Bible Cities: Lebanon Mountains
Lebanon in Hitchcock's Bible Names
Lebanon Mountains in Easton's Bible Dictionary
white, "the white mountain of Syria," is the loftiest and
celebrated mountain range in Syria. It is a branch
southward from the Caucasus, and at its lower end
two parallel ranges, the eastern or Anti-Lebanon,
western or Lebanon proper. They enclose a long
11:17) of from 5 to 8 miles in width, called by
Coele-Syria, now called el-Buka'a, "the valley," a
of the valley of the Jordan.
Lebanon proper, Jebel es-Sharki, commences at its
extremity in the gorge of the Leontes, the ancient
extends north-east, parallel to the Mediterranean
coast, as far
as the river Eleutherus, at the plain of Emesa, "the
Hamath" (Num. 34:8; 1 Kings 8:65), in all about 90
miles in extent. The average height of this range is
to 8,000 feet; the peak of Jebel Mukhmel is about
and the Sannin about 9,000. The highest peaks are
perpetual snow and ice. In the recesses of the range
as of old still abound (2 Kings 14:9; Cant. 4:8).
The scenes of
the Lebanon are remarkable for their grandeur and
supplied the sacred writers with many expressive
29:5, 6; 72:16; 104:16-18; Cant. 4:15; Isa. 2:13;
Hos. 14:5). It is famous for its cedars (Cant.
5:15), its wines
(Hos. 14:7), and its cool waters (Jer. 18:14). The
inhabitants were Giblites and Hivites (Josh. 13:5;
It was part of the Phoenician kingdom (1 Kings 5:2-
The eastern range, or Anti-Lebanon, or "Lebanon
sunrising," runs nearly parallel with the western
from the plain
of Emesa till it connects with the hills of Galilee
south. The height of this range is about 5,000 feet.
peak is Hermon (q.v.), from which a number of lesser
Lebanon is first mentioned in the description of the
of Israel (Deut. 1:7; 11:24). It was assigned to
was never conquered (Josh. 13:2-6; Judg. 3:1-3).
The Lebanon range is now inhabited by a population
300,000 Christians, Maronites, and Druses, and is
ruled by a
Christian governor. The Anti-Lebanon is inhabited by
Mohammedans, and is under a Turkish ruler.
Lebanon Mountains in Fausset's Bible Dictionary
"exceeding white", namely, with snow, as Mont Blanc. In
Hebrew Lebanon, related to "alp". The double mountain range
N. of Israel, running in parallel lines from S.W. to
N.E., having between the fertile valley anciently called
Coelosyria, now El Beka'a (where are the grand ruins of the
temple of the sun), about six or seven miles wide, "the
valley of Lebanon" (Joshua 11:17). The range is about 80
miles long, 15 broad. It forms the northern head of the
Jordan valley and the southern head of the Orontes valley.
(See HAMATH.) The western range is the region of the Hivites
and Giblites (Joshua 13:5; Judges 3:3). (See GIBLITES.) The
eastern range was Antilibanus, or "Lebanon toward the
sunrising." The wady et Teim separates the southern part of
Antilibanus from Lebanon and also from the Galilee hills.
The river Leontes (Litany) sweeps round its southern end,
and drains Coelo-Syria, falling into the Mediterranean five
miles N. of Tyre.
Lebanon runs parallel to the coast in the plain of
Emesa opening from the Mediterranean, in Scripture "the
entering in (i.e. entrance) of Hamath" (1 Kings 8:75). The
river Eleutherus (nahr el Kebir) here sweeps round its
northern end. The average height is 7,000 ft. But one peak,
Dhor el Khodib, N. of the cedars, is 10,051 ft.; and Hermon
in Antilebanon is 10,125 ft.. Lebanon is of grey limestone,
with belts of recent sandstone along the western slopes.
Eastward in the glens of Antilibanus flow toward Damascus
Abana (Barada) and Pharpar (nahr el Awaj). All that now
represents Hiram's cedar forests is the cluster called "the
cedars," 6,172 ft. above the sea, in the center of the vast
recess or semicircle formed by the highest summits of
Lebanon above the deep valley of the sacred river Kadisha.
frontCEDARS.) Odorous flowers and aromatic shrubs and vines
still yield" the smell of Lebanon" wafted by the mountain
breeze (Song of Solomon 4:11).
The line of cultivation runs at the height of 6,000
ft. Every available space is utilized for figtrees, vines,
mulberry trees, and olives. Numerous villages nestle amidst
the rocks. The trees striking their roots into the fissures
of rocks illustrate Hosea 14:5, "Israel shall strike forth
his roots as Lebanon." Lebanon is a delightful retreat from
the sultry heat of the plains and of Israel, cooled as it
is by the snows which crown its peaks. Jeremiah (Jeremiah
18:14) asks, "will a man leave the snow of Lebanon which
cometh from the rock of the field (a poetical name for
Lebanon towering above the surrounding plain)? Or shall the
cold flowing waters that come from another place (from the
distant rocks) be forsaken?" None. Yet Israel forsakes
Jehovah the living fountain, ever near, for broken cisterns.
Hyaenas, panthers, jackals, wolves, and bears still haunt
its glens and peaks (compare Song of Solomon 4:8; 2 Kings
The river Adonis (nahr Ibrahim) springs from a cave
beneath the high peak Sunnin. The plain of Phoenicia, two
miles wide, runs at the base of Lebanon between it and the
sea. The eastern slopes are less abrupt and fertile than the
western. Maronite Christians people the northern part of the
range; Druses abound more in the southern. Lebanon was
assigned to Israel, but never conquered (Joshua 13:2-6;
Judges 3:1-3). It was under the Phoenicians in Solomon's
time and subsequently (1 Kings 5:2-6; Ezra 3:7). Antilibanus
is less peopled than Lebanon, and has more wild beasts: Song
of Solomon 4:8, "look from the top of Amana, from ... Shenir
and Hermon ... the lions' den ... the mountains of the
leopards," referring to the two higher peaks, Hermon, and
that near the fountain of Abana, where panthers still are
found. "The tower of Lebanon which looketh toward Damascus"
is Hermon (Song of Solomon 7:4).
Lebanon Mountains in Naves Topical Bible
(A mountain range)
-Northern boundary of the land of Canaan
De 1:7; 3:25; 11:24; Jos 1:4; 9:1
-Early inhabitants of
Jud 9:15; 2Ki 19:23; 2Ch 2:8; Ps 29:5; 104:16; Isa
14:8; Eze 27:5
-Other trees of
2Ki 19:23; 2Ch 2:8
-Fertility and productiveness of
-"House of the forest of,"
Jos 11:17; 12:7
-Solomon had storage cities in
Isa 29:17; Jer 22:6
Lebanon Mountains in Smiths Bible Dictionary
a mountain range in the north of Israel. The name
Lebanon signifies white, and was applied either on account
of snow which, during a great part of the year, cover its
whole summit, or on account of the white color of its
limestone cliffs and peaks. It is the "white mountain" --the
Mont Blane of Israel. Lebanon is represented in Scripture
as lying upon the northern border of the land of Israel. De
1:7; 11:24; Jos 1:4 Two distinct ranges bear this name. They
run in parallel lines from southwest to northeast for about
90 geographical miles, enclosing between them a long,
fertile valley from five to eight miles wide, anciently
called Coele-Syria. The western range is the "Libanus" of
the old geographers and the Lebanon of Scripture. The
eastern range was called "Anti-Libanus" by geographers, and
"Lebanon toward the sunrising" by the sacred writers. Jos
1. Lebanon --the western range-- commences on the
south of the deep ravine of the Litany, the ancient river
Leontes, which drains the valley of Cole-Syria, and falls
into the Mediterranean five miles north of Tyre. It runs
northeast in a straight line parallel to the coast, to the
opening from the Mediterranean into the plain of Emesa,
called in Scripture the "entrance of Hamath." Nu 34:8 Here
Nehr el-Kebir --the ancient river Eleutherus-- sweeps round
its northern end, as the Leontes does round its southern.
The average elevation of the range is from 6000 to 8000
feet; but two peaks rise considerably higher. On the summits
of both these peaks the snow remains in patches during the
whole summer. The line of cultivation runs along at the
height of about 6000 feet; and below this the features of
the western slopes are entirely different. The rugged
limestone banks are scantily clothed with the evergreen oak,
and the sandstone with pines; while every available spot is
carefully cultivated. The cultivation is wonderful, and
shows what all Syria might be if under a good government.
Fig trees cling to the naked rock; vines are trained along
narrow ledges; long ranges of mulberries, on terraces like
steps of stairs, cover the more gentle declivities; and
dense groves of olives fill up the bottoms of the glens.
Hundreds of villages are seen-- here built among labyrinths
of rocks, there clinging like among labyrinths of rocks,
there clinging like swallows' nests to the sides of cliffs;
while convents, no less numerous, are perched on the top of
every peak. The vine is still largely cultivated in every
part of the mountain. Lebanon also abounds in olives, figs
and mulberries; while some remnants exist of the forests of
pine, oak and cedar which formerly covered it. 1Ki 5:6; Ezr
3:7; Ps 29:5; Isa 14:8 Considerable numbers of wild beasts
still inhabit its retired glens and higher peaks; the writer
has seen jackals, hyaenas, wolves, bears and panthers. 2Ki
14:9; So 4:8; Habb 2:17
Along the base of Lebanon runs the irregular plain
of Phoenicia --nowhere more than two miles...
Lebanon Mountains in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE
leb'-a-non (lebanon; Septuagint Libanos; Vulgate (Jerome's
Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) Libanus):
Derived from the root labhen, "to be white," probably from
the snow which covers its summits the greater part of the
year. "White mountains" are found in almost every country.
The light color of the upper limestone may, however, form a
sufficient reason for the name. In prose the article is
usually connected with the name. In poetry it is more often
without the article. In the Septuagint, however, the article
is generally present both in prose and poetry.
2. General Description:
The Lebanon range proper borders the east coast of the
Mediterranean, for a distance of 100 miles, running North-
Northeast and South-Southwest from the mouth of the Litany
river, the classic Leontes (which enters the sea a little
North of Tyre), to the mouth of the Eleuthurus (Nahr el-
Kebir), a few miles North of Tripolis. This river comes
through a depression between Lebanon and the Nuseiriyeh
mountains, known as "the entrance to Hamath," and connects
with a caravan route to the Euphrates through Palmyra. For a
considerable distance North of the Litany, the mountain
summits average from 4,000 to 6,000 ft. in height, and the
range is more or less dissected by short streams which enter
the Mediterranean. Most prominent of these is the Nahr ez-
Zaherany, which, after running 25 or 30 miles in a southerly
direction through the center of the range, like the Litany,
turns abruptly West opposite Mt. Hermon, reaching the sea
between Tyre and Sidon. In roughly parallel courses Nahr el-
`Awleh and Nahr Damur descend to the sea between Sidon and
Beyrout, and Nahr Beyrout just North of the city. Throughout
this district the mountain recesses are more or less wooded.
Opposite Beyrout the range rises in Jebel Sannin to an
elevation of 8,560 ft. Thirty miles farther Northeast the
summit is reached in Jebel Mukhmal, at an elevation of
10,225 ft., with several others of nearly the same height.
An amphitheater here opens to the West, in which is
sheltered the most frequented cedar grove, and from which
emerges the Nahr Qadisha ("sacred stream") which enters the
Mediterranean at Tripolis. Snow is found upon these summits
throughout the year (Jer 18:14), while formerly the level
area between them furnished the snow fields from which a
glacier descended several miles into the headwaters of the
Qadisha, reaching a level of about 5,000 ft. The glacier
deposited in this amphitheater a terminal moraine covering
several square miles, which at its front, near Bsherreh, is
1,000 ft. in thickness. It is on this that the grove of
cedars referred to is growing.
The view from this summit reveals the geographical features
of the region in a most satisfactory manner. Toward the East
lies Coele-Syria (the modern Buka), 7,000 ft. below the
summit, bordered on the eastern side...
Lebanon Mountains Scripture - 1 Kings 5:6
Now therefore command thou that they hew me cedar trees out of
Lebanon; and my servants shall be with thy servants: and unto
thee will I give hire for thy servants according to all that
thou shalt appoint: for thou knowest that [there is] not among
us any that can skill to hew timber like unto the Sidonians.
Lebanon Mountains Scripture - 1 Kings 5:9
My servants shall bring [them] down from Lebanon unto the sea:
and I will convey them by sea in floats unto the place that
thou shalt appoint me, and will cause them to be discharged
there, and thou shalt receive [them]: and thou shalt
accomplish my desire, in giving food for my household.
Lebanon Mountains Scripture - 1 Kings 7:2
He built also the house of the forest of Lebanon; the length
thereof [was] an hundred cubits, and the breadth thereof fifty
cubits, and the height thereof thirty cubits, upon four rows
of cedar pillars, with cedar beams upon the pillars.
Lebanon Mountains Scripture - 1 Kings 9:19
And all the cities of store that Solomon had, and cities for
his chariots, and cities for his horsemen, and that which
Solomon desired to build in Jerusalem, and in Lebanon, and in
all the land of his dominion.
Lebanon Mountains Scripture - 2 Chronicles 9:20
And all the drinking vessels of king Solomon [were of] gold,
and all the vessels of the house of the forest of Lebanon
[were of] pure gold: none [were of] silver; it was [not] any
thing accounted of in the days of Solomon.
Lebanon Mountains Scripture - 2 Kings 19:23
By thy messengers thou hast reproached the Lord, and hast
said, With the multitude of my chariots I am come up to the
height of the mountains, to the sides of Lebanon, and will cut
down the tall cedar trees thereof, [and] the choice fir trees
thereof: and I will enter into the lodgings of his borders,
[and into] the forest of his Carmel.
Lebanon Mountains Scripture - Isaiah 29:17
[Is] it not yet a very little while, and Lebanon shall be
turned into a fruitful field, and the fruitful field shall be
esteemed as a forest?
Lebanon Mountains Scripture - Isaiah 37:24
By thy servants hast thou reproached the Lord, and hast said,
By the multitude of my chariots am I come up to the height of
the mountains, to the sides of Lebanon; and I will cut down
the tall cedars thereof, [and] the choice fir trees thereof:
and I will enter into the height of his border, [and] the
forest of his Carmel.
Lebanon Mountains Scripture - Joshua 12:7
And these [are] the kings of the country which Joshua and the
children of Israel smote on this side Jordan on the west, from
Baalgad in the valley of Lebanon even unto the mount Halak,
that goeth up to Seir; which Joshua gave unto the tribes of
Israel [for] a possession according to their divisions;
Lebanon Mountains Scripture - Psalms 29:5
The voice of the LORD breaketh the cedars; yea, the LORD
breaketh the cedars of Lebanon.
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