jewish commonwealth from the accession of Solomon until the subjugation of the kingdom by Nebuchadnezzar and the Babylonians (apparently a period of about four hundred and fifty-three years). The Books of Kings synchronize with 1 Chronicles 28 – 2 Chronicles 36:21. While in the Chronicles greater prominence is given to the priestly or Levitical office, in the Kings greater prominence is given to the royal and prophetic offices. Kings appears to have been written considerably earlier than Chronicles and as such is generally considered a more reliable historical source...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2_Kings


Author of The Book of Kings Author - Jeremiah (According to Tradition). According to Hebrew tradition Jeremiah was the author, and wrote shortly after the events have taken place.
http://www.bible-history.com/old-testament/bookofkings.html


Books of Kings in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE I. TITLE II. SCOPE III. CHARACTER OF BOOKS AND POSITION IN THE HEBREW CANON 1. Purpose 2. Character of Data IV. HISTORICAL VALUE 1. Treatment of Historical Data 2. Chronology 3. Value of Assyrian Records 4. Plan V. COMPOSITION 1. Nature of the Books 2. Sources 3. Kent's Scheme 4. The Jahwist (Jahwist) and the Elohist (E) VI. DATE LITERATURE I. Title. The Hebrew title reads, melakhim, "kings," the division into books being based on the Septuagint where the Books of Kings are numbered 3rd and 4th, the Books of Kingdoms (Basileion), the Books of Samuel being numbered respectively 1st and 2nd. The separation in the Hebrew into 2 Books of Kings dates to the rabbinic Bible of Daniel Bomberg (Venice, 1516-17), who adds in a footnote, "Here the non-Jews (i.e. Christians) begin the 4th Book of Kings." The Hebrew Canon treats the 2 Books of Samuel as one book, and the 2 Books of Kings as one. Hence, both the King James Version and the Revised Version (British and American) read incorrectly, "The First Book of Kings," even the use of the article being superfluous.gs (stadia) from Jerusalem, which he named Absalom's Hand." In all probability this "pillar" was a rough upright stone--a matstsebhah--but its site is lost. The traditional Greek-Egyptian tomb of perhaps 100-200 years BC which has been hewn out of the rock on the eastern side of the Kidron valley is manifestly misnamed "Absalom's pillar," and the Kidron ravine (nachal) cannot be the King's Vale (`emeq). II. Scope. The Books of Kings contain 47 chapters (I, 22 chs; II, 25 chs), and cover the period from the conspiracy of Adonijah and the accession of Solomon (975 BC) to the liberation of Jehoiachin after the beginning of the Exile (561 BC). The subject-matter may be grouped under certain heads, as the last days of David (1 Ki 1 through 2:11); Solomon and his times (1 Ki 2:12 through 11:43); the Northern Kingdom to the coming of Assyria (1 Ki 12:16 through 2 Ki 17:41) (937-722 BC), including 9 dynastic changes; the Southern Kingdom to the coming of Babylon (1 Ki 12:1 through 2 Ki 25:21, the annals of the two kingdoms being given as parallel records until the fall of Israel) (937-586 BC), during which time but one dynasty, that of David, occupied...
http://www.bible-history.com/isbe/K/KINGS,+BOOKS+OF/


Date of The Book of Kings Date - From 1015-562 BC Approximately. It is difficult to give a precise chronology of the books of Kings. According to Hebrew tradition Jeremiah was the author, and wrote shortly after the events have taken place. The Books of Chronicles record the events of the same time period from a different perspective.
http://www.bible-history.com/old-testament/bookofkings.html


First and Second Books of Kings in Smiths Bible Dictionary originally only one book in the Hebrew canon, from in the LXX. and the Vulgate the third and fourth books of Kings (the books of Samuel being the first and second). It must be remembered that the division between the books of Kings and Samuel is equally artificial, and that in point of fact the historical books commencing with Judges and ending with 2Kings present the appearance of one work, giving a continuous history of Israel from the time of Joshua to the death of jehoiachin. The books of Kings contain the history from David's death and Solomon's accession to the destruction of the kingdom of Judah and the desolation of Jerusalem, with a supplemental notice of an event that occurred after an interval of twenty-six years --viz., the liberation of Jehoiachin from his prison at Babylon --and a still further extension to Jehoiachin's death, the time of which is not known, but which was probably not long after his liberation. The history therefore comprehends the whole time of the Israelitish monarchy, exclusive of the reigns of Saul and David. As regards the affairs of foreign nations and the relation of Israel to them, the historical notices in these books, though in the earlier times scanty, are most valuable, and in striking accord with the latest additions to our knowledge of contemporary profane history. A most important aid to a right understanding of the history in these books, and to the filling up of its outline, is to be found in the prophets, and especially in Isaiah and Jeremiah. Time when written. --They were undoubtedly written during the period of the captivity, probably after the twenty-sixth year. Authorship. --As regards the authorship of the books, but little difficulty presents itself. The Jewish tradition which ascribes them to Jeremiah is borne out by the strongest internal evidence, in addition to that of the language. Sources of information. --There was a regular series of state annals for both the kingdom of Judah and that of Israel, which embraced the whole time comprehended in the books of Kings, or at least to the end of the reign of Jehoiakim. 2Ki 24:5 These annals are constantly cited by name as "the book of the acts of Solomon," 1Ki 11:41 and after Solomon "the book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah" or "Israel," e.g. 1Ki 14:29; 15:7; 16:5,14,20; 2Ki 10:34; 24:5 etc.; and it is manifest that the author of Kings had them both before him while he drew up his history, in which the reigns of the two kingdoms are harmonized and these annals constantly appealed to. But in addition to these national annals, there, were also extant, at the time that the books of Kings were compiled, separate works of the several prophets who had lived in Judah and Israel. Authority. --Their canonical authority having never been disputed, it is needless to bring forward the testimonies to their authenticity which may be found in Josephus, Eusebius, jerome, Augustine, etc. They are reckoned among the prophets, in the threefold division of the Holy Scriptures; a position in accordance with the supposition that they were compiled by Jeremiah, and contain the narratives of the different prophets in succession. They are frequently cited by our Lord and by the apostles.
http://www.bible-history.com/smiths/K/Kings,+First+and+Second+Books+of/


Greek Name of The Book of Kings Greek Name - basilia (Greek form of the Hebrew)
http://www.bible-history.com/old-testament/bookofkings.html


Hebrew Name and Meaning of The Book of Kings Hebrew Name - Melechim "kings"
http://www.bible-history.com/biblestudy/charts/old-testament-books-hebrew-meaning.html


Outline of The Book of 2 Kings Quick Overview of 1 Kings. – –1-11 – –The peaceful and prosperous reign of King Solomon, the idolatry of King Solomon, the death of King Solomon.– – 12-22 – – The division of the people of Israel into two kingdoms, The Kingdom of Judah and the Kingdom of Israel.
http://www.bible-history.com/old-testament/bookofkings.html


Outline of The Book of 2 Kings Quick Overview of 2 Kings. – –1-17 – –The history of the Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah until the deportation of Israel by the Assyrians in 722 BC.– – 18-25 – – The history of the kingdom of Judah until the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians in 586 BC and the deportation of the people of Judah.
http://www.bible-history.com/old-testament/bookofkings.html


Summary of The Book of 2 Kings The time period extends from the anointing of King Solomon (1015 BC) throughout the history of Israel and Judah all the way to the death of Jehoiachin after he was freed from Babylonian imprisonment (561 BC). The book of 1 Kings begins with Solomon, and not David or Saul because the books of Samuel cover their lives. Under King Solomon the dominion of Israel extended from the Euphrates River all the way to the Mediterranean Sea and down to the Egyptian border (1 Kings 4:21). At the end of each the kingdoms of Israel and Judah the remaining kings were not seeking God and became a sad remnant who were puppets of either Egypt or Assyria or Babylon until they were finally uprooted and taken away. The beginning of all of their problems happened after the death of Solomon when his sons Rehoboam and Jeroboam divided the kingdom, 10 of the tribes went with Jeroboam to the north (Israel), and 2 of the tribes remained with Rehoboam in the south (Judah). All 19 of Israel's Kings followed the heathen nations and were idol worshipers and evil, leading Israel into sin bringing upon themselves the wrath of God. They were destroyed and taken captive to Assyria in 722 BC. In the southern kingdom of Judah 8 out of their 20 Kings sought the Lord and the rest forsook him also bring the wrath of God when the Babylonian captivity took place under King Nebuchadnezzar in 586 BC.
http://www.bible-history.com/old-testament/bookofkings.html


The Book of 2 Kings in the Picture Study Bible Study Bible with information, images, and notes on many important subjects from the ancient world. Archaeological notes, geographical notes, ancient documents and manuscripts, cultural notes, theological notes, articles from scholars, information about ancient history, ancient customs, ancient temples, ancient monuments, and a close look at people, places, and events from the ancient world that are explained in an easy to understand format.
http://www.bible-history.com/studybible/2+Kings/


The Books of Kings in Easton's Bible Dictionary The two books of Kings formed originally but one book in the Hebrew Scriptures. The present division into two books was first made by the LXX., which now, with the Vulgate, numbers them as the third and fourth books of Kings, the two books of Samuel being the first and second books of Kings. They contain the annals of the Jewish commonwealth from the accession of Solomon till the subjugation of the kingdom by Nebuchadnezzar and the Babylonians (apparently a period of about four hundred and fifty-three years). The books of Chronicles (q.v.) are more comprehensive in their contents than those of Kings. The latter synchronize with 1 Chr. 28-2 Chr. 36:21. While in the Chronicles greater prominence is given to the priestly or Levitical office, in the Kings greater prominence is given to the kingly. The authorship of these books is uncertain. There are some portions of them and of Jeremiah that are almost identical, e.g., 2 Kings 24:18-25 and Jer. 52; 39:1-10; 40:7- 41:10. There are also many undesigned coincidences between Jeremiah and Kings (2 Kings 21-23 and Jer. 7:15; 15:4; 19:3, etc.), and events recorded in Kings of which Jeremiah had personal knowledge. These facts countenance in some degree the tradition that Jeremiah was the author of the books of Kings. But the more probable supposition is that Ezra, after the Captivity, compiled them from documents written perhaps by David, Solomon, Nathan, Gad, and Iddo, and that he arranged them in the order in which they now exist. In the threefold division of the Scriptures by the Jews, these books are ranked among the "Prophets." They are frequently quoted or alluded to by our Lord and his apostles (Matt. 6:29; 12:42; Luke 4:25, 26; 10:4; comp. 2 Kings 4:29; Mark 1:6; comp. 2 Kings 1:8; Matt. 3:4, etc.). The sources of the narrative are referred to (1) "the book of the acts of Solomon" (1 Kings 11:41); (2) the "book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah" (14:29; 15:7, 23, etc.); (3) the "book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel" (14:19; 15:31; 16:14, 20, 27, etc.). The date of its composition was some time between B.C. 561, the date of the last chapter (2 Kings 25), when Jehoiachin was released from captivity by Evil-merodach, and B.C. 538, the date of the decree of deliverance by Cyrus.
http://www.bible-history.com/eastons/K/Kings,+The+Books+of/


The Books of Kings in Fausset's Bible Dictionary Title. In the Septuagint the books are called "the third and fourth of the Kingdoms," in Vulgate "the third and fourth book of Kings." Originally the two were one: Bomberg in his printed editions, 1518,1549, divided them into two. Three periods are included. The first (1 Kings 1-11), 1015-975 B.C., Solomon's ascent of the throne, wisdom, consolidation of his power, erection of the temple, 40 years' reigning over the undivided twelve tribes; the time of Israel's glory, except that toward the close of his reign his polygamy and idolatry caused a decline, and God threatened the disruption of the kingdom (1 Kings 11). The second period, from the division into two kingdoms to the Assyrian captivity of the ten northern tribes, 975-722 B.C. The third period, from thence, in Hezekiah's reign, until Judah's captivity in Babylon, 722-560 B.C., down to the 37th year of Jehoiachin's exile and imprisonment. The second period (1Ki 12:1-2 Kings 10) comprises three stages: (1) the enmity at first between Judah and Israel from Jeroboam to Omri, 1 Kings 12:1-16:28; (2) the intermarriage between the royal houses of Israel and of Judah, under Ahab, down to the destruction of both kings, Joram of Israel and Ahaziah of Judah, by Jehu, 1Ki 16:29-2 Kings 10; (3) the renewal of hostilities, from Jehu's accession in Israel and Athaliah's usurpation in Judah to Israel's captivity in Hezekiah's sixth year, 1 Kings 11-17. The book is not a mere chronicle of kings' deeds and fortunes, but of their reigns in their spiritual relation to Jehovah the true, though invisible, King of the theocracy; hence it is ranked in the canon among "the prophets." The prophets therefore as His ministers, guardians of His rights, and interpreters of His counsel and will, come prominently forward in the book to maintain His prerogative before the kings His viceroys, and to counsel, warn, and punish as He who spoke in them deemed necessary, confirming their word by miraculous signs. Thus, Samuel by His direction anointed Saul and David to reign over His people; Nathan announced God's promise that David's throne and seed should be forever (2 Samuel 7); then when he sinned Nathan remounted his punishment, and upon his repentance immediate forgiveness (2 Samuel 12); similarly, Gad (2 Samuel 24). Nathan announced Solomon's appointment as successor (2 Samuel 12:25; 1 Chronicles 22:9); anointed and installed him instead of Adonijah, the older brother (1 Kings 1)...
http://www.bible-history.com/faussets/K/Kings,+the+books+of/


Theme of The Book of 2 Kings Main Theme of 2 Kings - The history of Israel and Judah
http://www.bible-history.com/old-testament/bookofkings.html


Type of Jesus in The Book of 2 Kings Types and Shadows - In Kings Jesus is the peaceful King
http://www.bible-history.com/old-testament/bookofkings.html


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