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April 24    Scripture

Biblical Archaeology: Rome
Significant Archaeological Discoveries and the Bible.

Ancient Roman Aqueduct Painting of the Caesarea Aqueduct. Did the Romans Invent the Aqueduct? This painting is of a section of an ancient Roman aqueduct on the outskirts of Caesarea Maritima to the south. The Romans used aqueducts to bring water into a city, they consisted of a cement-lined rectangular pipe supported on arches. The Romans built their first aqueduct in 312 BC. During the time of Augustus aqueducts brought nearly 300 million gallons of water per day to the city of Rome. Aqueducts became one of Rome's greatest architectural marvels. They usually were constructed as arches, bridges, or siphons. This particular arched aqueduct was built by Herod to bring water from springs in the Carmel mountains in north Israel into the important city of Caesarea. The remains of this Ancient Roman Aqueduct is important in the study of Biblical archaeology. It corresponds exactly with what the Bible says concerning Herod, and concerning the achievements of the ancient Romans, and concerning the importance of ancient Caesarea during Biblical times.
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/3-ancient-aqueduct-bb.html


Ancient Roman Colosseum The Colosseum in Rome. Was the Colosseum Built with Jewish Temple money? The Colosseum in Rome stands today as a symbol of the mighty Roman Empire. It is probably the most famous ancient ruin in the world along with the Pyramids of Egypt. The Colosseum was known in ancient Rome as the Flavian Amphitheatre, named after the 3 emperors who were all involved in its construction. Vespasian conceived the idea and began building in 72 AD and his son Titus dedicated it in 80 AD with a 100 day festival. This included bloody gladiator combats, wild animals, and huge naval battles with the arena filled with water. The Colosseum was totally finished during the reign of Domitian (81-96 AD). The Colosseum is a marvel of architectural engineering, it was built with giant travertine blocks, layered with soft stones and concrete. It was originally overlayed with marble but that was looted over the centuries. Its magnificent columns were made of the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders. The mammoth Colosseum measures 620 feet by 513 feet, 1/3 of a mile around. The 6 acre building contained 3 tiers of seats, 80 entrances, seated 50,000 spectators, resembling the size and capacity of the Houston Astrodome.
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/1-colosseum-bb.html


Ancient Roman Legions How Many Soldiers are in a Legion? Legionaries were infantry soldiers who were the major armed forces of the Roman army. They were recruited from Roman citizens, usually as young as 19 but many as early as 14 years old. 4 foot 11 inches was the minimum height. Augustus had 25 legions of approximately 6,000 soldiers each. A legion was formed of 10 Cohorts (540 men in each Cohort). Each Cohort was subdivided into 6 Centuries (90 men formed a Century), and each legion had a wing of 120 cavalry. This discovery of a wall relief depicting ancient Roman Legionaries is important in the study of Biblical archaeology. "Then said Jesus unto him, Put up again thy sword into his place: for all they that take the sword shall perish with the sword. Thinkest thou that I cannot now pray to my Father, and he shall presently give me more than twelve legions of angels?" - Matthew 26:52-53
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/3-legions-bb.html


Ancient Roman Milestones Did All Roads Lead to Rome in the Roman Empire? This painting of the ruins of a "milliarium" or Roman milestone attests to the fact that in the ancient world "all roads lead to Rome". The famous maxim was correct, and what was even more precise was that to a Roman all roads lead from Rome. According to the Roman system, a gilded pillar was placed by the Emperor Augustus in the Forum Romanum to mark the beginning point of the vast network of Roads that extended out throughout the whole Empire. Milestones were to mark every mile from the Eternal City. No traveler would mistake the fact that he was on a Roman road and upon imperial domain. The legions created these roads and used them for quick maneuvering among Provinces. There were Roadside Inns, Taverns, and Hotels. The Emperor Augustus believed strongly that International Trade was important to the prosperity and peace of the Empire and his Pax Romana. The Ancient Roman Milestone ruins are important in the study of Biblical archaeology. They reveal accurately what the Bible describes about Rome and the Emperor Augustus.
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/3-milestone-bb.html


Arch of Titus Which Roman Emperor Erected the Arch of Titus? A triumphal monument with scenes in history depicting Titus as the Roman conqueror of the Jews, who some believe are seen here carrying the Roman spoils of the Jewish Wars under the view of their cruel conquerors. Most scholars believe that it was actually soldiers carrying the ornaments of the Jerusalem Temple. The destruction of Jerusalem happened in 70 AD when the Roman legions sacked Jerusalem and returned to Rome with the booty of the Jerusalem Temple. The Arch of Titus was only completed and dedicated by Domitian after his brother's death (a. d. 81). The Arch of Titus is one of Rome's most famous monuments. It was built to commemorate the victories of Titus and Vespasian in the war against the Jews and their complete destruction in 70 AD. One wall relief inside the arch shows the spoils of the great Temple in Jerusalem before its annihilation. Another relief depicts the apotheosis of Titus who is carried to heaven on the wings of an eagle.
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/1-arch-of-titus-bb.html


Arch of Titus Chariot Relief Was Titus an instrument of God in destroying Jerusalem in 70 A.D.? This second scene on the Arch of Titus reveals the actual triumphal procession of Roman soldiers who conquered Jerusalem in 70 AD. Titus is in his chariot with the winged Victory riding beside him who places a wreathe on his head, the goddess Roma or Virtus is leading the horses, along with the semi-nude Genius of the People. Because the reliefs were carved so deeply, some of the heads have broken off. The Arch of Titus with its reliefs are high on the list of importance in the study of Biblical Archaeology because it reveals a scene in history that testifies to the events predicted by Jesus regarding Jerusalem. "If you had known, even you, especially in this your day, the things that make for your peace! But now they are hidden from your eyes. For days will come upon you when your enemies will build an embankment around you, surround you and close you in on every side, and level you, and your children within you, to the ground; and they will not leave in you one stone upon another, because you did not know the time of your visitation." - Luke 19:41-44
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/arch-titus-menorah-2.html


Arch of Titus Menorah and Table Could this be the greatest testimony to the words of Jesus in all of Biblical archaeology? This wall relief on the Arch of Titus reveals one of the most troubling scenes in all history, Roman soldiers carrying spoils from the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. The Temple Menorah* and the Table** of the Shewbread shown at an angle, both of solid gold, and the silver trumpets which called the Jews to the festivals. The Romans are in triumphal procession wearing laurel crowns and the ones carrying the Menorah have pillows on their shoulders. The soldiers carry signs commemorating the victories which Titus had won. This group of soldiers is just a few of the hundreds in the actual triumphal procession down Rome's Sacred Way. The whole procession is about to enter the carved arch on the right which reveals the quadriga at the top, Titus on his 4-horsed chariot with soldiers. The Arch of Titus with its Menorah Relief are high on the list of importance in the study of Biblical Archaeology because it stands today as a testimony that the words of Jesus miraculously came true.
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/arch-titus-menorah-1.html


Augustus Caesar Bronze Bust Did God put the thought in Augustus' mind to tax the whole world? This bronze head of the Emperor Augustus is a bit larger than the real size of his head. It was excavated at Meroe (Modern Sudan) and is currently in the British Museum. The exact meaning of its presence in this distant land can only be speculation. Rome's influence in the whole area in northern Africa was continually growing until they became Roman provinces under Augustus. The Bronze Bust of Augustus is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology, it reveals the image and reality of a person mentioned in the Bible at the time of Christ's birth. "And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be taxed. (And this taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of Syria.) And all went to be taxed, every one into his own city. And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judaea, unto the city of David, which is called Bethlehem; (because he was of the house and lineage of David:) To be taxed with Mary his espoused wife, being great with child." Luke 2:1-5 The Bible says that Caesar Augustus made a decree that the whole world should be taxed and this included the Jews. This happened when Jesus was about to be born. Joseph and Mary were required to travel to their ancestral cities which would have been Bethlehem for both of them. Since they were living in Nazareth it would have been an extremely long and difficult journey, about 80-90 miles depending on which route they took. It was also mainly an uphill journey seeing that Bethlehem is about 2500 feet above sea level, in the hill country of Judea. When they arrived at bethlehem there was no room for them at the Inn because of the large crowd coming to Jerusalem for the Passover, and that night Mary gave birth to Jesus, in a stable in Bethlehem. Map of Israel During the Time of Jesus Micah 5:2 - But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, [though] thou be little among the thousands of Judah, [yet] out of thee shall he come forth unto me [that is] to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth [have been] from of old, from everlasting.
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/bronze-augustus.html


Augustus Caesar Bust How did Caesar fulfill the prophecy that the Messiah would be born in Bethlehem? The face of Caesar Augustus from the Prima Porta Statue at the Vatican Museum. This marble statue was discovered in 1863 about 9 miles outside of Rome, at Prima Porta, a Villa of Livia Drisilla (Augustus' wife). Prima Porta was the visitors gateway to Rome, once a traveler saw it he knew he had reached Rome. Augustus was not only the first emperor, he was also the greatest. He definitely deserved the title 'father of his country'. He exercised authority concerning both Rome and the provinces with great wisdom. He boasted that he had transformed Rome from a city of brick into a city of marble. The face on the statue of Augustus is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology, it reveals the image and reality of a person mentioned in the Bible at the time of Christ's birth. "And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be taxed. (And this taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of Syria.) And all went to be taxed, every one into his own city. And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judaea, unto the city of David, which is called Bethlehem; (because he was of the house and lineage of David:) To be taxed with Mary his espoused wife, being great with child." Luke 2:1-5 The Bible says that Caesar Augustus made a decree that the whole world should be taxed and this included the Jews. This happened when Jesus was about to be born. Joseph and Mary were required to travel to their ancestral cities which would have been Bethlehem for both of them. Since they were living in Nazareth it would have been an extremely long and difficult journey, about 80-90 miles depending on which route they took. It was also mainly an uphill journey seeing that Bethlehem is about 2500 feet above sea level, in the hill country of Judea. When they arrived at Bethlehem there was no room for them at the Inn because of the large crowd coming to Jerusalem for the Passover, and that night Mary gave birth to Jesus, in a stable in Bethlehem. Micah 5:2 - But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, [though] thou be little among the thousands of Judah, [yet] out of thee shall he come forth unto me [that is] to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth [have been] from of old, from everlasting. Luke 2:1 - And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed.
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/augustus-caesar-bust.html


Bust of Vespasian Bust of Titus Flavius Vespasian. Was this Emperor who "Destroyed Jerusalem" famous for his kindness? The face of the Roman Emperor, Vespasian who began the construction of the Collosseum, the most famous of all Roman architecture. The bust of Vespasian is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology, it reveals the image of the Roman general who Nero sent to put down the Jewish revolt. In 70 AD. after Nero's suicide he set sail for Rome and left the final siege of Jerusalem in the hands of his son Titus. The destruction of Jerusalem was dreadfully foreseen and predicted by Jesus 40 years prior: "O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the one who kills the prophets and stones those who are sent to her! How often I wanted to gather your children together, as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, but you were not willing! See! Your house is left to you desolate; for I say to you, you shall see Me no more till you say, 'Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord!'" - Matthew 23:37-39
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/vespasian-bust.html


Bust of Nero Bust of Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus. The face of the Roman Emperor, Nero. During his reign were the great fire of Rome which he blamed the Christians for, Paul and Peter were martyred at this time. Nero initiated the attack on Jerusalem which ended in the destruction of the city and Temple under Vespasian and finally Titus in 70 AD. Titus became Emperor of Rome in 79 AD when his father Vespasian died and he completed and dedicated the Flavian Amphitheatre (the Colosseum). The bust of Nero is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology, it reveals the image of the Emperor who heavily persecuted the Christians and originally ordered the destruction of Jerusalem in 68 AD just before his suicide. The destruction of Jerusalem was dreadfully foreseen and predicted by Jesus. It reveals the image of the Roman Emperor who gave the original order to destroy Jerusalem which resulted in her destruction in 70 AD.
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/1-nero-bb.html


Bust of Titus Bust of Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus. Was this the man who Destroyed Jerusalem in 70 AD? The face of the Roman Emperor, Titus. To Vespasian (a.d. 70) we are indebted for the foundation of the Coliseum, or the Flavian amphitheatre, the noblest ruin in existence. It was dedicated by Titus in 79 AD), 10 years after the taking of Jerusalem, but not finally completed until the reign of his successor, Domitian. The bust of Titus is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology, it reveals the image of the Roman commander who destroyed Jerusalem in 70 AD. The destruction of Jerusalem was dreadfully foreseen and predicted by Jesus 40 years prior.
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/titus-bust.html


Julius Caesar Bust Was Julius Caesar a Friend of the Jews? The face of the Roman dictator, Julius Caesar. When Julius Caesar served as proconsul of Gaul (ancient France), he conquered countless Celtic and Belgic armies in the hundreds of thousands. He invaded Britain twice before it became a province in 43 A.D. under the Emperor Claudius. Later Pompey persuaded the Senate to force Caesar to retire as proconsul of Gaul when his term was up. Caesar immediately rebelled against them and crossed the Rubicon River in 49 B.C., and started a civil war. Though Pompey had a much larger army he was easily defeated by Julius Caesar on the plains of Pharsalus in northern Greece. Pompey fled to the great port of Alexandria, Egypt but he was murdered as he landed. Julius Caesar arrived a short time later and met Queen Cleopatra, the last of the Ptolemaic rulers in Egypt, whom he became infatuated with. He actually met with great opposition in Alexandria and defeated them with the help of the Jews.
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/julius-caesar-bust.html


Legio X Fretensis Stamped Bricks These bricks contain an inscribed stamp from the Roman legion which destroyed Jerusalem in 70 AD. They are stamped with the inscription "Legio X Fretensis." The legionary bricks is an important discovery in the study of Biblical Archaeology, it reveals the legion which destroyed Jerusalem in 70 AD. The destruction of Jerusalem was dreadfully foreseen and predicted by Jesus.
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/roman-legion-bricks.html


Roman Eagle Standard Did Eagles Carry Emperors Into Heaven? The eagle (aquila) was the bird of Jupiter. In ancient times the eagle was a symbol of strength and courage, and immortality. The eagle was believed to be the king of the birds that could ascend above the storm, and become the messenger of the gods. According to ancient mythology the eagle would carry the soul into the presence of the gods, Zeus to the Greeks, Jupiter to the Roman, and Odin to the tribes of Germania. The silver eagle was the ensign of the Roman Legion and the symbol of its power. The legatus was the officer in charge, and he would assign an aquilifer who was the soldier that would carry the aquila (eagle) into battle. If the eagle was captured the legion would disband. It is interesting that Julius Caesar personally sanctified the eagle when the legion was brought forth. On one of the legion standards the powerful talons of the eagle are gripping golden thunderbolts, as the eagle stands ready for flight against all enemies of Rome. At the very top of the standard above the eagle is a gold bar with the inscription SPQR (Senatus Populus Romanus) honoring the Senate and the People. The ancient Roman eagle is important in the study of Biblical archaeology.
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/2-roman-eagle-bb.html


Roman Legionary Camp Roman Legion Camp at Masada. How Long Until the Legion Captured Masada? The Jewish Zealots held out for three long years after the Temple was destroyed and Jerusalem was brought down to rubble and burned to ashes. Masada was the last fortress of the Jews and every other Jewish stronghold was captured. It was just a matter of time, so the Jewish Zealots committed suicide, after deciding that death was better for them than capture by the Romans. This Roman Legionary encampment which can be seen today is a testimony in Biblical Archaeology, it reveals the encampment of the ones who destroyed Jerusalem in 70 AD. The destruction of Jerusalem was dreadfully foreseen and predicted by Jesus. "As the flames shot up, a cry, as poignant as the tragedy, arose from the Jews, who flock to the rescue," - Josephus, he also added: "lost to all thought of self-preservation, all husbanding of strength, now that the object of all their past vigilance was vanishing." - Flavius Josephus
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/legion-camp.html


Tiberius Caesar Bust Did Tiberius Caesar know Jesus was being crucified? The face of the Roman Emperor, Tiberius from the statue now in the Museo Nazionale, Naples. Tiberius was the stepson of Augustus and the oldest son of Livia, wife of Augustus. Augustus adopted Tiberius in 4 A.D. because he lacked a male heir. He had first adopted his younger stepson Drusus, but he died in 9 B.C. after falling from his horse. In 14 A.D. Tiberius became Emperor of Rome. Whether Tiberius had heard of Jesus, or knew about the crucifixion of Jesus is a matter of speculation. There is no doubt that word about Jesus and his miracles spread quickly throughout the Roman Empire, even to the Imperial Palace on Palatine Hill, but Tiberius had retired to his palace on the Island of Capri in 26 A.D. while all sorts of corruption was happening in Rome. He left Sejanus in charge of Rome who eventually betrayed him and was later tried by the Senate upon orders by Tiberius, and then executed. Meanwhile there were many rumors about Tiberius on Capri involving homosexuality and sexual perversity with young boys, which included all sorts of inhumane cruelty. In this picture it shows the "Tiberius Leap" (Salto di Tiberio) which is a giant 1000 foot cliff that, according to the historians Suetonius and Tacitus, Tiberius hurled his discarded young sexual conquests and victims into the sea to their deaths for orgasmic pleasure. The bust of Tiberius Caesar is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology, it reveals the image and reality of a person mentioned in the Bible, who was the emperor of Rome during the time of Christ's life. "Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene, Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests, the word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness." Luke 3:1-2
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/tiberius-caesar-bust.html


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