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March 25    Scripture

Bible Animals: Goat
Goat in the ancient World.

Goats in the Bible. Important in the hilly countries of the East. Goats were used for sacrifice ; the milk and flesh were staple articles of food ; the hair was woven into fabrics ; and the skin was made into garments and water bottles. Wild Goat Capra ibex. Still found, especially in the region of the Dead Sea. - Animal Life in the Scriptures

Ancient Goat. ONE kind of Goat wandering in the pastures of Syria and Canaan differs little from the species with which we are familiar ; but there is another, remarkable for the length of its ears. These goats yield a-considerable quantity of milk ; and chiefly for this they have been, and are still, kept by the people. A kid of the goats is considered a great delicacy. The hair of the goat is of two kinds. One is long and coarse ; the other, growing under the former, is almost equal to silk in fineness. The coarsest hair was probably employed by Jacob in the fraud by which he won the blessing of his father. It was easy for Isaac, whose sight was almost gone, to be deceived thus by his touch. - Animals, Birds, Insects, And Reptiles Of The Bible


Goat in Easton's Bible Dictionary (1.) Heb. 'ez, the she-goat (Gen. 15:9; 30:35; 31:38). This Hebrew word is also used for the he-goat (Ex. 12:5; Lev. 4:23; Num. 28:15), and to denote a kid (Gen. 38:17, 20). Hence it may be regarded as the generic name of the animal as domesticated. It literally means "strength," and points to the superior strength of the goat as compared with the sheep. (2.) Heb. 'attud, only in plural; rendered "rams" (Gen. 31:10,12); he-goats (Num. 7:17-88; Isa. 1:11); goats (Deut. 32:14; Ps. 50:13). They were used in sacrifice (Ps. 66:15). This word is used metaphorically for princes or chiefs in Isa. 14:9, and in Zech. 10:3 as leaders. (Comp. Jer. 50:8.) (3.) Heb. gedi, properly a kid. Its flesh was a delicacy among the Hebrews (Gen. 27:9, 14, 17; Judg. 6:19). (4.) Heb. sa'ir, meaning the "shaggy," a hairy goat, a he-goat (2 Chr. 29:23); "a goat" (Lev. 4:24); "satyr" (Isa. 13:21); "devils" (Lev. 17:7). It is the goat of the sin- offering (Lev. 9:3, 15; 10:16). (5.) Heb. tsaphir, a he-goat of the goats (2 Chr. 29:21). In Dan. 8:5, 8 it is used as a symbol of the Macedonian empire. (6.) Heb. tayish, a "striker" or "butter," rendered "he-goat" (Gen. 30:35; 32:14). (7.) Heb. 'azazel (q.v.), the "scapegoat" (Lev. 16:8, 10,26). (8.) There are two Hebrew words used to denote the undomesticated goat:, _Yael_, only in plural mountain goats (1 Sam. 24:2; Job 39:1; Ps.104:18). It is derived from a word meaning "to climb." It is the ibex, which abounded in the mountainous parts of Moab. And _'akko_, only in Deut. 14:5, the wild goat. Goats are mentioned in the New Testament in Matt. 25:32,33; Heb. 9:12,13, 19; 10:4. They represent oppressors and wicked men (Ezek. 34:17; 39:18; Matt. 25:33). Several varieties of the goat were familiar to the Hebrews. They had an important place in their rural economy on account of the milk they afforded and the excellency of the flesh of the kid. They formed an important part of pastoral wealth (Gen. 31:10, 12;32:14; 1 Sam. 25:2).
http://www.bible-history.com/eastons/G/Goat/


Goat in Fausset's Bible Dictionary 1. Wild goat, yeliym, the ibex of ancient Moab. 2. The goat deer, or else gazelle, aqow. 3. The atuwd, "he goat", the leader of the flock; hence the chief ones of the earth, leaders in mighty wickedness; the ram represents headstrong wantonness and offensive lust (Isaiah 14:9; Zechariah 10:3; compare Matthew 25:32-33; Ezekiel 34:17). As the word "shepherds" describes what they ought to have been, so "he goats" what they were; heading the flock, they were foremost in sin, so they shall be foremost in punishment. In Song of Solomon 4:1 the hair of the bride is said to be "as a flock of goats that appear from mount Gilead," alluding to the fine silky hair of some breeds of goat, the angora and others. Amos (Amos 3:12) speaks of a shepherd "taking out of the mouth of the lion a piece of an ear," alluding to the long pendulous ears of the Syrian breed. In Proverbs 30:31 a he goat is mentioned as one of the "four things comely in going," in allusion to the stately march of the leader of the flock. 4. Sair, the goat of the sin-offering (Leviticus 9:3), "the rough hairy goat" (Daniel 8:21). Sa'ir is used of devils (Leviticus 17:7), "the evil spirits of the desert" (Isaiah 13:21; Isaiah 34:14). 5. Azazeel, "the scape-goat" (Leviticus 16:8; Leviticus 16:10; Leviticus 16:26 margin) frontATONEMENT, DAY OF.) The "he goat" represented Graeco-Macedonia; Caranus, the first king of Macedon, was in legend led by goats to Edessa, his capital, which he named "the goat city." The one-horned goat is on coins of Archclaus king of Macedon, and a pilaster of Persepolis. So Daniel 8:5.
http://www.bible-history.com/faussets/G/Goat/


Goat in Naves Topical Bible -Designated as one of the ceremonially clean animals to be eaten De 14:4; with Le 11:1-8 -Used for food Ge 27:9; 1Sa 16:20 -For the paschal feast Ex 12:5; 2Ch 35:7 -As a sacrifice by Abraham Ge 15:9 -By Gideon Jud 6:19 -Manoah Jud 13:19 -Milk of, used for food Pr 27:27 -Hair of, used for clothing Nu 31:20 -Pillows 1Sa 19:13 -Curtains of the tabernacle Ex 26:7; 35:23; 36:14 -Used for tents See TABERNACLES -Regulations of Mosaic law required that a baby goat should not be killed for food before it was eight days old Le 22:27 -Nor seethed in its mother's milk Ex 23:19 -Numerous De 32:14; So 4:1; 6:5; 1Sa 25:2; 2Ch 17:11 -Wild, in Palestine 1Sa 24:2; Ps 104:18
http://www.bible-history.com/naves/G/GOAT/


Goat in Smiths Bible Dictionary There appear to be two or three varieties of the common goat, Hircus agagrus, at present bred in Israel and Syria, but whether they are identical with those which were reared by the ancient Hebrews it is not possible to say. The most marked varieties are the Syrian goat(Capra mammorica, Linn.) and the Angora goat (Capra angorensis, Linn.), with fine long hair. As to the "wild goats," 1Sa 24:2; Job 39:1; Ps 104:18 it is not at all improbable that some species of ibex is denoted.
http://www.bible-history.com/smiths/G/Goat/


Goat in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE got: 1. Names: The common generic word for "goat" is `ez (compare Arabic `anz, "she-goat"; aix), used often for "she-goat" (Gen 15:9; Nu 15:27), also with gedhi, "kid," as gedhi `izzim, "kid of the goats" (Gen 38:17), also with sa`ir, "he-goat," as se`ir `izzim, "kid of the goats" or "he-goat," or translated simply "kids," as in 1 Ki 20:27, "The children of Israel encamped before them like two little flocks of kids." Next, frequently used is sa`ir, literally, "hairy" (compare Arabic sha`r, "hair"; cher, "hedgehog"; Latin hircus, "goat"; hirtus, "hairy"; also German Haar; English "hair"), like `ez and `attudh used of goats for offerings. The goat which is sent into the wilderness bearing the sins of the people is sa`ir (Lev 16:7-22). The same name is used of devils (Lev 17:7; 2 Ch 11:15, the Revised Version (British and American) "he-goats") and of satyrs (Isa 13:21; 34:14, the Revised Version, margin "he-goats," the American Standard Revised Version "wild goats"). Compare also se`irath `izzim, "a female from the flock" (Lev 4:28; 5:6). The male or leader of the flock is `attudh; Arabic `atud, "yearling he-goat"; figuratively "chief ones" (Isa 14:9; compare Jer 50:8). A later word for "he-goat," used also figuratively, is tsaphir (2 Ch 29:21; Ezr 8:35; Dan 8:5,8,21). In Prov 30:31, one of the four things "which are stately in going" is the he-goat, tayish (Arabic tais, "he-goat"), also mentioned in Gen 30:35; 32:14 among the possessions of Laban and Jacob, and in 2 Ch 17:11 among the animals given as tribute by the Arabians to Jehoshaphat. In Heb 9:12,13,19; 10:4, we have tragos, the ordinary Greek word for "goat"; in Mt 25:32,33, eriphos, and its diminutive eriphion; in Heb 11:37 derma aigeion, "goatskin," from aix (see supra). "Kid" is gedhi (compare En-gedi (1 Sam 23:29), etc.), feminine gedhiyah (Song 1:8), but also `ez, gedhi `izzim, se'-ir `izzim, se`ir `izzim, se`irath `izzim, bene `izzim, and eriphos. There remain ya`el (1 Sam 24:2; Job 39:1; Ps 104:18), English Versions of the Bible "wild goat"; ya`alah (Prov 5:19), the King James Version "roe," the Revised Version (British and American) "doe"; 'aqqo (Dt 14:5), English Versions of the Bible "wild goat"; and zemer (Dt 14:5), English Versions of the Bible "chamois."...
http://www.bible-history.com/isbe/G/GOAT/


Goat in Wikipedia Goat. Though the sacred writers spoke of the ewe more frequently than of the goat, yet with the latter they were very well acquainted. It was indeed, especially in the hilly regions east of the Jordan, an important item in the wealth of the Israelites. The goat of Israel, particularly the capra membrica, affords numerous illustrations and allusions, Its remarkably long ears are referred to by Amos, iii, 12; its glossy dark hair furnishes a graphic comparison to the author of Cant., iv, 1; vi, 4; this hair was woven into a strong cloth; the skin tanned with the hair on served to make bottles for milk, wine, oil, water, etc. The kid was an almost essential part of a feast. The goat is mentioned in Dan., viii, 5, as the symbol of the Macedonian empire. The grand Gospel scene of the separation of the just and the wicked on the last day is borrowed from the customs of the shepherds in the East.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goat


Goat Scripture - Leviticus 16:15 Then shall he kill the goat of the sin offering, that [is] for the people, and bring his blood within the vail, and do with that blood as he did with the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it upon the mercy seat, and before the mercy seat:
http://www.bible-history.com/kjv/Leviticus/16/


Goat Scripture - Numbers 18:17 But the firstling of a cow, or the firstling of a sheep, or the firstling of a goat, thou shalt not redeem; they [are] holy: thou shalt sprinkle their blood upon the altar, and shalt burn their fat [for] an offering made by fire, for a sweet savour unto the LORD.
http://www.bible-history.com/kjv/Numbers/18/


Goat Scripture - Numbers 29:22 And one goat [for] a sin offering; beside the continual burnt offering, and his meat offering, and his drink offering.
http://www.bible-history.com/kjv/Numbers/29/


Wild Goat in Wikipedia Goat, Wild, Job, xxxix, 1; I K., xxiv, 3, where it is an equivalent for y' l, translated, Ps., ciii (Hebr., Civ), 18, by hart, Prov., v, 19, by fawn, is most probably the ibex syriacus, a denizen of the rocky summits [Ps. ciii (Hebr., civ), 18]. It was regarded as a model of grace (Proverbs 5:19), and its name, Jahel, Jahala, was frequently given to persons (Judges 5:6; Ezra 2:56, etc.).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wild_Goat


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