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Biblical Archaeology: Egypt
Significant Archaeological Discoveries and the Bible.

Amenhotep II Statue Was this the Pharaoh of the Exodus? This granite statue of an Egyptian king has been identified as Amenophis II who was the son of Thutmose-III). This statue of Amenophis II is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology because many scholars believe that the most evidence points to him as being the Pharaoh of the Exodus. There are two main opinions among scholars as to who the Pharaoh was during the time of the Exodus in Egypt by the Hebrews. Amenhotep II (1427-1392 B.C.), and Rameses II (1279 - 1213 B.C.). Amenophis II: Amenhotep II was also known as Amenophis II and he was the son of Thutmose III. If Moses led the children of Israel out of Egypt during the reign of Amenophis II, then the main oppressor of Israel would have been his father Thutmose III who was also the greatest conqueror in Egyptian history. His sister Queen Hatshepsut would have rescued Moses and brought him up. Rameses II: If the Exodus from Egypt happened during the reign of Rameses II, then his father Seti I would have been the main oppressor of Israel.
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/egypt/Amenophis-II-Thutmose-III.html

Ancient Hieroglyphs of Egypt Did the Egyptians believe that the Hieroglyphs were the God's words? Hieroglyphs were used as far back as the First Dynasty of Egypt about 3000 B.C. Hieroglyphs were characters used by priests and scribes in a system of pictorial writing (phonetic) on ancient Egyptian monuments to record the nation's historical and religious texts. There were several hundred signs and hieroglyphic symbols which may have represented objects but usually stood for particular sounds or groups of sounds. Hieroglyph literally means "holy or sacred carving", which is a Greek translation of the Egyptian phrase "the god's words". This was used at the time of the early Greek contacts with Egypt to distinguish the older hieroglyphs from the handwriting of the day (demotic). Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphs are important in the study of Biblical Archaeology. They reveal accounts in history that confirm the accuracy of the Biblical account. Ezekiel 20:5 - And say unto them, Thus saith the Lord GOD; In the day when I chose Israel, and lifted up mine hand unto the seed of the house of Jacob, and made myself known unto them in the land of Egypt, when I lifted up mine hand unto them, saying, I [am] the LORD your God;
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/egypt/2-hieroglyphs-bb.html

Apis The Sacred Bull of Memphis Did Israel sacrifice their children to this idol? This small bronze statue was a votive offering and was an expression of devotion from the worshipper who was hoping for a blessing. The sun disk between the horns represent divinity. The ancient Egyptians believed that Apis, the sacred bull of Memphis was a manifestation of Ptah upon the earth. Whenever an Apis bull died in Memphis it was embalmed and mummified. Each bull had its own huge sarcophagus and its birth and death were recorded, carved onto the walls. After the Israelites were delivered from Egypt, Moses came down from the mountain and found Aaron had set up a golden calf or young bull, that the people might worship God in this form. When the northern kingdom of Israel divided from their brothers in the south, Jeroboam introduced bull worship and set up two idols, one at Bethel and the other at Dan. "And all the people brake off the golden earrings which were in their ears, and brought them unto Aaron. And he received them at their hand, and fashioned it with a graving tool, after he had made it a molten calf: and they said, These be thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt." - Exodus 32:3,4 The Apis Bull God discovery is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology. It confirms that bull/calf worship was prevalent in the ancient Near East and these little statues were the idols used in ancient Israel.
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/egypt/apis-the-bull-god.html

Colossal Statue of Ramesses II Is this the same Ramesses mentioned in the Bible? This colossal statue of Ramesses II weighs over 7 tons and is one of the largest pieces in the British Museum. Some believe Rameses II was the greatest of all of Egypt's Pharaoh's. The Ramesses II Bust discovery is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology. Ra'amses name is mentioned in the Bible. Some believe Rameses II was the Pharaoh of the Exodus. Genesis 47:11 - And Joseph placed his father and his brethren, and gave them a possession in the land of Egypt, in the best of the land, in the land of Rameses, as Pharaoh had commanded. Exodus 1:11 - Therefore they did set over them taskmasters to afflict them with their burdens. And they built for Pharaoh treasure cities, Pithom and Raamses.
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/egypt/ramesses-II.html

Moving the Colossal Statue of Ramesses II Did Napoleon try to bring this statue to France? This painting is from a sketch depicting the dragging of a massive colossal statue of Ramesses II. It weighs over 7 tons and is one of the largest pieces in the British Museum. In the 19th century many discoveries were brought from Egypt to Europe. This enormous statue of Rameses II was dragged on rollers for almost 3 miles to the Nile River where it was shipped to the British Museum. Napoleon tried to remove this statue and failed. The Ramesses II Bust discovery is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology.
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/egypt/2-egypt-pharaoh-sketch-bb.html

Obelisk of Rameses II Was this Obelisk one of the idols of wrath mentioned in the Bible? This painting is of an ancient Egyptian Obelisk which was discovered standing at the place known as the Horizon of the sun god Re. Rameses II built this as the primary entrance to his temple at Luxor in Thebes. The obelisk describes his achievements, it stands 82 feet tall and weighs about 250 tons. The top was capped with a pyramidion which flashed first with the early morning rays of the sun. Obelisks were considered idols of jealousy in the Bible and were cursed by God. This Ancient Egyptian Obelisk confirms the Bible and is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology. Isaiah 19:1-3 "The burden of Egypt. Behold, the LORD rideth upon a swift cloud, and shall come into Egypt: and the idols of Egypt shall be moved at his presence, and the heart of Egypt shall melt in the midst of it. And I will set the Egyptians against the Egyptians: and they shall fight every one against his brother, and every one against his neighbour; city against city, [and] kingdom against kingdom. And the spirit of Egypt shall fail in the midst thereof; and I will destroy the counsel thereof: and they shall seek to the idols, and to the charmers, and to them that have familiar spirits, and to the wizards." Jeremiah 46:25 - "The LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, saith; Behold, I will punish the multitude of No, and Pharaoh, and Egypt, with their gods, and their kings; even Pharaoh, and [all] them that trust in him." Isaiah 19:1 - The burden of Egypt. Behold, the LORD rideth upon a swift cloud, and shall come into Egypt: and the idols of Egypt shall be moved at his presence, and the heart of Egypt shall melt in the midst of it.
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/egypt/3-obelisk-bb.html

Pharaoh Kneeling Before the Bull God Was this the Golden Calf of the Exodus? The ancient Egyptians believed that Apis, the sacred bull of Memphis was a manifestation of Ptah upon the earth. Whenever an Apis bull died in Memphis it was embalmed and mummified. Each bull had its own huge sarcophagus and its birth and death were recorded, carved onto the walls. The Pharaoh Kneeling Before the Bull Deity discovery is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology. After the Israelites were delivered from Egypt, Moses came down from the mountain and found Aaron had set up a golden calf or young bull, that the people might worship God in this form. When the northern kingdom of Israel divided from their brothers in the south, Jeroboam introduced bull worship and set up two idols (calves of gold), one at Bethel and the other at Dan. "The Apis is the calf of a cow which is never afterwards able to have another. The Egyptian belief is that a flash of light descends upon the cow from heaven, and this causes her to conceive Apis. The Apis-calf has distinctive marks: it is black, with a white square on its forehead, the image of an eagle on its back, the hair on its tail double, and a scarab under its tongue. Herodotus, Histories 3.28 Exodus 32:3,4 "And all the people brake off the golden earrings which were in their ears, and brought them unto Aaron. And he received them at their hand, and fashioned it with a graving tool, after he had made it a molten calf: and they said, These be thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt." 1 Kings 12:28-29 "Whereupon the king took counsel, and made two calves of gold, and said unto them, It is too much for you to go up to Jerusalem: behold thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt. And he set the one in Bethel, and the other put he in Dan."
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/egypt/king-kneeling-before-bull.html

Shishak Relief Did Shishak invade Israel as a punishment from God over their civil war? Shishak was the first king of Egypt mentioned by name in the Bible. Egypt knew him as Pharaoh Shoshenq I, founder of the 22nd Dynasty of Egypt and he reigned from 944-924 B.C. After Solomon died the Kingdom of Israel divided in half and 5 years later during the reign of Rehoboam, king of Judah, Pharaoh Shishak invaded Jerusalem. Shishak did not utterly destroy Jerusalem because he was paid an enormous ransom. The Bible mentions that Shishak marched his troops into the land of Judah and plundered a host of cities including Jerusalem, this has been confirmed by archaeologists. Shishak's own record of his campaign is inscribed on the south wall of the Great Temple of Amon at Karnak in Egypt. In his campaign he presents 156 cities of Judea to his god Amon. "Shishak king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem, and took away the treasures of the house of the LORD, and the treasures of the king's house; he took all: he carried away also the shields of gold which Solomon had made." 2 Chronicles 12:9 Jeroboam fled to the court of Shishak before he was king, during the reign of Solomon. (1 Kings 11:40). The Bible reveals details in 1 Kings 14 and 2 Chronicles 12 about the campaign by Pharoah Shoshenq (referred to as Shishak in the Bible) against King Rehoboam of Judea. During his campaign, Shishak marched though Judea, then he went north through the Valley of Jezreel. He then moved north to Beth Shean and finally across the Jordan River eastward. A list of the cities he sacked during his campaign is preserved in the Karnak Temple in Thebes including the Israelite and Judean cities of Jerusalem, Gibeon, Megiddo, Beth Shean, Aijalon, and more. "In the fifth year of Kign Rehoboam, King Shishak of Egypt marched against Jerusalem"“for they had trespassed against the Lord"“with 1,200 chariots, 60,000 horsemen and innumerable troops who came with him from Egypt: Lybians, Sukkites, and Kushites. He too the fortified towns of Judah and advanced on Jerusalem." - 2 Chronicles 12:2-4 Shishak smiting his prisoners discovery is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology. The movie Raiders of the Lost Ark created the fictional idea that Shishak had stolen the Ark of the Covenant when he conquered Jerusalem and brought it back to Tanis, Egypt in 980 B.C. 1 Kings 11:40 - Solomon sought therefore to kill Jeroboam. And Jeroboam arose, and fled into Egypt, unto Shishak king of Egypt, and was in Egypt until the death of Solomon. 2 Chronicles 12:9 - So Shishak king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem, and took away the treasures of the house of the LORD, and the treasures of the king's house; he took all: he carried away also the shields of gold which Solomon had made
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/egypt/shishak-smiting-prisoners.html

Statue of Pharaoh Merneptah Does the Bible mention Pharaoh Merneptah? This painting is of a granite statue of Pharaoh Merneptah with his royal head-dress now in the Egyptian Museum. Merneptah reigned in Egypt during the 19th dynasty (1213-1203 BC), and he was the son of the great Rameses II. His name is inscribed on the cartouche on his right shoulder. It is this Pharaoh who mentions the people of Israel in his monument called "The Merneptah Stela", where he boasts of a decisive victory over "Israel". The Merneptah Statue discovery is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology, it shows an image of the Pharaoh of Egypt who mentions the Israelites dwelling in the land of Canaan during the time of Joshua and the Judges. Joshua 15:9 "And the border was drawn from the top of the hill unto the fountain of the water of Nephtoah, and went out to the cities of mount Ephron; and the border was drawn to Baalah, which [is] Kirjathjearim" In Hebrew the name Nephtoah is Mei Neftoah which is derived from Pharaoh Merneptah. Judges 10:6 - And the children of Israel did evil again in the sight of the LORD, and served Baalim, and Ashtaroth, and the gods of Syria, and the gods of Zidon, and the gods of Moab, and the gods of the children of Ammon, and the gods of the Philistines, and forsook the LORD, and served not him.
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/egypt/2-merneptah-bb.html

The Great Sphinx of Giza Did the Great Sphinx of Giza survive the Flood of Noah? Painting of the famous Sphinx at Giza, Egypt. The great Sphinx faces east, toward the rising of the sun and guards the entrance to the Nile Valley. It has the body of a lion with the head of a pharaoh or the god Horus. Over the centuries the body of the Sphinx has been buried under the sand and later dug back up. In 1798 Napoleon Bonaparte visited the Sphinx, and many others attempted to remove the sand and failed. In 1905 the sand was finally completely cleared away to reveal the awesomeness of the Sphinx at Giza in its fullness. The Sphinx is over 150 feet long, 70 feet high and 38 feet from shoulder to shoulder. This monstrous figure was carved from one piece of stone weighing hundreds of tons and the largest rock-carved sculpture on earth. There are no records regarding the construction of the Sphinx and there is no way to know how it originally looked when it was created. One archaeological discovery called the Sphinx Stela reveals that the Sphinx at Giza was restored during the reign of Pharaoh Thutmosis IV of the 18th Dynasty in Egypt, about 1400 B.C. To this day archaeologists cannot tell exactly what types of tools were originally used to carve the Sphinx. They also cannot tell when it was originally carved, but that it was carved by a highly advanced style of engineering is certain. It is interesting that the geological erosion on the Sphinx is due to water rather than sand and other desert elements. This would allow for the possibility of the Biblical account of the Flood and a highly advanced civilization living in the world before the Flood covered the whole world. The discovery of the Weld-Blundell Prism from ancient Sumer, indicates an extraordinary long life span of the kings of ancient Mesopotamia before the Flood. The subject of the Sphinx can only be left to speculation. The ancient Egyptian Sphinx is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology. It reveals the immense power and wealth of the ancient Egyptians mentioned so often in the Bible, as well as the possibility of a great flood in ancient times. The history of ancient Egypt has been divided into three periods. The oldest of these is known as the "Old Kingdom," which consists of the first ten dynasties, beginning around 3500 BC and ending about 2400 BC. Although the Bible never mentions the Pyramids of Egypt or the Great Sphinx, they stand as a testimony of what the Bible says about ancient Egypt. The fact that they are still standing is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology. Genesis 7:17 - And the flood was forty days upon the earth; and the waters increased, and bare up the ark, and it was lift up above the earth. Genesis 9:15 - And I will remember my covenant, which [is] between me and you and every living creature of all flesh; and the waters shall no more become a flood to destroy all flesh. Jeremiah 46:8 "Egypt riseth up like a flood, and [his] waters are moved like the rivers; and he saith, I will go up, [and] will cover the earth; I will destroy the city and the inhabitants thereof." Jeremiah 46:25 "The LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, saith; Behold, I will punish the multitude of No, and Pharaoh, and Egypt, with their gods, and their kings; even Pharaoh, and [all] them that trust in him"
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/egypt/2-sphinx-bb.html

The Merneptah Stele Does this stone mention a decisive victory over "Israel" around 1215 B.C.? The Israel Stela also known as the Merneptah Stele is a slab of rock which was found in 1896 at Thebes, Egypt. The monument was found where it had once stood in ancient Egypt, at the temple that honored Pharaoh Merneptah. Some refer to the stone as the "Victory Stele" because it records the military campaigns and victories of Pharaoh Merneptah, the son of the mighty Ramesses II who reigned in Egypt around 1215 BC., during the time of the Judges in Israel. The writing on the stele is in hieroglyphs and very clearly mentions the name of Israel on it. Israel was considered by the Pharaoh of Egypt important enough to mention as a significant victory. The Hebrews had conquered the land of Canaan around 1400 B.C. The period of the Judges was a dark time in Israel's history because they had continually forsaken the Lord and served other gods, and there was continual turmoil in the land of Israel. Judges 10:6 - And the children of Israel did evil again in the sight of the LORD, and served Baalim, and Ashtaroth, and the gods of Syria, and the gods of Zidon, and the gods of Moab, and the gods of the children of Ammon, and the gods of the Philistines, and forsook the LORD, and served not him. The discovery of the Israel Stela is very important in the study of Biblical Archaeology. It is the oldest evidence for the existence of Israel in the land of Canaan in ancient times outside of the Bible. The text on the stone reads: "Canaan is plundered with every evil way. Ashkelon is conquered and brought away captive, Gezer seized, Yanoam made nonexistent; Israel is wasted, bare of seed." - Merneptah Stele [Read the Full Text.]
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/egypt/2-israel-stela-bb.html

The Pyramids at Gizeh Are the Pyramids mentioned in the Bible? The pyramids of Egypt have always been a marvel. There are around 75 pyramids in Egypt. The 3 main pyramids were built as tombs for 3 Egyptian Pharaohs who were considered to be gods on earth. The first and largest pyramid, known as the Great Pyramid of Gizeh was a tomb for Pharaoh Khufu (Cheops to the Greeks), who ruled the 4th dynasty around 2575 BC, which would have been centuries before Abraham, the first Hebrew. But the real marvel of this Great Pyramid was its massive size. The Great Pyramid stands 480 feet tall with a base of 750 feet in each direction forming a square at the bottom. The pyramid contains around 2,300,000 individual blocks of stones each weighing over 2.5 tons on the average, with some weighing over 16 tons and the granite roof slabs of Khufu's burial chamber weigh over 50 tons. Khufu is perhaps the greatest single building ever erected by mankind. Its sides rise at an angle of 51°52' and are accurately oriented to the four points of the compass. The Great Pyramid is a masterpiece of technical skill and engineering ability. The geometric precision of its layout and the accuracy of its stonecutting are truly amazing, especially when you consider the colossal proportions of its massive size and the weight of the blocks used in it. The history of ancient Egypt has been divided into three periods. The oldest of these is known as the "Old Kingdom," which consists of the first ten dynasties, beginning around 3500 BC and ending about 2400 BC. Although the Bible never mentions the Pyramids of Egypt or the Great Sphinx, they stand as a testimony of what the Bible says about ancient Egypt. The fact that they are still standing is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology.
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/egypt/1-pyramids-bb.html

The Rosetta Stone Was this stone the key to deciphering the hieroglyphs of ancient Egypt? This black basalt stone slab was found in 1798 by French soldiers in the rubble of a wall near the Egyptian town of Rosetta. The writing on it appeared very ancient, at the top of the stone were hieroglyphs reading right to left. In the middle there was shorthand demotic script, and at the bottom was Greek reading left to right. The soldiers realized that it might be an important discovery and they brought it to their authorities. Napoleon Bonaparte became immediately interested in the stone and he had ink impressions made and sent to scholars in Europe. No one understood the meaning of the inscriptions on the Rosetta Stone until French scholar Jean Francois Champollion. He spent a good portion of his life studying the hieroglyphs of ancient Egypt and the Rosetta Stone. He finally solved the mystery in 1822 when he deciphered the text by matching the name of Ptolemy in the Greek with a hieroglyph found on an ancient Egyptian ring with a stamp which bore the name of Ptolemy. He did the same with the royal name Cleopatra which was from a cartouche of Cleopatra found on an obelisk from Philae. Champollion determined the phonetic values of the inscriptions and of the signs. Ezekiel 20:5 - And say unto them, Thus saith the Lord GOD; In the day when I chose Israel, and lifted up mine hand unto the seed of the house of Jacob, and made myself known unto them in the land of Egypt, when I lifted up mine hand unto them, saying, I [am] the LORD your God; "And all the people brake off the golden earrings which were in their ears, and brought them unto Aaron. And he received them at their hand, and fashioned it with a graving tool, after he had made it a molten calf: and they said, These be thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt." - Exodus 32:3,4 The discovery of the Rosetta Stone is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology, it ushered in the era of modern Egyptology and opened our eyes to 3000 years of peculiar pictures inscribed on Egyptian temples, statues, and monuments, and a wealth of information verifying and never contradicting the Scriptures.
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/egypt/rosetta-stone.html



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