Ark of the Covenant - Bible History Online

Bible History Online

Sub Categories
1. Previous List
Aba-Enlil-Dana
Abalgamash
AbbaEl
Abdi-Ashirta
Abdi-Heba
Abdi-Milkutti (=Abdi-Milki)
Abi-Esuh
Abi-Milki
Abi-Rattash
Abi-Simti
AbibaAl
Abih-Il
Abijah
Abisare
Abishemu
Achaemenes (=Persian Hakhamanish)
Adad-Apla-Iddina
Adad-Idri
Adad-ItI
Adad-Nirari I
Adad-Nirari Ii
Adad-Nirari Iii
Adad-Shum-Iddina
Adad-Shumu-Usur
Adad-Sululi
Adasi
Adda-Guppi (Or Hadad-Happe)
Addu-Duri
Agga (Or Akka)
Agum I (Agum Rabu)
Agum Ii Kakrime
Agum Iii(?)
Ahab
Ahat-Milki
Ahaz
Ahaziah
Ahi-Antu
Aitagama
Akalamdu(G)
Akhat-Abisha
Akhuni
Akizzi
Akkullanu
Akurgal
Alahum
Alaksandu
Alexander The Great
Alila-Hadum
Allumari
Alyattes
Ama-Duga
Amar-Sin (Amar-Suen)
Amasis
Amat-Mamu
Amat-Shamash
Amaziah
Ambaris
Amel-Marduk (=Biblical Evil-Merodach)
Ammi-Ditana
Ammi-Saduqa
Ammishtamru I
Ammishtamru Ii
Ammuna
Ammurapi
Amon
Amos
AmutpiEl
Amytis
Anam
Anatolia
Andarim (Meshigirru)
Anepada
Anitta
Annubanini
Antigonus Monophthalmos
Antiochus I Soter
Antiochus Ii
Antiochus Iii The Great
Antiochus Iv Epiphanes
Antiochus Vii Sidetes
Anu-Aba-Uter
Anum-Muttabil
Apama
Apil-Kin
Apil-Sin
Aplahanda
Appuwashu
Apries
Aqba-Hammu
Arakha (=Nebuchadnezzar Iv)
Arame (=Aramu)
Arda-Mulissu
Ardys
Argishti I
Argishti Ii
Ari-Shen (Atal-Shen)
Arik-Den-Ili
Arnuwanda I
Arnuwanda Ii
Arnuwanda Iii
Arsaces I (=Parthian Arshak)
Artashumara
Artatama
Artaxerxes I
Artaxerxes Ii
Artaxerxes Iii
Artaxerxes Iv
Artystone (Elamite Irtashduna)
Asa
Ashared-Apil-Ekur
Asharedu
Ashlultum
Ashur-Ahhe-Iddina
Ashur-Bel-Kala
Ashur-Bel-Nisheshu
Ashur-Dan I
Ashur-Dan Ii
Ashur-Dan Iii
Ashur-Etel-Ilani
Ashur-Iddin
Ashur-Ketti-Lesher
Ashur-Mukin-Palua
Ashur-Mutakkil
Ashur-Nadin-Ahhe I
Ashur-Nadin-Ahhe Ii
Ashur-Nadin-Apli
Ashur-Nadin-Shumi
Ashur-Nasir-Apli
Ashur-Nirari I
Ashur-Nirari Ii
Ashur-Nirari Iii
Ashur-Nirari Iv
Ashur-Nirari V
Ashur-Rabi I
Ashur-Rabi Ii
Ashur-Resha-Ishi I
Ashur-Resha-Ishi Ii
Ashur-Rim-Nisheshu
Ashur-Shaduni
Ashur-Sharrat
Ashur-Uballit I
Ashur-Uballit Ii
Ashurbanipal (Assyrian Ashurban-Apli)
Ashurnasirpal (Assyrian Ashur-NaṣIr-Apli) I
Ashurnasirpal (Assyrian Ashur-Nasir-Apli) Ii
Ashusikildigira
Asqudum
Astyages
Atarshumki (=Bar-Gush)
Athaliah
Atossa
Atta-Hamiti-Inshushinak I
Atta-Hamiti-Inshushinak Ii (Persian Attameta)
Attahushu
Attar-Kitah
Azi
Aziru
Azitiwatas
Azuzum
Baal
Baal Ii
Baasha
Baba-Aha-Iddina
Babu-Aha-Iddina
Bagoas
Balasi
Bar-Rakib
Baranamtara
Bardiya
Bartatua (In Greek Sources Protothyes)
Baya
Bel-Harran-Beli-Usur
Bel-Ibni
Bel-Re-Ushu
Bel-Shar-Usur (Biblical Belshazzar)
Bel-Shimanni
Bel-Tarsi-Iluma
Bel-Ushezib
Belakum
Beltum
Ben-Hadad Ii (Assyrian Adad-Idri)
Benteshina
Berossus (Babylonian Bel-ReUshu)
Bilalama
Burnaburiash I
Burnaburiash Ii
Cambyses I
Cambyses Ii
Croesus
Cyaxares (Babylonian Umakishtar)
Cyrus I (Babylonian Kurash)
Cyrus Ii The Great
Dada-Ahhe
Dadusha
Daiian-Ashur
Dam-Hurashi
Damiq-Ilishu
Dannaya
Dannum-Tahaz
Darius I
Darius Ii
Darius Iii
David
Dudu
Dugdamme (Greek Lygdamis)
Dunnasha-Amur
Duppi-Teshup
Ea-Mukin-Zeri
Eannatum
Ebarti
Ebarti Ii
Ebih-Il (Abih-Il)
Ebrium (Or Ibrium)
Egibi
Ehli-Nikkal
Ekur-Zakir
Elah
Elijah
Elulu (Or Elulmesh)
En-Hegal
En-Nigaldi-Nanna
Enanedu
Enannatum
Enannatum I
Enannatum Ii
Enentarzi
Enheduanna
Enlil-Bani
Enlil-Kudur-Usur
Enlil-Nadin-Ahi
Enlil-Nadin-Apli
Enlil-Nadin-Shumi
Enlil-Nasir I
Enlil-Nasir Ii
Enlil-Nirari
Enmenana
Enmerkar
Enmetena (Entemena)
Enshakushana
Entemena
Eparti (Also Ebarti)
Eparti (Also Ebarti) Ii
Epir-Mupi
Eriba-Adad I
Eriba-Adad Ii
Eriba-Marduk
Erishti-Aya
Erishum I (Also Irishum)
Erridupizir
Esagil-Kin-Apli (=Saggil-Kinam-Ubbib)
Esarhaddon (Assyrian Ashur-Ahhe-Iddina)
Esharra-Hamat
Eshpum
EthbaAl (=Ittobaal)
Eulmash-Shakin-Shumi
Evil-Merodach
Ezekiel
Ezra
Gabbar
Gandash
Gashuliyawa
Gaumata
Gedaliah
Geme-Enlila
Geme-Ninlila
general
Gigitu
Gilgamesh
Girnamme
Gubaru (=Gobryas)
Gudea
Gungunum
Gyges
Hadad-Ezer
Hadad-YisI (Assyrian Adad-ItI)
Hallushu-Inshushinak
Hallutush-Inshushinak
Halparuntiyas Ii (=Assyrian Qalparunda)
Halparuntiyas Iii (Assyrian Qalparunda)
Hammurabi Of Babylon
Hammurapi I
Hammurapi Ii
Hanne
Hantili I
Hanun-Dagan
Harapsili
Hattusili I
Hattusili Iii
HazaEl
Henti
Hepattarakki
Herodotus
Hezekiah
Hiram I
Hishep-Ratep
Hita
Hitlal-Erra
Hosea
Hoshea
Humban-Haltash I
Humban-Haltash Ii
Humban-Haltash Iii
Humban-Nikash I (Assyrian Ummanigash)
Humban-Nimena (Assyrian Umman-Menanu)
Humban-Numena
Humban-Tahrah
Hurbatila
Hutran-Temti (=Hutran-Tepti)
Huttelush-Inshushinak (=Huteludush-Inshushinak)
Huzziya I
Hystaspes
IaubiDi (=YaubiDi)
Ib-Damu
Ibal-Pi-El I
Ibal-Pi-El Ii
Ibbi-Sin (=Ibbi-Suen)
Ibbi-Sipish
Ibbit-Lim
Ibdati
Ibiranu
Iblul-Il
Idaddu I (=Idaddu-Inshushinak; Indattu)
Idaddu Ii (=Idattu)
Iddin-Dagan
Iddin-El (=Iddin-Ilum)
Iddin-Marduk
Iddin-Sin
Ididish
Idrimi
Ige-Halki
Igrish-Halam (=Yigrish-Halam)
Iku(N)-Shamagan
Iku-Shamash
Ikunum
Ikur-Shar
Ili-Hadda
Ili-Ishar
Ilimilimma
Iltani
Ilu(A)-Kabkabi
Ilushuma
Ilussa-Amur
Imdi-Ilum
Immerum
Ini-Teshup
Ipiq-Adad I
Ipiq-Adad Ii
Ir-Nanna (=Urdu-Nanna)
Iran
Irhuleni (=Urhilina)
Irishum
Irkab-Damu (=Yirkab-Damu)
Irkabtum
Isaiah
Ishar-Damu
Ishar-Lim
Ishbi-Erra
Ishgum-Addu
Ishki-Adad (=Ishhi-Adad)
Ishma-Ia
Ishmah-Dagan
Ishme-Dagan (Of Isin)
Ishme-Dagan I
Ishpuini
Ishtar-Duri
Ishtar-Shumu-Eresh
Ishtup-Ilum
Isqimari (Lamgi-Mari)
Issar-Shumu-Eresh
Ithi-Teshup
Itti-Marduk-Balatu
Ittobaal
Iturya
Jehoahaz I Of Judah
Jehoahaz Ii Of Judah
Jehoahaz Of Israel
Jehoash (=Joash-Ben-Ahaziah)
Jehoiakim
Jehoiakin
Jehoram Of Israel (=Joram Ben Ahab)
Jehoram Of Judah (=Joram)
Jehoshaphat
Jehu
Jeremiah
Jeroboam I
Jeroboam Ii
Jezebel
Joash (=Jehoash Ben Jehoahaz)
Josiah
Jotham
Kabti-Ilani-Marduk
Kadashman-Enlil I
Kadashman-Enlil Ii
Kadashman-Harbe I
Kadashman-Harbe Ii
Kadashman-Turgu
Kaku
Kamanis
Kamash-Khalta
Kandalanu
Karahardash
Karaindash
Kashshaia
Kashshu-Nadin-Ahi
Kashtiliash I
Kashtiliash Iv
Katuwas
Khaianu
Khanni
Khelaruada
Khita
Khulli
Kiden-Hutran
Kikkia
Kilamuwa
Kirikiri
Kiru
Ku-Baba
Kubatum
Kudur-Enlil
Kudur-Mabuk
Kudur-Nahhunte
Kudurru
Kunshimatum
Kurash
Kurigalzu I
Kurigalzu Ii
Kurti (Matti)
Kurtiwaza
Kurunta
Kushtashpi
Kutik-Inshushinak (=Puzur-Inshushinak)
Kutir-Nahhunte
Kuzi-Teshub
Lamgi-Mari
LaErab (Lasirab)
Lipit-Eshtar
Liqtum
Lubarna I
Lubarna Ii
Lugalanda
Lugalannimundu
Lugaldalu
Lugalkineshedudu
Lugalkisalsi
Lugalzagesi
Luh-Ishshan
Lygdamis
Maacah
Manana
Manasseh
Mandane
Manishtusu
Mannu-Ki-Arbail
Mar-Biti-Ahhe-Iddina
Mar-Biti-Apla-Usur
Mar-Issar
Marduk-Ahhe-Eriba
Marduk-Apla-Iddina (The Chaldean)
Marduk-Apla-Iddina I
Marduk-Balassu-Iqbi
Marduk-Nadin-Ahhe
Marduk-Shakin-Shumi
Marduk-Shapik-Zeri
Marduk-Shumu-Usur
Marduk-Zakir-Shumi I
MatiIlu
Matti
Mattiwaza
Mebaragesi (En-Mebaragesi)
Mekubi
Meli-Shipak
Menachem
Menua
Merneptah
Merodach-Baladan (Babylonian Marduk-Apla-Iddina Ii)
Mes-Kiag-Nunna
Mesanepada
Mesha
Mesilim (=Mesalim)
Mesopotamia
Micah
Midas (=Mita)
Mithridates I
Muballit-Sherua
Mudammiq
Mugallu
Mukannishum
Mukin-Zeri
Mulissu-Kabtat
Mulissu-Mukannishat-Ninua
Murashu
Mursili I
Mursili Ii
Mursili Iii
Mushezib-Marduk
Mut-Ashkur
Mutakkil-Nusku
Mutallu (=Muwatalis)
Mutarris-Ashur
Muwatalli (=Muwatalis) (Ii)
Nabonassar (Babylonian Nabu-Nasir)
Nabonidus (Babylonian Nabu-NaId)
Nabopolassar (Nabu-Apla-Usur)
Nabu-Ahhe-Eriba
Nabu-Ahhe-Iddin
Nabu-Apla-Iddina
Nabu-Apla-Usur
Nabu-Bani-Ahi
Nabu-Bel-Shumati
Nabu-Kudurru-Usur
Nabu-Mukin-Apli
Nabu-Mukin-Zeri (Mukin-Zeri)
Nabu-Nadin-Zeri (=Nadinu)
Nabu-Nasir
Nabu-NaId
Nabu-Sharra-Usur
Nabu-Shuma-Ishkun
Nabu-Shuma-Ukin I
Nabu-Shuma-Ukin Ii
Nabu-Shumu-Libur
Nabu-Zer-Kitti-Lishir
Nabu-Zuqup-Kena
Nadab
Nahhunte-Utu
Nammahani
Naplanum
NaqiA-Zakutu
Naram-Sin
Nazi-Bugash
Nazi-Maruttash
Nebuchadnezzar I (Babylonian Nabu-Kudurru-Usur)
Nebuchadnezzar Ii (Babylonian Nabu-Kudurru-Usur)
Nebuchadnezzar Iii
Necho I
Necho Ii
Nehemiah
Nergal-Apil-Kumua
Nergal-Erish
Nergal-Etir
Nergal-Ushezib
Neriglissar
Nidinti-Bel (=Nebuchadnezzar Iii)
Nidnusha
Nin-Banda
Ninurta-Apil-Ekur
Ninurta-Kudurri-Usur I
Ninurta-Kudurri-Usur Ii
Ninurta-Nadin-Shumi
Ninurta-Tukulti-Ashur
Niqmadu (Of Qadesh)
Niqmadu Ii
Niqmepa
Nishi-Inishu
Nuptaya
Nur-Adad
Nur-Ahum
Nur-Ili
Nur-Mer
Omri
Osorkon Ii
Osorkon Iv (=Biblical So, Assyrian Shilkanni)
Panammu I
Panammu Ii
Parrattarna
Parysatis
Pekah
Pekahiah
Perdiccas
Phraates Ii
Pisiri
Pit(K)Hana
Piyashili (Assyrian Sharri-Kushuh)
Protothyes
Psammetichus I
Psammetichus Iii
Ptolemy I
Ptolemy Ii Philadelphia
Ptolemy Iii Euergetes
Ptolemy Iv Philopater
Pu-Abi
Puduhepa
Pulu
Pushu-Kenu
Puzur-Ashur
Puzur-Ashur Iii
Puzur-Eshtar
Puzur-Inshushinak
Puzur-Marduk
Puzur-Numushda (=Puzur-Shulgi)
Rakhianu (Biblical Rezin) Of Damascus
Ramasses Ii
Ramesses Iii
Rashil
Rehoboam
Remanni-Adad
Rim-Sin
Rimush
Rusa I
Rusa Ii
Rusa Iii
Sabium
Sammu-Ramat
Samsi (=Shamshi)
Samsu-Ditana
Samsu-Iluna
Sangara
Sarduri I
Sarduri Ii
Sarduri Iii (Assyrian Ishtar-Duri)
Sargon I (Assyrian Sharru-Kenu)
Sargon Ii
Sargon Of Akkad
Saul
Seleucus I Nicator
Seleucus Ii
Seleucus Iii Soter
Semiramis (Assyrian Sammu-Ramat)
Sennacherib (Assyrian Sin-Ahhe-Eriba)
Shabako
Shadditu
Shagaragti-Shuriash
Shahurunuwa
Shallim-Ahhe
Shallurtum
Shalmaneser (Assyrian Shulmanu-Ashared) I
Shalmaneser Ii
Shalmaneser Iii
Shalmaneser Iv
Shalmaneser V
Shamash-Eriba
Shamash-Mudammiq
Shamash-Shuma-Ukin
Shamshi-Adad I
Shamshi-Adad Iii
Shamshi-Adad Iv
Shamshi-Adad V
Shamshi-Ilu
Shar-Kali-Sharri
Sharri-Kushuh
Sharrish-Takal
Sharriya
Sharru-Kenu
Shasa
Shattiwaza (Kurtiwaza Or Mattiwaza)
Shattuara I
Shattuara Ii
Shaushgamuwa
Shaushtatar
Shennam
Shibtu
Shilhak-Inshushinak
Shilkhakha
Shilwa-Teshup
Shirikti-Shuqamuna
Shoshenq I (Biblical Shishak)
Shu-Dagan
Shu-Ilishu
Shu-Iliya
Shu-Sin
Shu-Turul
Shu-Turul
Shulaya
Shulgi
Shulgi-Shimti
Shunashshura
Shursa-Damu (=Shurshi)
Shutruk-Nahhunte I
Shutruk-Nahhunte Ii (=Shutur-Nahhunte)
Shuttarna Ii
Sidqulanasi
Silhaha (=Shilkhakha)
Silli-Sin
Simbar-Shipak
Simut-Wartash
Sin-Ahhe-Eriba
Sin-Balassu-Iqbi
Sin-Gamil
Sin-Iddinam
Sin-Iribam
Sin-Kashid
Sin-Leqqe-Unninni
Sin-Magir
Sin-Muballit
Sin-Sharra-Ishkun
Sin-Shumu-Lishir
Sinqisha-Amur
Siruktuh I
Siwe-Palar-Huhpak
Smardis
Solomon
Sosandros
Sumu-Abum
Sumu-Il (Sumu-El)
Sumu-La-Il
Sumuyamam
SumuEpuh
Suppiluliuma I
Suppiluliuma Ii
Syria-Palestine
Taharka
Tahir-Dashinu
Talmi-Teshup (Luwian Ura-Tarhunzas)
Tammaritu I
Tan-Ruhuratir
Tarkhulara
Tashmetum-Sharrat
Tehip-Tilla
Teispes
Telepinu
Telepinu Of Aleppo
Tempt-Agun
Tepti-Humban-Inshushinak (Assyrian Teumman)
Test
Tette
Tiglath-Pileser I (Assyrian Tukulti-Apil-Eshara)
Tiglath-Pileser Ii
Tiglath-Pileser Iii (Babylonian Pul(U))
Tirigan
Tish-Atal
Tisha-Lim
Tools & Searches
Tud(T)Anapshum
Tudhaliya I
Tudhaliya Iii
Tudhaliya Iv
Tukin-Khatta-Migrisha
Tukulti-Apil-Eshara
Tukulti-Ninurta I
Tukulti-Ninurta Ii
Tulpunnaya
Turam-Dagan
Turam-Ili
Tushratta
Tutammu
Tuttash-Shar-Libbish (=Tuta-Shar-Libbish)
Ulmi-Teshup
Umakishtar
Umman-Menanu
Ummannigash
Untash-Napirisha (Untash-Humban)
Ur-Baba (Or Ur-BaU)
Ur-Gar
Ur-Mama
Ur-Nanshe
Ur-Ningirsu
Ur-Ninurta
Ur-Utu
Ura-Tarhunzas
Urad-Ea
Urad-Gula
Urad-Nana
Urballu
Urdamane (Egyptian Tantamani)
Urdu-Nanna
Urhi-Teshup (=Mursili Iii)
Urhilina
Urikki
Urlumma
Urnammu
Urtak(I)
Uruinimgina (Uru-Ka-Gina)
Ush (Gish)
Utuhegal
Uzziah
Warad-Sin
Warassa
Warpal(Aw)As (Assyrian Urballu)
Wassurme
Xerxes
Yaggid-Lim
Yahdun-Lim
Yaqarum
Yarim-Lim I
Yarim-Lim Ii
Yarim-Lim Iii
Yariris
Yasmah-Addu
YatarAmi
Yirkab-Damu
Zababa-Shum-Iddina
Zabaya
Zakur
Zakutu
Zarriqum
Zechariah
Zedekiah (=Mattaniah)
Zidanta I
Zimri
Zimri-Lim
Zuzu

Back to Categories

May 24    Scripture

People - Ancient Near East: Baal
Ancient Near East

Baal in Wikipedia Ba‛al (Biblical Hebrew בעל, pronounced [ˈbaʕal], also spelled Baal in English) is a Northwest Semitic title and honorific meaning "master" or "lord"[1] that is used for various gods who were patrons of cities in the Levant, cognate to Akkadian Bēlu. A Baalist or Baalite means a worshipper of Baal. "Ba‛al" can refer to any god and even to human officials; in some texts it is used as a substitute for Hadad, a god of the rain, thunder, fertility and agriculture, and the lord of Heaven. Since only priests were allowed to utter his divine name, Hadad, Ba‛al was commonly used. Nevertheless, few if any Biblical uses of "Ba‛al" refer to Hadad, the lord over the assembly of gods on the holy mount of Heaven, but rather refer to any number of local spirit-deities worshipped as cult images, each called ba‛al and regarded in the Hebrew Bible in that context as a false god. Etymology Baʿal, (bāʾ-ʿayn-lām), is a Semitic word signifying "The Lord, master, owner (male), keeper, husband".[citation needed] Cognates include Standard Hebrew (Bet-Ayin-Lamed; בַּעַל / בָּעַל, Bʕal, Akkadian Bēl and Arabic بعل. The feminine form is Baʕalat (Hebrew בַּעֲלָה Baʕalah, Arabic بعلـة baʕalah) signifying "lady, mistress, owner (female), wife". The words themselves had no exclusively religious connotation, they are a honorific title for heads of households or master craftsmen, but not for royalty. The meaning of "lord" as a member of royalty or nobility is more accurately translated as Adon in Semitic. "Ba'al ul bayt" in modern Levantine Arabic is widely used to mean the head of the household, literally 'Master of the House' and has a somewhat jocular, semi-mocking connotation.[citation needed] In modern Levantine Arabic, the word Bʕal serves as an adjective describing farming that rely only on rainwater as a source of irrigation. Probably it is the last remnant of the sense of Baal the god in the minds of the people of the region. In Amharic, the Semitic word for "owner" or "husband, spouse" survives with the spelling bal. Deities called Ba'al and Ba'alath Because more than one god bore the title "Ba'al" and more than one goddess bore the title "Ba'alat" or "Ba``alah," only the context of a text can indicate of which Ba'al 'lord' or Ba'alath 'Lady' a particular inscription or text is speaking. Hadad in Ugarit Main article: Hadad Further information: Baal cycle In the Bronze Age, Hadad (or Adad) was especially likely to be called Ba'al, Hadad was far from the only god to have that title.[dubious discuss] In the Canaanite pantheon as attested in Ugaritic sources, Hadad was the son of El, who had once been the primary god of the Canaanite pantheon. Ba'al of Tyre Melqart is the son of El in the Phoenician triad of worship. He was the god of Tyre and was often called the Ba'al of Tyre. 1 Kings 16:31 relates that Ahab, king of Israel, married Jezebel, daughter of Ethbaal, king of the Sidonians, and then served habbaal ('the Ba'al'.) The cult of this god was prominent in Israel until the reign of Jehu, who put an end to it (2 Kings 10:26): And they brought out the pillars (massebahs) of the house of the Ba'al and burned them. And they pulled down the pillar (massebah) of the Ba'al and pulled down the house of the Ba'al and turned it into a latrine until this day. Some scholars claim it is uncertain whether "Ba'al" 'the Lord' refers to Melqart in Kings 10:26. They point out that Hadad was also worshipped in Tyre. However this position negates the real possibility that Hadad and Melqart are one and the same god, only having different names because of different languages and cultures, Hadad being Canaanite and Melqart being Phoenician. Both Hadad and Melqart are professed to be the son of El both carrying the same secondary position in the pantheons of each culture. This fact reveals them to be the same deity with different names due to different languages. A contemporary example of this would be God in English and Dios in Spanish. Josephus (Antiquities 8.13.1) states clearly that Jezebel "built a temple to the god of the Tyrians, which they call Belus" which certainly refers to the Baal of Tyre, or Melqart. Ahab son of Omri did more evil in the eyes of the Lord than any of those before him. He not only considered it trivial to commit the sins of Jeroboam son of Nebat, but he also married Jezebel daughter of Ethbaal king of the Sidonians, and began to serve Baal and worship him. He set up an altar for Baal in the temple of Baal that he built in Samaria. Ahab also made an Asherah (pole) and did more to provoke the Lord, the God of Israel, to anger than did all the kings of Israel before him.[2] In any case, King Ahab, despite supporting the cult of this Ba'al, had a semblance of worship to Yahweh (1 Kings 16-22). Ahab still consulted Yahweh's prophets and cherished Yahweh's protection when he named his sons Ahaziah ("Yahweh holds") and Jehoram ("Yahweh is high.") Ba'al of Carthage The worship of Ba'al Hammon flourished in the Phoenician colony of Carthage. Ba'al Hammon was the supreme god of the Carthaginians, and is believed that this supremacy dates back to the 5th century BC, apparently after a breaking off of relationships between Carthage and Tyre at the time of the Punic defeat in Himera.[3] He is generally identified by modern scholars either with the Northwest Semitic god El or with Dagon,[4] and generally identified by the Greeks, by interpretatio Graeca with Greek Cronus and similarly by the Romans with Saturn. The meaning of Hammon or Hamon is unclear. In the 19th century when Ernest Renan excavated the ruins of Hammon (Ḥammon), the modern Umm al-Awamid between Tyre and Acre, he found two Phoenician inscriptions dedicated to El-Hammon. Since El was normally identified with Cronus and Baal Hammon was also identified with Cronus, it seemed possible they could be equated. More often a connection with Hebrew/Phoenician ḥammān 'brazier' has been proposed, in the sense of "Baal (lord) of the brazier". He has been therefore identified with a solar deity.[5] Frank Moore Cross argued for a connection to Khamōn, the Ugaritic and Akkadian name for Mount Amanus, the great mountain separating Syria from Cilicia based on the occurrence of an Ugaritic description of El as the one of the Mountain Haman. Classical sources relate how the Carthaginians burned their children as offerings to Ba'al Hammon. See Moloch for a discussion of these traditions and conflicting thoughts on the matter. From the attributes of his Roman form, African Saturn, it is possible to conclude that Hammon was a fertility god.[6] Scholars tend to see Ba'al Hammon as more or less identical with the god El, who was also generally identified with Cronus and Saturn. However, Yigael Yadin thought him to be a moon god. Edward Lipinski identifies him with the god Dagon in his Dictionnaire de la civilisation phenicienne et punique (1992: ISBN 2-503-50033-1). Inscriptions about Punic deities tend to be rather uninformative. In Carthage and North Africa Ba'al Hammon was especially associated with the ram and was worshiped also as Ba'al Qarnaim ("Lord of Two Horns") in an open-air sanctuary at Jebel Bu Kornein ("the two-horned hill") across the bay from Carthage. Ba'al Hammon's female cult partner was Tanit.[7] He was probably not ever identified with Ba'al Melqart, although one finds this equation in older scholarship. Ba`alat Gebal ("Lady of Byblos") appears to have been generally identified with Ashtart, although Sanchuniathon distinguishes the two. Priests of Ba'al The Priests of Ba'al are mentioned in the Hebrew Bible numerous times, including a confrontation with the Prophet Elijah (1 Kings 18:21-40), the burning of incense symbolic of prayer (2 Kings 23:5), and rituals followed by priests adorned in special vestments (2 Kings 10:22) offering sacrifices similar to those given to honor the Hebrew God. The confrontation with the Prophet Elijah is also mentioned in the Qur'an (37:123-125) Ba'al as a divine title in Israel and Judah At first the name Ba'al was used by the Jews for their God without discrimination, but as the struggle between the two religions developed, the name Ba'al was given up in Judaism as a thing of shame, and even names like Jerubba'al were changed to Jerubbosheth: Hebrew bosheth means "shame".[8] The sense of competition between the priestly forces of Yahweh and of Ba'al in the ninth century is nowhere more directly attested than in 1 Kings 18, where, Elijah the prophet offering a sacrifice to Yahweh, Ba'al's followers did the same. Ba'al in the Hebrew text did not light his followers' sacrifice, but Yahweh sent heavenly fire to burn Elijah's sacrifice to ashes, even after it had been soaked with water. Since Baal simply means 'Lord', there is no obvious reason for which it could not be applied to Yahweh as well as other gods. In fact, Hebrews generally referred to Yahweh as Adonai ('My Lord') in prayer (the word Hashem - 'The Name' - is substituted in everyday speech). The judge Gideon was also called Jeruba'al, a name which seems to mean 'Baal strives', though the Yahwists' explanation in Judges 6:32 is that the theophoric name was given to mock the god Baal, whose shrine Gideon had destroyed, the intention being to imply: "Let Baal strive as much as he can ... it will come to nothing." After Gideon's death, according to Judges 8:33, the Israelites went astray and started to worship the Baalm (the Baals) especially Baal Berith ("Lord of the Covenant.") A few verses later (Judges 9:4) the story turns to all the citizens of Shechem actually kol-baal əkem another case of normal use of baal not applied to a deity. These citizens of Shechem support Abimelech's attempt to become king by giving him 70 shekels from the House of Baal Berith. It is hard to dissociate this Lord of the Covenant who is worshipped in Shechem from the covenant at Shechem described earlier in Joshua 24:25, in which the people agree to worship Yahweh. It is especially hard to do so when Judges 9:46 relates that all "the holders of the tower of Shechem" (kol-baal midgal-əkem) enter bt ēl bərt 'the House of El Berith', that is, 'the House of God of the Covenant'. Either "Baal" was here a title for El, or the covenant of Shechem perhaps originally did not involve El at all, but some other god who bore the title Baal. Whether there were different viewpoints about Yahweh, some seeing him as an aspect of Hadad, some as an aspect of El, some with other perceptions cannot be unambiguously answered. Ba'al appears in theophoric names. One also finds Eshba'al (one of Saul's sons) and Be'eliada (a son of David). The last name also appears as Eliada. This might show that at some period Baal and El were used interchangeably; even in the same name applied to the same person. More likely a later hand has cleaned up the text. Editors did play around with some names, sometimes substituting the form bosheth 'abomination' for baal in names, whence the forms Ishbosheth instead of Eshba'al and Mephibosheth which is rendered Meriba'al in 1 Chronicles 9:40. 1 Chronicles 12:5 mentions the name Be'aliah (more accurately bealy) meaning "Yahweh is Baal." It is difficult to determine to what extent the 'false worship' which the prophets stigmatize is the worship of Yahweh under a conception and with rites, which treated him as a local nature god, or whether particular features of gods more often given the title Baal were consciously recognized to be distinct from Yahwism from the first. Certainly some of the Ugaritic texts and Sanchuniathon report hostility between El and Hadad, perhaps representing a cultic and religious differences reflected in Hebrew tradition also, in which Yahweh in the Tanach is firmly identified with El and might be expected to be somewhat hostile to Ba'al/Hadad and the deities of his circle. But for Jeremiah and the Deuteronomist it also appears to be monotheism against polytheism (Jeremiah 11:12): Then shall the cities of Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem go and cry to the gods to whom they offer incense: but they shall not save them at all in the time of their trouble. For according to the number of your cities are your gods, O Judah; and according to the number of the streets of Jerusalem you have set up altars to the abominination, altars to burn incense to the Baal. Multiple Ba'als and 'Ashtarts One finds in the Tanach the plural forms bə'ālm 'Ba'als' or 'Lords' and atārt Ashtarts, though such plurals don't appear in Phoenician or Canaanite or independent Aramaic sources. One theory is that the people of each territory or in each wandering clan worshipped their own Ba'al, as the chief deity of each, the source of all the gifts of nature, the mysterious god of their fathers. As the god of fertility all the produce of the soil would be his, and his adherents would bring to him their tribute of first-fruits. He would be the patron of all growth and fertility, and, by the use of analogy characteristic of early thought, this Ba'al would be the god of the productive element in its widest sense. Originating perhaps in the observation of the fertilizing effect of rains and streams upon the receptive and reproductive soil, Ba'al worship became identical with nature-worship. Joined with the Ba'als there would naturally be corresponding female figures which might be called 'Ashtarts, embodiments of 'Ashtart. Ba'al Hadad is associated with the goddess "Virgin" Anat, his sister and lover. Through analogy and through the belief that one can control or aid the powers of nature by the practice of magic, particularly sympathetic magic, sexuality might characterize part of the cult of the Ba'als and 'Ashtarts. Post-Exilic allusions to the cult of Ba'al Pe'or suggest that orgies prevailed. On the summits of hills and mountains flourished the cult of the givers of increase, and "under every green tree" was practised the licentiousness which was held to secure abundance of crops. Human sacrifice, the burning of incense, violent and ecstatic exercises, ceremonial acts of bowing and kissing, the preparing of sacred cakes (see also Asherah), appear among the offences denounced by the post-Exilic prophets; and show that the cult of Ba'al (and 'Ashtart) included characteristic features of worship which recur in various parts of the Semitic (and non-Semitic) world, although attached to other names. But it is also possible that such rites were performed to a local Ba'al Lord and a local 'Ashtart without much concern as to whether they were the same as that of a nearby community or how they fitted into the national theology of Yahweh who had become a ruling high god of the heavens, increasingly disassociated from such things, at least in the minds of some worshippers. Another theory is that the references to Ba'als and 'Ashtarts (and Asherahs) are to images or other standard symbols of these deities, statues, and icons of Ba'al Hadad, 'Ashtart, and Asherah set-up in various high places as well as those of other gods, the author listing the most prominent as types for all. A reminiscence of Ba'al as a title of a local fertility god (or referring to a particular god of subterraneous water) may occur in the Talmudic Hebrew phrases field of the ba'al and place of the ba'al and Arabic ba'l used of land fertilised by subterraneous waters rather than by rain. The identification of Ba`al as a sun-god in historical scholarship came to be abandoned by the end of the 19th century as it became clear that Ba`al was the title of numerous local gods and not necessarily a single deity in origin. It also became clear that the "astralizing" (association or identification with heavenly bodies) of Ancient Near Eastern deities was a late (Iron Age) development in no way connected with the origin of religion as theorized by some 19th century schools of thought.[9] Christian demonology Until archaeological digs at Ras Shamra and Ebla uncovered texts explaining the Syrian pantheon, the demon Baal Zebb was frequently confused with various Semitic spirits and deities named Baal, whereas in some Christian writings, it might refer to a high-ranking devil or to Satan himself. Early demonologists, unaware of Hadad or that "Ba'al" in the Bible referred to any number of local spirits, came to regard the term as referring to but one personage. Baal (usually spelt "Bael" in this context; there is a possibility that the two figures are not connected[citation needed]) was ranked as the first and principal king in Hell, ruling over the East. According to some authors Baal is a duke, with 66 legions of demons under his command. During the English Puritan period, Baal was either compared to Satan or considered his main lieutenant. According to Francis Barrett, he has the power to make those who invoke him invisible. In grimoire tradition, the demon Bael was said to appear in the forms of a man, cat, toad, or combinations thereof. An illustration in Collin de Plancy's 1818 book Dictionnaire Infernal rather curiously placed the heads of the three creatures onto a set of spider legs. Ba'al Zebb Another version of the demon Baal is Beelzebub, or more accurately Baal Zebb or Baal Zəbb (Hebrew בעל-זבוב), who was originally the name of a deity worshipped in the Philistine city of Ekron. Baal Zebb might mean "Lord of Zebb", referring to an unknown place named Zebb.[citation needed] Some scholars[who?] have suggested that Ba'al Zebul which means 'lord prince' was deliberately changed by the worshippers of Yahweh to Ba'al Zebub ('lord of the flies', zebb being a Hebrew collective noun meaning "fly") in order to ridicule and protest the worship of Ba'al Zebul. (NIV Study Bible published by Zondervan) In Christian demonology, Baal Zebb (anglicized Beelzebub) came to be identified as a demon or devil.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ba%27al


If you notice a broken link or any error PLEASE report it by clicking HERE
© 1995-2017 Bible History Online





More Bible History