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October 21    Scripture

Bible Books: Leviticus
The Book of Leviticus in the Bible

Leviticus in the Bible. The Laws of the Hebrew Nation. Instructions on sacrificial system and the priesthood. Instructions on moral purity. -Outline of the Books of the Bible

LEVITICUS [OLD TESTAMENT] [PENTATEUCH]


Author of the Book of Leviticus The author was Moses
http://www.bible-history.com/old-testament/bookofleviticus.html


Book of Leviticus in Wikipedia Leviticus (Greek: Λευιτικός, "relating to the Levites") or Vayikra (Hebrew: ויקרא‎, literally "and He called") is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, and the third of five books of the Torah/Pentateuch. Leviticus contains laws and priestly rituals, but in a wider sense is about the working out of God's covenant with Israel set out in Genesis and Exodus—what is seen in the Torah as the consequences of entering into a special relationship with God (specifically, Yahweh). These consequences are set out in terms of community relationships and behaviour. The first 16 chapters and the last chapter make up the Priestly Code, with rules for ritual cleanliness, sin- offerings, and the Day of Atonement, including Chapter 12, which mandates male circumcision. Chapters 17–26 contain the Holiness Code, including the injunction in chapter 19 to "love one's neighbor as oneself" (the Great Commandment). The book is largely concerned with "abominations", largely dietary and sexual restrictions. The rules are generally addressed to the Israelites, except for several prohibitions applied equally to "the strangers that sojourn in Israel."...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Leviticus


Date of the Book of Leviticus Date - 1490 BC Approximately
http://www.bible-history.com/old-testament/bookofleviticus.html


Greek Name and Meaning of Leviticus Greek Name - Leviticus "from Levi"
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Hebrew Name and Meaning of Leviticus Hebrew Name - Vayyiqra "and He called"
http://www.bible-history.com/biblestudy/charts/old-testament-books-hebrew-meaning.html


Leviticus in Easton's Bible Dictionary the third book of the Pentateuch; so called in the Vulgate, after the LXX., because it treats chiefly of the Levitical service. In the first section of the book (1-17), which exhibits the worship itself, there is, (1.) A series of laws (1- 7) regarding sacrifices, burnt-offerings, meat-offerings, and thank-offerings (1-3), sin-offerings and trespass-offerings (4; 5), followed by the law of the priestly duties in connection with the offering of sacrifices (6; 7). (2.) An historical section (8- 10), giving an account of the consecration of Aaron and his sons (8); Aaron's first offering for himself and the people (9); Nadab and Abihu's presumption in offering "strange fire before Jehovah," and their punishment (10). (3.) Laws concerning purity, and the sacrifices and ordinances for putting away impurity (11-16). An interesting fact may be noted here. Canon Tristram, speaking of the remarkable discoveries regarding the flora and fauna of the Holy Land by the Israel Exploration officers, makes the following statement:, "Take these two catalogues of the clean and unclean animals in the books of Leviticus [11] and Deuteronomy [14]. There are eleven in Deuteronomy which do not occur in Leviticus, and these are nearly all animals and birds which are not found in Egypt or the Holy Land, but which are numerous in the Arabian desert. They are not named in Leviticus a few weeks after the departure from Egypt; but after the people were thirty-nine years in the desert they are named, a strong proof that the list in Deuteronomy was written at the end of the journey, and the list in Leviticus at the beginning. It fixes the writing of that catalogue to one time and period only, viz., that when the children of Israel were familiar with the fauna and the flora of the desert" (Palest. Expl. Quart., Jan. 1887). (4.) Laws marking the separation between Israel and the heathen (17-20). (5.) Laws about the personal purity of the priests, and their eating of the holy things (20; 21); about the offerings of Israel, that they were to be without blemish (22:17- 33); and about the due celebration of the great festivals (23; 25). (6.) Then follow promises and warnings to the people regarding obedience to these commandments, closing with a section on vows. The various ordinances contained in this book were all delivered in the space of a month (comp. Ex. 40:17; Num. 1:1), the first month of the second year after the Exodus. It is the third book of Moses. No book contains more of the very words of God. He is almost throughout the whole of it the direct speaker. This book is a prophecy of things to come, a shadow whereof the substance is Christ and his kingdom. The principles on which it is to be interpreted are laid down in the Epistle to the Hebrews. It contains in its complicated ceremonial the gospel of the grace of God.
http://www.bible-history.com/eastons/L/Leviticus/


Leviticus in Fausset's Bible Dictionary Wayyiqra' is the Hebrew name, from the initial word; the middle book of the Pentateuch. The laws "which the Lord commanded Moses in Mount Sinai, in the day that he commanded the children of Israel to offer their oblations unto the Lord in the wilderness of Sinai" (Leviticus 7:38). Given between the setting up of the tabernacle and its departure from Sinai, i.e. between the first day of the first month and the 20th day of the second month of the second year of the Exodus (Exodus 40:2; Exodus 40:17; Numbers 10:11). Two chief subjects are handled: (1) Leviticus 1-16, the fundamental ordinances of Israel's fellowship with Jehovah; (2) Leviticus 17-27, the laws for hallowing Israel in this covenant fellowship. Privilege and duty, grace conferred and grace inwrought, go hand in hand. First; (1) The law of offerings, Leviticus 1-7. (2) Investiture of Aaron and consecration of priests, Leviticus 8-10. (3) Rules as to clean and unclean, Leviticus 11-15. (4) The day of atonement, the summing up of all means of grace for the nation and the church, annually. Second; (1) Israel's life as holy and separate from heathendom, in food, marriage, and toward fellow men, Leviticus 17-20; the mutual connection of Leviticus 18; Leviticus 19; Leviticus 20, is marked by recurring phrases, "I are the Lord," "ye shall be holy, for I ... am holy." (2) Holiness of priests and of offerings, Leviticus 21-22. (3) Holiness shown in the holy convocations, sabbaths, perpetual light in the tabernacle, shewbread, Leviticus 23-24. (4) Perpetuation of the theocracy by the sabbatical and Jubilee years, the perpetual tenure of land, the redemption of it and bond servants (Leviticus 25); and by fatherly chastisement of the people and restoration on repentance, Leviticus 26. (5) Appendix on vows, which are not encouraged especially, yet permitted with some restrictions (Leviticus 27)...
http://www.bible-history.com/faussets/L/Leviticus/


Leviticus in Smiths Bible Dictionary The third book in the Pentateuch is called Leviticus because it relates principally to the Levites and priests and their services. The book is generally held to have been written by Moses. Those critics even who hold a different opinion as to the other books of the Pentateuch assign this book in the main to him. One of the most notable features of the book is what may be called its spiritual meaning. That so elaborate a ritual looked beyond itself we cannot doubt. It was a prophecy of things to come; a shadow whereof the substance was Christ and his kingdom. We may not always be able to say what the exact relation is between the type and the antitype; but we cannot read the Epistle to the Hebrews and not acknowledge that the Levitical priests "served the pattern and type of heavenly things;" that the sacrifices of the law pointed to and found their interpretation in the Lamb of God; that the ordinances of outward purification signified the true inner cleansing of the heart and conscience from dead works to serve the living God. One idea --HOLINESS-- moreover penetrates the whole of this vast and burdensome ceremonial, and gives it a real glory even apart from any prophetic significance.
http://www.bible-history.com/smiths/L/Leviticus/


Leviticus in the Picture Study Bible Information, images, and notes on many important subjects from the ancient world. Archaeological notes, geographical notes, ancient documents and manuscripts, cultural notes, theological notes, articles from scholars, information about ancient history, ancient customs, ancient temples, ancient monuments, and a close look at people, places, and events from the ancient world that are explained in an easy to understand format.
http://www.bible-history.com/studybible/Leviticus/


Leviticus, 1 in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE LITERATURE I. General Data. 1. Name: The third book of the Pentateuch is generally named by the Jews according to the first word, wayyiqra' (Origen Ouikra, by the Septuagint called according to its contents Leuitikon, or Leueitikon, by the Vulgate, accordingly, "Leviticus" (i.e. Liber), sometimes "Leviticum"). The Jews have also another name taken from its contents, namely, torath kohanim, "Law of the Priests." 2. Character of Book: As a matter of fact ordinances pertaining to the priesthood, to the Levitical system, and to the cults constitute a most important part of this book; but specifically religious and ethical commands, as we find them, e.g. in Lev 18 through 20, are not wanting; and there are also some historical sections, which, however, are again connected with the matter referring to the cults, namely the consecration of the priests in Lev 8 and 9, the sin and the punishment of two sons of Aaron, Nadab and Abihu (10:1 ff), and the account of the stoning of a blasphemer (24:10 ff). Of the Levites, on the other hand, the book does not treat at all. They are mentioned only once and that incidentally in 25:32 ff. The laws are stated to have been given behar Cinay (7:38; 25:1; 26:46; 27:34), which expression, on account of Lev 11, in which Yahweh is described as speaking to Moses out of the tent of meeting, is not to be translated "upon" but "at" Mt. Sinai. The connection of this book with the preceding and following books, i.e. Exodus and Numbers, which is commonly acknowledged as being the case, at least in some sense, leaves for the contents of Leviticus exactly the period of a single month, since the last chronological statement of Ex 40:17 as the time of the erection of the tabernacle mentions the 1st day of the 1st month of the 2nd year of the Exodus, and Nu 1:1 takes us to the 1st day of the 2nd month of the same year. Within this time of one month the consecration of the priests fills out 8 days (Lev 8:33; 9:1). A sequence in time is indicated only by Lev 16:1, which directly connects with what is reported in Lev 10 concerning Nadab and Abihu. In the same way the ordinances given in 10:6 ff are connected with the events described in 8:1 through 10:5. The laws are described as being revelations of Yahweh, generally given to Moses (compare 1:1; 4:1; 5:14; 6:19,24 (Hebrew 12,17); 7:22,28, etc.); sometimes to Moses and Aaron (compare 11:1; 13:1; 14:33; 15:1, etc.), and, rarely, to Aaron alone (10:8). In 10:12 ff, Moses gives some directions to the priests, which are based on a former revelation (compare 6:16 (Hebrew 9) ff; 7:37 ff). In 10:16 ff, we have a difference of opinion between Moses and Aaron, or rather his sons, which was decided on the basis of an independent application of principles given in Leviticus. Most of these commands are to be announced to Israel (1:2; 4:2; 7:23,19; 9:3 ff; 11:2; 12:2; 15:2; 18:2, etc.); others to the priests (6:9,25 (Hebrew 2,18); 21:2; 22:2, etc.); or to the priests and the Israelites (17:2; 22:18), while the directions in reference to the Day of Atonement, with which Aaron was primarily concerned (16:2), beginning with 16:29, without a special superscription, are undeniably changed into injunctions addressed to all Israel; compare also 21:24 and 21:2. As the Book of Exodus treats of the communion which God offers on His part to Israel and which culminates at last in His dwelling in the tent of meeting (40:34 ff; compare under EXODUS, I, 2), the Book of Leviticus contains the ordinances which were to be carried out by the Israelites in religious, ethical and cultural matters, in order to restore and maintain this communion with God, notwithstanding the imperfections and the guilt of the Israelites. And as this book thus with good reason occupies its well established place in the story of the founding and in the earliest history of theocracy, so too even a casual survey and intelligent glance at the contents of the book will show that we have here a well-arranged and organic unity, a conviction which is only confirmed and strengthened by the presentation of the structure of the book in detail (see under II, below).
in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE


Leviticus, 2 in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE III. Origin. 1. Against the Wellhausen Hypothesis: As in the article ATONEMENT, DAY OF, sec. I, 2, (2), we took a stand against the modern attempts at splitting up the text, and in III, 1 against theory of the late origin of the whole pericope, we must, after trying under II to prove the unity of the Book of Leviticus, yet examine the modern claim that the book as a whole is the product of later times. Since the entire book is ascribed to the Priestly Code (see II, 1 above), the answer to the question as to the time when it was written will depend on the attitude which we take toward the Wellhausen hypothesis, which insists that the Priestly Code was not published until the time of the exile in 444 BC (Neh 8 through 10). (1) The Argument from Silence. One of the most important proofs for this claim is the "argument from silence" (argumentum e silentio). How careful one must be in making use of this argument can be seen from the fact that, e.g., the high priest with his full title is mentioned but a single time in the entire Book of Leviticus, namely in 21:10; and that the Levites are not mentioned save once (25:32 ff), and then incidentally. As is well known, it is the adherents of the Wellhausen hypothesis themselves who now claim that the bulk of the entire literature of the Old Testament originated in the post-exilic period and long after the year 444 BC. Leaving out of consideration for the present the Books of Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah, all of which describe the history of Israel from the standpoint of the Priestly Code (P), we note that this later literature is not any richer in its references to P than is the older literature; and that in those cases where such references are found in this literature assigned to a late period, it is just as difficult to decide whether these passages refer merely to a custom or to a codified set of laws. (2) Attitude of Prophets toward Sacrificial System...
http://www.bible-history.com/isbe/L/LEVITICUS,+2/


Outline of the Book of Leviticus Quick Overview of Leviticus. – –1-7 – –God's laws concerning sacrifices. – – 8-10 – – God's ceremonial laws regarding the priesthood. – – 11-22 – – God's ceremonial laws concerning purification. – – 23-27 – – God's laws regarding the sacred feasts and festivals, tithes, offerings, sabbatical and jubilee years, vows, and more.
http://www.bible-history.com/old-testament/bookofleviticus.html


Summary of The Book of Leviticus In the Septuagint (The Greek version of the Hebrew Old Testament), the third book of the Pentateuch bears the title "Levitikon" ("pertaining to the Levites"), an adjective modifying the word "book." The Levites were the tribe from which the priests and others prominent in the worship services were chosen, in lieu of the firstborn sons of all the tribes (Num. 3:45). Leviticus fills an integral role in the Pentateuch. Just as it is necessary to be familiar with Exodus in order to understand Leviticus, some knowledge of Leviticus is necessary if one is to understand the religious activities of the Jews as portrayed in Numbers, Deuteronomy, and the rest of the Old Testament. The purpose of Leviticus may be defined as calling attention to the disparity between God's holiness and man's sinfulness and providing concrete steps whereby man might restore the fellowship which has been lost as a result of his own defilement. The laws connected with this restoration are varied. They are both general and specific; they seek, in one way or another, to govern the whole life of the people of God. In this sense, Leviticus is the most thoroughly legalistic book in the entire Old Testament. Throughout its laws is seen the unyielding demand: "Ye shall be holy, for I the Lord your God am holy." On the other hand, the climax of the book is clearly ch. 16, in which instructions are given for the Day of Atonement. On this day, God provided his people with a ceremony by means of which all of their sins for the previous year were counted as forgiven. The mercy which God displays in this service so foreshadows the work of Christ that the 16th chapter has been called "the most consummate flower of Messianic symbolism." In addition to the laws, there are also some historical sections, but these, too, are closely connected with the priesthood. They include the consecration of the priests in chs. 8 and 9, the sin and punishment of Nadab and Abihu (ch. 10), and the stoning of a blasphemer (24: 10ff'). In this connection, it is interesting to note that only one mention is made of the Levites and that in an incidental manner (25:32ff). The book may be divided as follows : 1 ) Laws concerning Sacrifice (1-7). In this section five types of offerings are discussed: burnt offerings, meal offerings, peace offerings, sin offerings and guilt offerings. This is filled out by a discussion of the sin offering as it is to be observed by various classes of individuals. 2 ) An historical section featuring the consecration of the priests (8-9) and the sin of Nadab and Abihu (ch. 10). 3 ) A section on laws of purification from ceremonial uncleanness (11-15). These furnish instructions as to the appropriate sacrifices and ordinances for ridding oneself of impurity. 4) The Day of Atonement (ch. 16). 5 ) Laws dealing with the conduct of God's people (17-20). These include various religious and ethical laws designed to accent the separation between Israel and the heathen nations. 6) Laws concerning the holiness of the priests (21-22). 7 ) A discussion of holy days and feasts (23-24). Included in this section are the Sabbath, Passover, the feasts of first fruits and harvest, Pentecost, the Day of Atonement and the feast of Tabernacles. 8 ) The Sabbatical and Jubilee Years (ch. 25). 9 ) Promises and threats connected with obedience to the laws (ch. 26). 10) An appendix containing the laws concerning vows (ch. 27).
http://www.bible-history.com/old-testament/bookofleviticus.html


Theme of the Book of Leviticus Theme - God's Laws for the Hebrew Nation
http://www.bible-history.com/old-testament/bookofleviticus.html


Type of jesus in the Book of Leviticus Types and Shadows - In Leviticus Jesus is the High Priest
http://www.bible-history.com/old-testament/bookofleviticus.html


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