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Archaeology: Jerusalem
Images of selected sites in Jerusalem.

1st Cent. AD Shipwreck and the Lead Ingots Josephus wrote his composition referring to Sebastosas an intact, properly operating complex, it appears that the placement and date of the wreck indicates the harbor's. The most surprising items recovered from this site are a group of lead ingots (Photo of Lead Ingots); all are of the same mold and are undoubtedly from the wrecked vessel. Two of these ingots still retain their original form and imprinted markings, including the imperial imprint on their crest, which can easily be read as: IMP.DOMIT.CAESARIS.AUG.GER. [Articles of Interest] [Caesarea] [Archaeology]
http://park.org/Canada/Museum/caesarea/leadingo.html

A tale of King Herod, concrete and a sunken harbor Although precisely how and when portions of the ancient harbor of Caesarea Maritima sank beneath the sea is still the subject of scholarly dispute, it is clear that the underwater ruins are a boon for maritime archeologists and historians. [Articles of Interest] [Caesarea] [Archaeology]
http://whyfiles.org/036pirates/cement.html

Artist's Conception of City of David Virtual tour to the City of David. The City of David is located on the Ophel hill, a hill sloping southward from the southeastern side of the Temple Mount. Today the Ophel is an archaeological garden, open to the public for study tours. Extensive excavations in this area, carried out since 1968, cut through about 2,500 years of history and include some 25 layers. Important finds from the First (960 - 587 BCE) and Second Temple periods (515 BCE - 70 CE), Roman times (63 BCE - 324 CE), the Byzantine era (324 - 638) and the early Muslim period (7th C.) show how the city's successive rulers used the remains of their predecessors' structures for their own buildings. Four additional biblical sites are located in this area: the Gihon Spring, Warren's Shaft, Hezekiah's Tunnel, and the Pool of Siloam. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.cityofdavid.org.il/hp_eng.asp

Church of All Nations at Foot of Mount of Olives The Church of All Nations ('The Basilica of the Agony") is situated at the foot of the Mount of Olives, the site of a Jewish cemetery in use since ancient times. The church was built in the early 1920s on the remains of a 5th century Byzantine structure and a later Crusader church. Designed by the Italian architect Antonio Barluzzi, the basilica features twelve cupolas, each representing one of the twelve sponsoring nations. The Rock of the agony where, according to Christian tradition, Jesus knelt to pray, is the central feature of the basilica. Much of the original Byzantine mosaic pavement has been preserved and foundations of the Crusader church can be seen in the garden among the ancient olive trees. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/jerusalem-church-of-all-nations.htm

Church of the Holy Sepulchre This is the holiest Christian site in Jerusalem. The church was first built in the 4th century by Emperor Constantine's mother Helena over the site of a Roman pagan temple to Venus. The present building is Crusader (12th century) and contains the last five stations of the cross. The church is divided among several denominations, each responsible for its own section. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.bibleplaces.com/holysepulcher.htm

Church of the Holy Sepulchre (article) The Church of the Holy Sepulchre is located in the northwest quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem. It is believed to be built on the site of the tomb where Jesus was buried and resurrected in 33 AD. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/jerusalem-church-of-holy-sepulchre.htm

Dome of the Rock The third most important shrine in Islam, built in 683 C.E. by Ommayad Caliph Abd El-Malik Ibn Marwan. Built on Mount Moriah and named after the large rock inside the mosque where, according to tradition, Isaac was prepared for sacrifice, and from where Mohammed rose to heaven. The rock is also considered the foundation stone of the Temple. Below is found "The Cave of the Prophets." [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/jerusalem-dome-of-the-rock.htm

Dome of the Rock (article) The third most important shrine in Islam, built in 683 C.E. by Ommayad Caliph Abd El-Malik Ibn Marwan. Built on Mount Moriah and named after the large rock inside the mosque where, according to tradition, Isaac was prepared for sacrifice, and from where Mohammed rose to heaven. The rock is also considered the foundation stone of the Temple. Below is found "The Cave of the Prophets." Mauriah Conway [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.sacredsites.com/middle_east/israel/jerusalem.html

Dung Gate The Dung Gate is mentioned in the book of Nehemiah as a dispatch point for the city's refuse. It would appear that it was through this gate that the refuse was removed from the city. Notice the Western Wall just above the Dung Gate and the Temple Mount in the background. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.jerusalemite.net/guides/1644/dung-gate

Excavations in the City of David The City of David is located on the Ophel hill, a hill sloping southward from the southeastern side of the Temple Mount. Today the Ophel is an archaeological garden, open to the public for study tours. Extensive excavations in this area, carried out since 1968, cut through about 2,500 years of history and include some 25 layers. Important finds from the First (960 - 587 BCE) and Second Temple periods (515 BCE - 70 CE), Roman times (63 BCE - 324 CE), the Byzantine era (324 - 638) and the early Muslim period (7th C.) show how the city's successive rulers used the remains of their predecessors' structures for their own buildings. Four additional biblical sites are located in this area: the Gihon Spring, Warren's Shaft, Hezekiah's Tunnel, and the Pool of Siloam. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.ucgstp.org/lit/gn/gn005/gn005f01.htm

Garden Tomb The Garden Tomb is part of "Skull Hill," a rock-hewn tomb, and a tranquil garden, first identified by General Gordon in the 19th century. Some have supported it as the place of Jesus' crucifixion and burial. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.gardentomb.com/

Garden Tomb (article) In 1883, British general Charles Gordon discovered a beautiful garden tomb. A stone outcropping jutting out nearby resembled what Gordon believed Calvary must look like. The site is located along Nablus Road, just outside the walls of the Old City, northwest of the Damascus Gate. Gordon concluded that this could be the location of the crucifixion and burial of Jesus. However, its authenticity is often doubted [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/jerusalem-garden-tomb.htm

Gates of the Old City - Damascus Gate Damascus Gate The most massive and ornate of all of Jerusalem's gates. The road running off it leads to Shechem (Nablus) and then to Damascus (Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]
http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/DamaGate.jpg

Gates of the Old City - Dung Gate Dung Gate The Dung Gate is mentioned in the book of Nehemiah as a dispatch point for the city's refuse. It would appear that it was through this gate that the refuse was removed from the city (Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]
http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/DungGate.jpg

Gates of the Old City - Golden Gate Golden Gate The Mercy (Golden) Gate (Bab el Rahmeh) appears in the legends of all three religions. An early Jewish tradition holds that it is through that gate that the Messiah will enter jerusalem. According to Christian tradition, Jesus made made his last entry to Jerusalem through the Mercy Gate. The Muslims refer to it as the Gate of Mercy and believe it to be the gate referred to in the Koran, through which the just will pass on the Day of Judgment (Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]
http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/GoldGate.jpg

Gates of the Old City - Golden Gate Herod's Gate The first name was given to the gate by pilgrims, who erroneously believed that it led to Herod's palace. It is also known in Arabic as the Flower Gate (Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]
http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/HeroGate.jpg

Gates of the Old City - Jaffa Gate Jaffa Gate this gate is the principal entrance to the Old City. Its name in Arabic is Bab-el-Khalil, the gate of Hebron, as the main road to Hebron started here. It was also called Jaffa Gate because the road to Jaffa and the coast also started from it (Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]
http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/JaffGate.jpg

Gates of the Old City - Lion's Gate Lion's Gate Known in Hebrew as the Lion's Gate. Legend has it that the lions engraved on both sides of the gate were placed there by the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, because he had dreamed that he would be devoured by lions unless he built a wall around the Holy City for the defence of the citizens (Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]
http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/LionGate.jpg

Gates of the Old City - the Valley Gate (Sha'ar HaGai ) Sha'ar HaGai Nehemiah mentions that he began his trip to the city from Sha'ar HaGai. The name refers to a site on the way to Jerusalem. The Hebrew name Sha'ar HaGai is a translation of the Arabic Bab el Wad, the Valley Gate, which leads to Jerusalem (Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]
http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/ShaHagai.jpg

Gates of the Old City - Zion Gate Zion Gate The western gate of the Old City, named after Mount Zion. In Arabic it is known as "the Prophet David's Gate", because one passes through King David's tomb on Mount Zion(Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]
http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/ZionGate.jpg

Hezekiah's Tunnel The most magnificent waterworks of ancient Jerusalem is Hezekiah's Tunnel. The tunnel is hewn inside the hill in order to protect the access to water from enemies. It channels the water from the Gihon fountainhead to the Shiloah pool, which was within the new walls of the city built by Hezekiah. King Hezekiah built the tunnel in preparation for the Assyrian siege: "This same Hezekiah also stopped the upper watercourse of Gihon, and brought it straight down to the west side of the city of David." (Chronicles II, 32;30) The external entrance to the Gihon spring was hidden: "... and many people gathered together, and they stopped up all of the fountains" (Chronicles II, 32; 4). Then the waters of the Gihon were channeled through the tunnel to the Shiloah Pool, also built by Hezekiah (Kings II, 20; 20). The pool was located outside the original fortifications of the City of David (Chronicles II, 32; 30), but within the wall that Hezekiah had built. This is the main reason for thereconstruction of the southern part of the wall. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.bibleplaces.com/heztunnel.htm

History of Plumbing in Jerusalem The Siloah Waterworks; schematic drawing. See Christopher Kidwell's page on the Gihon Spring, Hezekiah's Tunnel, and the Pool of Siloam. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.plumbingsupply.com/pmjerusalem.html

Lion's Gate Photo Known in Hebrew as the Lion's Gate. Legend has it that the lions engraved on both sides of the gate were placed there by the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, because he had dreamed that he would be devoured by lions unless he built a wall around the Holy City for the defense of the citizens. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.ianandwendy.com/slideshow/Israel/Jerusalem/Old_City_Gates/picture9.htm

Mount of Olives (article) Through the Lion's Gate in the eastern wall of Old Jerusalem and east, across the Kidron Valley, lies the Mount of Olives. Also called Olivet (Hebrew name, Har Hamishha), the Mount of Olives is not a mountain at all, but a slope blending into other slopes. Despite this, it is the tallest of the mountains and hills around Jerusalem, rising approximately 2,900 feet above sea level. Mary Beach [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.biblewalks.com/Sites/MountOlives.html

Mount of Olives--Dominus Flevit Church Christian tradition has it that after Jesus had left Bethphage on his way to Jerusalem, he passed through this place. It is on this site that the city of Jerusalem appeared to him, following a speech bemoaning the destiny of the city. This is echoed in the name of the church, which means in Latin: "The Lord Cried." This tradition traces back to Byzantine times. On constructing the new church in 1954, a large cemetery was uncovered further to the east, which dates from the age of the second Temple. In the courtyard lie sarcophagi, some of which carry inscriptions in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek, with names like Zechariyah, Jesus, Mary, and "˜Azariyah. The alter, both in the new church and in the ancient church, faced towards the west, namely the Temple mount, not towards the east as usual. The modern aspe has an arched window through which the old city and temple mount loom up. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/jerusalem-dominus-flevit-church.htm

Mount Zion - article Geographically, the mountain known as Zion is an elongated triangular plateau that forms the ridge between the Kidron valley to the east and the Tyropoean valley to the west. Rising slightly above the surounding Judean countryside and flanked to the east by a constant water supply from the Gihon spring, this mount was most likely chosen as a habitation for its natural features as a citadel. Jared Washam [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.crystalinks.com/mountzion.html

Mount Zion - General View The name "Mount Zion" now refers to the part of the western hill south of the Old City beyond Zion Gate. In the Old Testament period, the name was used for the lower eastern hill, now known as the City of David. The present Mount Zion is bordered on the west and south by the Hinnom Valley and on the east by the Tyropean Valley. Although now outside the city walls, Mt. Zion was within the city walls in the late second Temple period (2nd century B.C.E.- 70 C.E.). As the tradtional site of King David's tomb it has long been the focus of Jewish pilgrimage. The area also contains several sites sacred to Christianity: the room of the last supper (the Upper Room), the Church of St. Peter in Gallicantu, and the Dormition Abbey. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.bibleplaces.com/mtzion.htm

Old City Jerusalem Map Nice illustrative map of the old city. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.planetware.com/map/old-city-jerusalem-map-isr-oldjer_n.htm

Ophel Hill (City of David) Excavations in the Hill of Ophel. The City of David is located on the Ophel hill, a hill sloping southward from the southeastern side of the Temple Mount. Today the Ophel is an archaeological garden, open to the public for study tours. Extensive excavations in this area, carried out since 1968, cut through about 2,500 years of history and include some 25 layers. Important finds from the First (960 - 587 BCE) and Second Temple periods (515 BCE - 70 CE), Roman times (63 BCE - 324 CE), the Byzantine era (324 - 638) and the early Muslim period (7th C.) show how the city's successive rulers used the remains of their predecessors' structures for their own buildings. Four additional biblical sites are located in this area: the Gihon Spring, Warren's Shaft, Hezekiah's Tunnel, and the Pool of Siloam. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.lib.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/eos/eos_title.pl?callnum=DS111.A1P28_vol4_cop1

Pool of Bethesda The Pool of Bethesda is adjacent to St. Anne's Church. It is mentioned in the Gospel of John (5:2ff.) in conjunction with Jesus' healing of a paralyzed man. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.allaboutarchaeology.org/pool-of-bethesda-faq.htm

Sketch of Valleys, Walls, and Gates of Jerusalem The three valleys that almost surround the Old City are mentioned many times in the Bible. They are the Tyropean, Kidron, and Hinnom Valleys. The Tyropean Valley is located just to the west of the Ophel. It is difficult to see today because it has been filled in during construction and reconstruction in the Old City. The Kidron Valley is located between the Mount of Olives and the Temple Mount. All travelers coming to Jerusalem from the east pass through this valley. The Hinnom Valley is located just south of the Old City. This was the place where the city's garbage dump was located. Jesus made smbolic reference to the unfaithful being cast into "gehenna," thus using the Hinnom Valley as a symbol or example of a wasted or worthless life. The present walls of the Old City were built by the Ottoman ruler Suliman the Magnificent, between 1537-1542 C.E. The walls of the time of Jesus were further to the south than the walls of today. The Old City is divided into four sections: the Christian Quarter to the northwest, the Muslim Quarter to the northeast, the Armenian Quarter to the southwest, and the Jewish Quarter to the southeast. If you are interested in seeing images of all the gates of the Old City, see "Gates of the Old City." [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.bible-history.com/jerusalem/firstcenturyjerusalem_the_land_of_jerusalem.html

Space Radar of Jerusalem Region This space radar image shows the area surrounding the Dead Sea along the West Bank between Israel and Jordan. The yellow area at the top of the image is the city of Jericho. A portion of the Dead Sea is shown as the large black area at the top right side of the image. The Jordan River is the white line at the top of the image which flows into the Dead Sea. Jerusalem, which lies in the Judaean Hill Country, is the bright, yellowish area shown along the left center of the image. Just below and to the right of Jerusalem is the town of Bethlehem. The city of Hebron is the white, yellowish area near the bottom of the image. (The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 3, 1994 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour.) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.godweb.org/maps/134.htm

Temple Mount The Temple Mount compound, which occupies about a sixth of the territory of the Old City, is sacred to the two monotheistic religions: Judaism and Islam. The mountain is identified with the place where Isaac was sacrificed. It is here that the first and second temples were built. After the destruction of the second temple, the mountain remained desolate until the Moslem conquest in the year 638. The Muslims have constructed various sites on the mountain. Some of the more famous ones are: the gilded Dome of the Rock and El-Aqsa Mosque. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.bibleplaces.com/templemount.htm

The Ancient Wall inside today's Jewish Quarter This wide wall is located in the heart of the reconstructed Jewish quarter of today's Old City. A segment of it was left exposed in the quarter so that visitors could easily see it and gain an insight into the strength of the fortification. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.jafi.org.il/education/noar/sites/jewishqu.htm

The Garden of Gethsemane (article) The Garden of Gethsemane is located across the Kidron valley to the east of Jerusalem and on the western slope of the Mount of Olives. The word Gethsemane means "oil press" or "olive press" which leads scholars to believe that the garden was a grove of olive trees in which was located an oil press. Susan Clayton [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/christian/blxtn_jerusalem-geth.htm

The Gihon Spring In a land as dry as the Land of Israel, the main consideration in determining the location of a city or village, is its proximity to the nearest water source. The only permanent water source of ancient Jerusalem was the Gihon Spring. Its name is derived from the fact that it doesn't flow steadily, but rather in random eruptions with lapses in between them (Giha in Hebrew means eruption). The Gihon Spring is located in a cave on the eastern side of the City of David. To provide access to the water during times of siege, shafts were hewn through the rocky hillside of David's City from inside the city's walls. Warren's Shaft is such a shaft. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://dqhall59.com/gihon.htm

The Gihon Spring (another view) An early 19th century explorer, Charles Warren, discovered a tunnel leading to the Gihon Spring. Warren's Shaft seen here can be visited on a tour of the City of David, and the steps of the ancient Jerusalemites can be retraced to the well. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.jerusalem.muni.il/jer_sys/picture/atarim/site_form_atar_eng.asp?site_id=71&pic_cat=4&icon_cat=6&york_cat=9

The Gihon Spring, Hezekiah's Tunnel, and the Pool of Siloam Hezekiah's water tunnel in Jerusalem, the Gihon Spring, and the Pool of Siloam. The Gihon Spring was a primary water source for the ancient city of Jerusalem. When the king of Assyria (Sennacherib) was making war against Judah (Isaiah 36:1), and it was clear that Jersualem would likely be attacked as well, Hezekiah (king of Judah) fortified the city including the spring. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]
http://www.bibleistrue.com/qna/pqna21.htm

The Growth of Jerusalem (map) Over time, the Judean capital city of Jerusalem grew and expanded well beyond the small boundaries of the City of David. At first, the Temple Mount was an addition to the city and was, apparently, fortified in some way (which still remains unknown). Later, the process of expansion "beyond the walls" occured after the population continued to increase. The Bible mentions the names of residential neighborhoods outside the City of David, such as Mishneh (Kings II 22;14) and Makhtesh (Zephania 1;11). The main growth in population occurred around 721 C.E., when the Northern Israelite kingdom of Israel was destroyed by Assyria and the refugees fled to the Southern Israelite kingdom of Judea; and in 701 C.E., when King Sennacherib of Assyria led a military campaign, conquering the coastal cities of the Land of Israel. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.usm.maine.edu/maps/exhibit1/theme7.html

The Jebusite Foundation During the 1960's the British archeologist Kathleen Kenyon excavated the eastern slope of the city's hill. She succeeded in exposing, at the middle of the slope, the remains of the solid Jebusite defense wall that King David had to overcome in his conquest of Jerusalem. Only the small section pictured was exposed during the excavation. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.jstor.org/pss/544661

The Pool of Bethesda and the Church of St. Anne (article) Further in the chapter, we read that Jesus heals the sick man found at the pool. "Bethesda", which means a spring fed pool with five porches, is Hebrew in origin, coming from the word "Chesda", meaning house of mercy. The supposed remains of the pool of Bethesda are on the east side of Jerusalem, contiguous on one side to St. Stephen's gate and on the northern side is the area of the temple mount. It is believed to be 120 paces long and 40 paces wide and about 8 feet deep but contains no water. On its west end are some old dammed up arches which are connected to the five porches mentioned in the verses. There is some discussion among scholars that there are only three or four porches instead of five. During the Roman Period, a temple dedicated to the god Serapis was located on this site. Anne Stanford [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.atlastours.net/holyland/st_anne_church_and_bethesda_pool.html

The roof tops of the old city of Jerusalem. A view over the roof tops of the Old City of Jerusalem. In the top left corner is the golden roof of the Dome of the Rock at the Temple Mount. [Archaeology]
http://www.dkimages.com/discover/Home/Geography/Asia/Israel/Unassigned/General-455.html

The Temple of Herod The Temple of Herod was a massive structure located in Jerusalem. It was built at the order of King Herod during the second period of King Herod's reign (25-13 BCE ). During this time, the king initiated a major building and rebuilding program, and this was by far the most famous of all projects. [Model] [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.angelfire.com/nt/theology/temple.html

The Valley of Hinnom The Valley of Hinnom is located outside of Jerusalem to the southwest of the city walls. This valley, along with the Kidron Valley, was in ancient times one of the major defenses guarding the Holy city. Kendra Howard [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.palestineremembered.com/GeoPoints/Silwan_1593/Picture_10222.html

The Valleys around Jerusalem Three valleys surround the city of Jerusalem-Hinnom, Kidron, and Tyropean. The Kidron Valley (Valley of the Brook Kedron or Jehosephant) is located on the eastern side of the city, the Hinnom Valley (Valley of Ben Hinnom or Gehenna) runs south, then east going around the western side of the city, and the Tyropean is between these two valley's on the southern end of the city. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.returntogod.com/jerusalem/valleys.htm

The Valleys around the Old City Three valleys surround the city of Jerusalem-Hinnom, Kidron, and Tyropean. The Kidron Valley (Valley of the Brook Kedron or Jehosephant) is located on the eastern side of the city, the Hinnom Valley (Valley of Ben Hinnom or Gehenna) runs south, then east going around the western side of the city, and the Tyropean is between these two valley's on the southern end of the city. Marisa Manzi [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.returntogod.com/jerusalem/valleys.htm

The Wide Wall from the Jewish Quarter Broad wall of the Jewish Quarter. This wall, which was discovered by Professor Avigad, is an impressive archaeological testimony of the fortification effort by King Hezekiah. The length of the segment of the exposed wall is 65 meters, and its width is 7 meters. The wall is assumed to be from the period of Hezekiah, because clay fragments identified with that period were found near the wall. Underneath the wall, remnants of houses were found which also date to that same time period. This is an example of fortification in times of emergency, as Isaiah the prophet aptly describes the situation: "...and ye numbered the houses of Jerusalem, and ye broke down the houses to fortify the wall." (Isaiah 22;10). [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.biblewalks.com/Sites/BroadWall.html

Traditional Upper Room According to tradition (going back only to the 10th century), this is the place where Jesus celebrated the Passover feast with his disciples before he was arrested. Also according to tradition he appeared here after his resurrection. The hall was constructed by the Crusaders. The Fransciscans who bought it in 1335 introduced some changes in it. At the beginning of the 15th century, the Jews sought to buy the site because the Tomb of David is located on the lower floor. This attempt entailed a conflict between Jews and Christians. Eventually in 1551, the Muslims took possession of the site and transformed it into a mosque with "prayer niches" which can still be seen today. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.flickr.com/photos/sanhotim20002000/2531018751/

Via Dolorosa Via Dolorosa, which means the way of suffering, was the way which those condemned to death by the Romans had to proceed along, carrying the cross on their backs, with a sign bearing the prisoner's name and his charges. Jesus' Via Dolorosa started from the place of his trial and ended with his crucifixion in Golgotha and his burial at the Holy Sepulchre. The tradition relating to Jesus' walking along the Via Dolorosa had its origin in Byzantine times and at first the procession would be held from Gethsemane to Golgotha. It was during the period of the crusades, in the 13th century, that the present Via Dolorosa tradition evolved. There are 14 stations along the Via Dolorosa, nine of which are on the road and the remaining five within the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. STATION 1 - JESUS IS CONDEMNED TO DEATH; STATION 2 - JESUS RECEIVES THE CROSS; STATION 3 - JESUS FALLS FOR THE FIRST TIME; STATION 4 - JESUS MEETS HIS GRIEVING MOTHER; STATION 5 - SIMON OF CYRENE CARRIES THE CROSS; STATION 6 - VERONICA WIPES THE FACE OF JESUS; STATION 7 - JESUS FALLS FOR THE SECOND TIME; STATION 8- JESUS SPEAK TO THE WOMEN OF JERUSALEM; STATION 9 - JESUS FALLS FOR THE THIRD TIME; STATION 10 - JESUS IS STRIPPED OF HIS GARMENTS; STATION 11 - JESUS IS NAILED TO THE CROSS; STATION 12 - JESUS DIES ON THE CROSS; STATION 13 - JESUS' BODY IS TAKEN FROM THE CROSS; STATION 14-JESUS IS LAID IN THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/jerusalem-via-dolorosa.htm

Via Dolorosa (article) To Christians, the city of Jerusalem holds particular significance because it was the site of Christ's condemnation, crucifixion. And burial. The Via Dolorosa is the traditional route that Jesus is thought to have taken from Pilate's hall to Golgotha. Latin for "way of sorrows," (Beers 328) the Via Dolorosa is a commemoration of Christ's arduous journey. The path is made up of fourteen different stations of the cross, each of which recounts a particular point along the way. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.atlastours.net/holyland/via_dolorosa.html

Western Wall Photo The Western Wall is one of the few surviving sections of the huge Temple Mount enclosure built by King Herod 2,000 years ago. After the destruction of the second temple by the Romans in 70 C.E., the Western Wall gradually became a Jewish holy place "by proxy," and symbolizes not only he mourning for the destroyed Temple , but also the eternal hope of redemption. The western wall is 20 meters high. The seven lower layers, some 7 meters in height, are constructed of huge stones, cut in the special fashion typical of Herod. Additional layers, from later periods , are found on top of those laid by Herod. Further layers from the second temple period are still buried. Extensive excavations have been carried out on this site since the six-day war. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/jerusalem-western-wall-pictures/

Western Wall Tunnel Location Diagram)
Legend:
1. New entrance to tunnel;
2. Moslem Quarter;
3. Via Dolorosa;
4. Lions' Gate;
5. Temple Mount;
6. Christian Quarter;
7. Church of the Holy Sepulchre;
8. Path of the tunnel;
9. Jewish Quarter;
10. Western Wall Plaza;
11. Western Wall

The entire western wall of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem has been completely revealed for the first time since 70 C.E. Excavations have uncovered all 490 metres of the wall that once formed the western girder of ancient Jerusalem's great Temple and the entire stonework that formed the basis of the original Temple mount in now exposed. An ancient Hasmonean water tunnel, built about 120 B.C.E. and later blocked by Herod's builders in also visible for the first time and is one of the rare Hasmonean finds uncovered to date in Jerusalem. One of the most unexpected archaeological finds disclosed by the excavation is that Herod did not complete the entire construction of the Temple mount as historians and archaeologists believed to this day. A change in the type of masonry used at the northern end of the western wall is evidence that Herod built all but the last stages of construction of the Temple mount. Instead of the polished stones with characteristic Herodian masonry marks, part of the original stonework is roughly hewn. One of the mysteries uncovered during the excavation is the presence of massive stones that measure some 14 metres in length, 3 metres in height, and are estimated to be 2 metres thick and to weigh over 300 tons. No one can explain how these gigantic rocks were transported to the site. Walking along the tunnel, you can see the rock escarpment of the long lost Antonia fortress at the northern end of the western wall built by the Maccabees. This imposing building complex existed for only a few decades before it was demolished by he Romans followinn the fall of the Temple. The Tunnel is wide enough for one person to pass at a time, leading to a one-way route exiting at the beginning of the Via Dolorosa. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/1990_1999/1998/7/The%20Western%20Wall%20Tunnel%20-%20Update

Yad Vashem - Valley of Destroyed Communities The Valley of the Destroyed Communities is the latest addition (1993) to the Yad Vashem complex, Israel's central memorial to the six million Jews killed in the Holocaust of World War II. It consists of a maze of courtyards (each representing a country or geographical region), on whose walls are inscribed the names of cities and towns where Jewish communities flourished before the advent of the Nazi regime in Germany. Viewed from the air, the structure approximates the shape of the map of Europe. The national institution for research and documentation of the Holocaust, Yad Vashem includes a museum, the Hall of the Names, and the Avenue of Righteous Gentiles. It is dedicated to perpetuating the memory of the Jews who perished in the Nazi Holocaust (1939-1945). [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.yadvashem.org/



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