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March 19    Scripture

Ancient Persia: Manners and Customs
Daily Life and Culture of the Ancient Persians

Achaemenid Education System

Achaemenids Laws and Justice Cyrus II and Darius I introduce each number of new laws. These, particularly civil law, based on the law ancient Persian strongly influenced by those of other kingdoms of the ancient near East. No code of law has unfortunately survived, outside of the cylinder of Cyrus that more is not really one. This document, sometimes regarded as the first known text dealing with human rights, describes an altruistic political vision of society in this period:

Ancient Persian Festivals IRANIAN NEW YEAR NO RUZ , by Massoume Price. No Ruz, new day or New Year as the Iranians call it, is a celebration of spring Equinox. It has been celebrated by all the major cultures of ancient Mesopotamia. Sumerians, 3000BC, Babylonians 2000 BC, the ancient kingdom of Elam in Southern Persia 2000BC, Akaddians all have been celebrating it in one form or another. What we have today as No Ruz with its' uniquely Iranian characteristics has been celebrated for at least 3000 years and is deeply rooted in the traditions of Zoroastrian belief system.

Economy in the Achaemenid Period The Achaemenid empire, extending from the Indus river to the Aegean sea, comprised such economically developed countries as Egypt, Syria, Phoenicia, Babylonia, Elam, and Asia Minor, lands which had their long traditions of social institutions, as well as Sakai, Massagetai, Lycians, Libyans, Nubians and other tribes undergoing the disintegration of the primitive-communal phase. Therefore, the socioeconomic structure of the empire was characterized by extreme diversity (Dandamaev and Lukonin, pp. 95-96). For this reason the empire remained a relatively decentralized state with each ethnic province honoring local customs and traditions (idem, pp. 90-91).

Family Law in Ancient Iran Mazdean family law is the most extensive and involved section of the civil code as set forth in the few surviving Middle Persian legal texts, especially the Sasanian lawbook entitled Mâdayân î hazâr dâdestân. It comprises a medley of orthodox legislation (kardag) and revisions (dâdestân) enacted by more liberal jurists and dignitaries (dastwarân, wêhân "sages"); such revisions were a source of continual controversy and led to the emergence of opposing schools of jurisprudence. In these disputes a remarkable attempt at improving the social status of women, minors, and to a lesser extent bondsmen is apparent (see citizenship ii).

Houses in Ancient Persia In attempting to describe Persian houses during the Achaemenid period,it is necessaary to consider several factors, such as architectural styles and building techniques used in the middle east before ,during and after the Achaemenid period, and archaeological finds. However, firstly one should look at the people themselves and the climate they lived in and the building materials that were readily available, or could be obtained through trade.

Insurance in Ancient Iran One of the measures taking place in the time of world Achaemenian government was establishing a law known today as insurance. Achaemenian monarchs were the first insured their people and made it official by registering the insuring process in governmental notary offices. The insurance tradition was performed each year in Norouz (beginning of the Iranian New Year); the heads of different ethnic groups as well as others willing to take part, presented gifts to the monarch.

Iran's Contribution to the World - Games and Sports Polo (Chowgan) - is an ancient Persian game. Iranians call it Chowgan (chow to be pronounced like tow, and gan like gun). The oldest mention of this game is in Ferdosi's Shahnameh (composed about 1,000 years ago) where the game played between Siyavash and his Persian retinue in one side and Afrasiyab, the Tooranian King and his brother Garsivaz, on the other is described in the form of poetry.

Jewelry and Makeup in Ancient Persia Archaeological finds in Iran show that women and men applied makeup and arrayed themselves with ornaments approximately 10,000 years ago, a trend which began from religious convictions rather than mere beautification motivations. Archaeologists have discovered various instruments of make-up and ornamental items in the Burnt City, which date back to the third millennium BCE.§ionid=3510304

Marriage in Ancient Iran Lack of documented sources and evidences makes it difficult to offer a well-documented survey, far from any presuppositions and pre-judgments, on the subject of identification and distinction of different forms of marriage in Ancient Iran. Therefore, in order to avoid any baseless and unjustifiable speculations, we have to look at the problem from the perspective of the few remaining Pahlavi texts and also those relevant texts written during Islamic era of Iranian civilization.

Medicine in Avesta and Ancient Iran One of the earliest lawmakers in the history of civilization is the Babylonian king, Hammurabi (1728-1686 B.C.. A total of 282 laws known as the code of Hammurabi have been recognized. (1) The code clearly illustrates its influence in the Judaic and Islamic laws. Law no: 218 states: "If a physician performed a major operation on a seignior with bronze lancet and caused the seignior's death, or he opened up the eye-socket of a seignior and has destroyed the seignior's eye, they shall cut off his hand".

Rituals of Iran, Marriage Ceremony, History And Symbolism The Iranian wedding ceremony despite itslocal and regional variations, like many other rituals in the country goesback to the ancient Zoroastrian tradition. This was the religion of Iranbefore the advent of Islam 1400 years ago. Though the concepts and theoryof the marriage have changed drastically by Quran and Islamic traditions,the actual ceremonies have remained more or less the same.

The History of Medicine in Ancient Persia The history of medicine in Iran is as old and as rich as its civilization. In the Avesta, science and medicine rise above class, ethnicity, nationality, race, gender and religion. Some of the earliest practices of ancient Iranian medicine have been documented in the Avesta and other Zoroastrian religious texts.§ionid=3510304

The Laws of Ancient Persians The Laws of the Medes and Persians have acquired universal fame; and the following pages will show how fully deserved that fame was. Iranian history starts in the beginnings of human life on earth, and yet the first Iranian ruling house was a dynasty of lawgivers. Hence Iranian law began to take shape ever since humanity started forming itself society, and indeed that happened far far away in the past when we consider that man has been living on this globe for over ten million years, or probably for much more many ages than that huge period of time.

Women in Ancient Persia, 559-331 B.C by Maria Brosius. 260 pgs. Questia Book. Clarendon Press Oxford Publication

Women's Lives in Ancient Persia Any analysis of women's lives and status in ancient times is a very complicated task and needs time and space. This very brief article intends to provide much needed basic information based on archaeological evidence and will primarily deal with women in Achaemenid times. The material is based on Fortification and Treasury texts discovered at Persepolis (509-438 BC) and documents recovered at Susa Babylonia and other major Mesopotamian cities of the period. These texts provide us with a unique insight into the social and economic situation of both the royal and non-royal women at the time. In the texts individual women are identified, payments of rations and wages for male and female workers are documented and sealed orders by the royal women themselves or their agents gives us valuable information on how these powerful women managed their wealth.

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