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July 23    Scripture

Bible Animals: Leviathon
Leviathon in the Ancient World

Leviathan in Easton's Bible Dictionary a transliterated Hebrew word (livyathan), meaning "twisted," "coiled." In Job 3:8, Revised Version, and marg. of Authorized Version, it denotes the dragon which, according to Eastern tradition, is an enemy of light; in 41:1 the crocodile is meant; in Ps. 104:26 it "denotes any large animal that moves by writhing or wriggling the body, the whale, the monsters of the deep." This word is also used figuratively for a cruel enemy, as some think "the Egyptian host, crushed by the divine power, and cast on the shores of the Red Sea" (Ps. 74:14). As used in Isa. 27:1, "leviathan the piercing [R.V. 'swift'] serpent, even leviathan that crooked [R.V. marg. 'winding'] serpent," the word may probably denote the two empires, the Assyrian and the Babylonian.
http://www.bible-history.com/eastons/L/Leviathan/


Leviathan in Fausset's Bible Dictionary From lewy "joined" (referring to its joined, plate armour like scales) and than a monster drawn out, i.e. long; or else Arabic lavah "to twist." So Job 41:15-17. The crocodile. The whale having a smooth skin and no scales cannot be meant. The crocodile's teeth, 30 on each side of each jaw, lock into each other. Lips are wanting, so that the teeth are seen even when the mouth is closed, illustrating Job 41:14, "who can open the doors of his face? his teeth are terrible round about." As behemoth is the hippopotamus, so leviathan is the crocodile, both found in Egypt along the Nile. The term elsewhere is used for any large monster of the "sea" or water. Psalm 104:26; Psalm 74:13-14; "Thou breakest the heads of leviathan in pieces, and gavest him to be meat to the people inhabiting the wilderness." The king of Egypt is symbolized by the "dragons" and "leviathan" (compare Ezekiel 32:2; Ezekiel 29:3); he and his host at their overthrow in the Red Sea became a spoil to Israel (compare "bread for us," Numbers 14:9) "in the wilderness." The context shows that it is the benefits of God to Israel that are here recounted. In Job 3:8 translated "let them curse it (my day of birth) ... who are ready to raise up a leviathan," i.e. necromancers who rouse and control wild beasts at will (compare Psalm 58:5). In Isaiah 27:1, "leviathan the piercing serpent, even leviathan that crooked (wriggling) serpent," "the dragon in the sea," literally refers to the crocodile in the sea or Nile, or else to the great rock snakes. Spiritually every foe of Israel and the church. Antitypically and finally Satan "the dragon, that old serpent, which is the devil" (Revelation 20:2; Revelation 20:10), whom finally "Jehovah with His sore, great, and strong sword shall punish." For" piercing" (bariach) translated "darting from side to side." Foiled on one side he tries to gain on the other side (Job 26:13; 2 Corinthians 11:14; 2 Corinthians 2:11). Typhon, the destroyer, was worshipped in Egypt under the form of a crocodile.
http://www.bible-history.com/faussets/L/Leviathan/


Leviathan in Naves Topical Bible -Possibly a crocodile Job 41; Ps 104:26 -"The crooked (R. V.) serpent." Isa 27:1 -FIGURATIVE Ps 74:14
http://www.bible-history.com/naves/L/LEVIATHAN/


Leviathan in Smiths Bible Dictionary (jointed monster) occurs five times in the text of the Authorized Version, and once in the margin of Job 3:8 where the text has "mourning." In the Hebrew Bible the word livyathan, which is, with the foregoing exception, always left untranslated in the Authorized Version, is found only in the following passages: Job 3:8; 41:1; Ps 74:14; 104:26; Isa 27:1 In the margin of Job 3:8 and text of Job 41:1 the crocodile is most clearly the animal denoted by the Hebrew word. Ps 74:14 also clearly points to this same saurian. The context of Ps 104:26 seems to show that in this passage the name represents some animal of the whale tribe, which is common in the Mediterranean; but it is somewhat uncertain what animal is denoted in Isa 27:1 As the term leviathan is evidently used in no limited sense, it is not improbable that the "leviathan the piercing serpent," or "leviathan the crooked serpent," may denote some species of the great rock-snakes which are common in south and west Africa.
http://www.bible-history.com/smiths/L/Leviathan/


Leviathan in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE le-vi'-a-than (liwyathan (Job 41:1-34), from [~lawah, "to fold"; compare Arabic name of the wry neck, Iynx torquilla, abu-luwa, from kindred lawa, "to bend"): (1) The word "leviathan" also occurs in Isa 27:1, where it is characterized as "the swift serpent .... the crooked serpent"; in Ps 104:26, where a marine monster is indicated; also in Ps 74:14 and Job 3:8. The description in Job 41 has been thought by some to refer to the whale, but while the whale suits better the expressions denoting great strength, the words apply best on the whole to the crocodile. Moreover, the whale is very seldom found in the Mediterranean, while the crocodile is abundant in the Nile, and has been known to occur in at least one river of Israel, the Zarqa, North of Jaffa. For a discussion of the behemoth and leviathan as mythical creatures, see EB, under the word "Behemoth" and "Leviathan." The points in the description which may well apply to the crocodile are the great invulnerability, the strong and close scales, the limbs and the teeth. It must be admitted that there are many expressions which a modern scientist would not use with reference to the crocodile, but the Book of Job is neither modern nor scientific, but poetical and ancient. (2) See ASTRONOMY, sec. II, 2, 5. Alfred Ely Day
http://www.bible-history.com/isbe/L/LEVIATHAN/


Leviathan in Wikipedia Leviathan. The word Leviathan (Hebrew, lweythn), which occurs six times in the Hebrew Bible, seems to have puzzled not a little all ancient translators. The D.V. has kept this name, Job, iii, 8; xl, 20; Is., xxvii, 1; it is rendered by dragon Ps. lxxiii (Hebr., lxxiv), 14, and ciii (Hebr., civ), 26; The word leviathan means: (1) crocodile (Job 40:20 and Psalm 73:14); (2) a sea-monster (Psalm 103:26, Isaiah 27:1); (3) possibly the Draco constellation (Job 3:8). (4) a Dinosaur, possibly the Kronosaurus.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leviathan


Leviathan Scripture - Job 41:1 Canst thou draw out leviathan with an hook? or his tongue with a cord [which] thou lettest down?
http://www.bible-history.com/kjv/Job/41/


Leviathan Scripture - Psalms 104:26 There go the ships: [there is] that leviathan, [whom] thou hast made to play therein.
http://www.bible-history.com/kjv/Psalms/104/


Leviathan Scripture - Psalms 74:14 Thou brakest the heads of leviathan in pieces, [and] gavest him [to be] meat to the people inhabiting the wilderness.
http://www.bible-history.com/kjv/Psalms/74/


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