Ark of the Covenant - Bible History Online

Bible History Online

Sub Categories
1. Previous List
Achelous
Acheron
Achilles
Actaeon
Admetus
Adonis
Aeacus
Aeëtes
Aegeus
Aegisthus
Aegyptus
Aeneas
Aeolus
Aesculapius
Aeson
Aether
Aethra
Agamemnon
Aglaia
Ajax
Alcestis
Alcmene
Alcyone
Alecto
Alectryon
Althaea
Amazons
Amor
Amphion
Amphitrite
Amphitryon
Anchises
Ancile
Andraemon
Andromache
Andromeda
Anteia
Anteros
Antigone
Antinoüs
Aphrodite (Venus)
Apollo
Aquilo
Arachne
Ares (Mars)
Argo
Argus
Ariadne
Arion
Artemis (Diana)
Asclepius (Aesculapius)
Astarte
Asterope
Astraea
Atalanta
Athena (Minerva)
Atlas
Atreus
Atropos
Aurora
Auster
Avernus
Bacchus
Bellerophon
Bellona
Boreas
Briareus
Briseis
Cadmus
Calliope
Calypso
Cassandra
Castor
Celaeno
Centaurs
Cephalus
Cepheus
Cerberus
Ceres
Chaos
Charon
Charybdis
Chimera
Chiron
Chronos
Chryseis
Circe
Clio
Clotho
Clytemnestra
Cocytus
Creon
Creusa
Creüsa
Cronus (Saturn)
Cupid
Cybele
Cyclopes
Daedalus
Danae
Danaïdes
Danaüs
Daphne
Decuma
Deino
Demeter (Ceres)
Diana
Dido
Diomedes
Diomedes
Dione
Dionysus (Bacchus)
Dioscuri
Dis
Dryads
Dryope
Echo
Electra
Electra
Elysium
Endymion
Enyo
Eos (Aurora)
Epimetheus
Erato
Erebus
Erinyes
Eris
Eros (Amor or Cupid)
Eteocles
Eumenides
Euphrosyne
Europa
Eurus
Euryale
Eurydice
Eurystheus
Euterpe
Fates
Fauns
Faunus
Favonius
Flora
Fortuna
Furies
Gaea
Galatea
Galatea
Ganymede
Glaucus
Golden Fleece
Gorgons
Graces
Graeae
Greek Mythology
Hades (Dis)
Haemon
Hamadryads
Harpies
Hebe (Juventas)
Hecate
Hector
Hecuba
Helen
Heliades
Helios (Sol)
Helle
Hephaestus (Vulcan)
Hera (Juno)
Hercules
Hermes (Mercury)
Hero
Hesperus
Hestia (Vesta)
Hippolyte
Hippolytus
Hippomenes
Hyacinthus
Hydra
Hygeia
Hymen
Hyperion
Hypermnestra
Hypnos (Somnus)
Iapetus
Icarus
Io
Iobates
Iphigenia
Iris
Ismene
Iulus
Ixion
Janus
Jason
Jocasta
Juno
Jupiter
Juventas
Lachesis
Laius
Laocoön
Lares
Latona
Lavinia
Leander
Leda
Lethe
Leto (Latona)
Lucina
Lynceus
Maia
Maia
Manes
Mars
Marsyas
Medea
Medusa
Megaera
Meleager
Melpomene
Memnon
Menelaus
Mentor
Mercury
Merope
Mezentius
Midas
Minerva
Minos
Minotaur
Mnemosyne
Moirae
Momus
Morpheus
Mors
Morta
Muses
Naiads
Napaeae
Narcissus
Nemesis
Neoptolemus
Neptune
Nereids
Nestor
Nike
Niobe
Nona
Notus
Nox
Nymphs
Nyx (Nox)
Oceanids
Oceanus
Odysseus (Ulysses)
Oedipus
Oenone
Ops
Oreads
Orestes
Orion
Orpheus
Pales
Palinurus
Pan (Faunus)
Pandora
Parcae
Paris
Patroclus
Pegasus
Pelias
Pelops
Penates
Penelope
Pephredo
Periphetes
Persephone (Proserpine)
Perseus
Phaedra
Phaethon
Philoctetes
Phineus
Phlegethon
Phosphor
Phrixos
Pirithous
Pleiades
Pluto (Dis)
Plutus
Pollux
Polyhymnia
Polymnia (Polyhymnia)
Polynices
Polyphemus
Polyxena
Pomona
Pontus
Poseidon (Neptune)
Priam
Priapus
Procris
Procrustes
Proetus
Prometheus
Proserpine
Proteus
Psyche
Pygmalion
Pyramus
Python
Quirinus
Remus
Rhadamanthus
Rhea (Ops)
Rivers of Underworld
Romulus
Sarpedon
Saturn
Satyrs
Sciron
Scylla
Selene
Semele
Sibyls
Sileni
Silvanus
Sinis
Sirens
Sisyphus
Sol
Somnus
Sphinx
Sterope (Asterope)
Stheno
Styx
Symplegades
Syrinx
Tantalus
Tartarus
Taygete
Telemachus
Tellus
Terminus
Terpsichore
Terra
Thalia
Thanatos (Mors)
Themis
Theseus
Thisbe
Thyestes
Tiresias
Tisiphone
Titans
Tithonus
Triton
Turnus
Ulysses
Urania
Uranus
Venus
Vertumnus
Vesta
Vulcan
Winds
Zephyrus
Zeus (Jupiter)

Back to Categories

September 20    Scripture

Mythology & Beliefs: Athena (Minerva)
In Greek and Roman Mythology, Athena (Minerva) was the goddess of wisdom; known poetically as Pallas Athene and sprang fully armed from head of Zeus. In Greek and Roman mythology Athena (Minerva) was a celestial deity. She was the daughter of Jupiter, who issued her full grown and completely armed. Athena (Minerva) was the goddess of wisdom, of war, and of weapons; she invented warfare chariots, spinning and weaving; and she was the protectress of the liberal arts. Athena (Minerva) is seen in statues as a virgin, beautiful yet stern faced, dark complexion, wearing a helmet, fully armed; waving her plume; and in the middle of her shield is Medusa with her snaky head. In ancient Rome Athena (Minerva) was the Goddess of reason, wisdom, the arts, and intelligence.(Also see Minerva) - Greek Mythology

Athena in Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (Ἀθήνη or Ἀθηνᾶ), one of the great divinities of the Greeks. Homer Hom. Il. 5.880) calls her a daughter of Zeus, without any allusion to her mother or to the manner in which she was called into existence, while most of the later traditions agree in stating that she was born from the head of Zeus. According to Hesiod (Hes. Th. 886, &c.), Metis, the first wife of Zeus, was the mother of Athena, but when Metis was pregnant with her, Zeus, on the advice of Gaea and Uranus, swallowed Metis up, and afterwards gave birth himself to Athena, who sprang from his head. (Hesiod, l.c. 924.) Pindar Pind. O. 7.35, &c.) adds, that Hephaestus split the head of Zeus with his axe, and that Athena sprang forth with a mighty war-shout. Others relate, that Prometheus or Hermes or Palamaon assisted Zeus in giving birth to Athena, and mentioned the river Triton as the place where the event took place. (Apollod. 1.4.6; Schol. ad Pind. Ol. 7.66.) Other traditions again relate, that Athena sprang from the head of Zeus in frill armour, a statement for which Stesichorus is said to have been the most ancient authority. (Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 355; Philostr. Icon. 2.27; Schol. ad Apollon. 4.1310.) All these traditions, however, agree in making Athena a daughter of Zeus; but a second set regard her as the daughter of Pallas, the winged giant, whom she afterwards killed on account of his attempting to violate her chastity, whose skin she used as her aegis, and whose wings she fastened to her own feet. (Tzetz. ad Lycoph. l.c.; Cic. de Nat. Deor. 3.23.) A third tradition carries us to Libya, and calls Athena a daughter of Poseidon and Tritonis. Athena, says Herodotus (4.180), on one occasion became angry with her father and went to Zeus, who made her his own daughter. This passage shews more clearly than any other the manner in which genuine and ancient Hellenic myths were transplanted to Libya, where they were afterwards regarded as the sources of Hellenic ones. Respecting this Libyan Athena, it is farther related, that she was educated by the rivergod Triton, together with his own daughter Pallas. (Apollod. 3.12.3.) In Libya she was also said to have invented the flute; for when Perseus had cut off the head of Medusa, and Stheno and Euryale, the sisters of Medusa, lamented her death, while plaintive sounds issued from the mouths of the serpents which surrounded their heads, Athena is said to have imitated these sounds on a reed. (Pind. P. 12.19, &c.; compare the other accounts in Hyg. Fab. 165; Apollod. 1.4.2 ; Paus. 1.24.1.) The connexion of Athena with Triton and Tritonis caused afterwards the various traditions about her birth-place, so that wherever there was a river or a well of that name, as in Crete, Thessaly, Boeotia, Arcadia, and Egypt, the inhabitants of those districts asserted that Athena was born there. It is from such birth- places on a river Triton that she seems to have been called Tritonis or Tritogeneia (Paus. 9.33.5), though it should be observed that this surname is also explained in other ways; for some derive it from an ancient Cretan, Aeolic, or Boeotian word, τριτώ, signifying " head," so that it would mean " the goddess born from the head," and others think that it was intended to commemorate the circumstance of her being born on the third day of the month. (Tztez. ad Lycoph. 519.) The connexion of Athena with Triton naturally suggests, that we have to look for the most ancient seat of her worship in Greece to the banks of the river Triton in Boeotia, which emptied itself into lake Copais, and on which there were two ancient Pelasgian towns, Athenae and Eleusis, which were according to tradition swallowed up by the lake. From thence her worship was carried by the Minyans into Attica, Libya, and other countries. (Müller, Orchom. p. 355.) We must lastly notice one tradition, which made Athena a daughter of Itonius and sister of Iodama, who was killed by Athena (Paus. 9.34.1; Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 355), and another according to which she was the daughter of Hephaestus. These various traditions about Athena arose, as in most other cases, from local legends and from identifications of the Greek Athena with other divinities. The common notion which the Greeks entertained about her, and which was most widely spread in the ancient world, is, that she was the daughter of Zeus, and if we take Metis to have been her mother, we have at once the clue to the character which she bears in the religion of Greece ; for, as her father was the most powerful and her mother the wisest among the gods, so Athena was a combination of the two, that is, a goddess in whom power and wisdom were harmoniously blended. From this fundamental idea may be derived the various aspects under which she appears in the ancient writers. She seems to have been a divinity of a purely ethical character, and not the representative of any particular physical power manifested in nature; her power and wisdom appear in her being the protectress and preserver of the state and of social institutions. Everything, therefore, which gives to the state strength and prosperity, such as agriculture, inventions, and industry, as well as everything which preserves and protects it from injurious influence from without, such as the defence of the walls, fortresses, and harbours, is under her immediate care. As the protectress of agriculture, Athena is represented as the inventor of the plough and rake: she created the olive tree, the greatest blessing of Attica, taught the people to yoke oxen to the plough, took care of the breeding of horses, and instructed men how to tame them by the bridle, her own invention. Allusions to this feature of her character are contained in the epithets βούδεια, βοαρμία, ἀλρίφα, ἱππία, or χαλινῖτις. (Eustath. ad Hom. p. 1076; Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 520; Hesych. s. v. Ἱππία; Serv. ad Aen. 4.402; Pind. O. 13.79.) At the beginning of spring thanks were offered to her in advance (προχαριστήρια, Suid. s. v.) for the protection she was to afford to the fields. Besides the inventions relating to agriculture, others also connected with various kinds of science, industry, and art, are ascribed to her, and all her inventions are not of the kind which men make by chance or accident, but such as require thought and meditation. We may notice the invention of numbers (Liv. 7.3), of the trumpet (Böckh, ad Pind. p. 344), the chariot, and navigation. [AETHYIA.] In regard to all kinds of useful arts, she was believed to have made men acquainted with the means and instruments which are necessary for practising them, such as the art of producing fire. She was further believed to have invented nearly every kind of work in which women were employed, and she herself was skilled in such work : in short Athena and Hephaestus were the great patrons both of the useful and elegant arts. Hence she is called ἐργάνη (Paus. 1.24.3), and later writers make her the goddess of all widom, knowledge, and art, and represent her as sitting on the right hand side of her father Zeus, and supporting him with her counsel. (Hom. Od. xxiii 160, 18.190; Hymn. in Ven. 4, 7, &c.; Plut. Cim. 10; Ovid, Ov. Fast. 3.833; Orph. Hymn. 31.8; Spanh. ad Callim. p. 643; Hor. Carm. 1.12. 19; comp. Dict. of Ant. under Ἀθήναια and Χαλκεῖα.) As the goddess who made so many inventions necessary and useful in civilized life, she is characterized by various epithets and surnames, expressing the keenness of her sight or the power of her intellect, such as ὀπτιλέτις, ὀφθαλμῖτις, ὀξυδερκής, γλαυκῶπις, πολύβουλος, πολύμητις, and μηχανῖτις. As the patron divinity of the state, she was at Athens the protectress of the phratries and houses which formed the basis of the state. The festival of the Apaturia had a direct reference to this particular point in the character of the goddess. (Dict. of Ant. s. v. Apaturia.) She also maintained the authority of the law, and justice, and order, in the courts and the assembly of the people. This notion was as ancient as the Homeric poems, in which she is described as assisting Odysseus against the lawless conduct of the suitors. (Od. 13.394.) She was believed to have instituted the ancient court of the Areiopagus, and in cases where the votes of the judges were equally diviled, she gave the casting one in favour of the accused. (Aeschyl. Eum. 753; comp. Paus. 1.28.5.) The epithets which have reference to this part of the goddess's character are άξιόποινος, the avenger (Paus. 3.15.4), Βουλαῖα, and ἀγυραῖα. (3.11.8.) As Athena promoted the internal prosperity of the state, by encouraging agriculture and industry, and by maintaining law and order in all public transactions, so also she protected the state from outward enemies, and thus assumes the character of a warlike divinity, though in a very different sense from Ares, Eris, or Enyo. According to Homer (Hom. Il. 5.736, &c.), she does not even bear arms, but borrows them from Zeus; she keeps men from slaughter when prudence demands it (Il. 1.199, &c.), and repels Ares's savage love of war, and conquers him. (5.840, &c., 21.406.) She does not love war for its own sake, but simply on account of the advantages which the state gains in engaging in it; and she therefore supports only such warlike undertakings as are begun with prudence, and are likely to be followed by favourable results. (10.244, &c.) The epithets which she derives from her warlike character are ἀγελεία, λαφρία, ἀλκιμάχη, λαόσσοος, and others. In times of war, towns, fortresses, and harbours are under her especial care, whence she is designated as ερυσίπτολις, ἀλαλκομενηΐς, πολιάς, πολιοῦχος, ἀκραῖα, ἀκρία, κληδοῦχος, πυλαῖτις, προμαχόρμα, and the like. As the prudent goddess of war, she is also the protectress of all heroes who are distinguished for prudence and good counsel, as well as for their strength and valour, such as Heracles, Perseus, Bellerophontes, Achilles, Diomedes, and Odysseus. In the war of Zeus against the giants, she assisted her father and Heracles with her counsel, and also took an active part in it, for she buried Enceladus under the island of Sicily, and slew Pallas. (Apollod. 1.6.1, &c.; comp. Spanheim, ad Callim. p. 643; Hor. Carm. 1.12. 19.) In the Trojan war she sided with the more civilised Greeks, though on their return home she visited them with storms, on account of the manner in which the Locrian Ajax had treated Cassandra in her temple. As a goddess of war and the protectress of heroes, Athena usually appears in armour, with the aegis and a golden staff, with which she bestows on her favourites youth and majesty. (Hom. Od. 16.172.) The character of Athena, as we have here traced it, holds a middle place between the male and female, whence she is called in an Orphic hymn (31.10) ἄρσην καὶ θῆλυς, and hence also she is a virgin divinity (Hom. Hymn. 9.3), whose heart is inaccessible to the passion of love, and who shuns matrimonial connexion. Teircsias was deprived of his sight for having seen her in the bath (Callim. Hymn. pp. 546,589), and Hephaestus, who made an attempt upon her chastity, was obliged to flee. (Apollod. 3.6.7, 14.6; Hom. Il. 2.547, &c.; comp. Tzetz. ad Lycophr. 111.) For this reason, the ancient traditions always describe the goddess as dressed; and when Ovid (Ov. Ep. 5.36) makes her appear naked before Paris, he abandons the genuine old story. lier statue also was always dressed, and when it was carried about at the Attic festivals, it was entirely covered. But, notwithstanding the common opinion of her virgin character, there are some traditions of late origin which describe her as a mother. Thus, Apollo is called a son of Hephaestus and Athena--a legend which may have arisen at the time when the Ionians introduced the worship of Apollo into Attica, and when this new divinity was placed in some family connexion with the ancient goddess of the country. (Müller, Dor. 2.2.13.) Lychnus also is called a son of Hephaestus and Athena. (Spanheim, ad Callim. p. 644.) Athena was worshipped in all parts of Greece, and from the ancient towns on the lake Copais her worship was nitroduced at a very early period into Attica, where she became the great national divinity of the city and the country. Here she was afterwards regarded as the θεὰ σώτειρα, ὐγίεια, and παιωνία, and the serpent, the symbol of perpetual renovation, was sacred to her. (Paus. 1.23.5, 31.3, 2.4.) At Lindus in Rhodes her worship was likewise very ancient. Respecting its introduction into Italy, and the modifications which her character underwent there, see MINERVA. Among the things sacred to her we may mention the owl, serpent, cock, and olive-tree, which she was said to have created in her contest with Poseidon about the possession of Attica. (Plut. de Is. et Os.; Paus. 6.26.2, 1.24.3; Hyg. Fab. 164.) At Corone in Messenia her statue bore a crow in its hand. (Paus. 4.34.3.) The sacrifices offered to her consisted of bulls, whence she probably derived the surname of ταυροβόλος (Suid. s. v.), rams, and cows. (Hom. Il. 2.550; Ov. Met. 4.754.) Eustathius (ad Hom. l.c.) remarks, that only female animals were sacrificed to her, but no female lambs. In Ilion, Locrian maidens or children are said to have been sacrificed to her every year as an atonement for the crime committed by the Locrian Ajax upon Cassandra; and Suidas (s. v. ποινή) states, that these human sacrifices continued to be offered to her down to B. C. 346. Respecting the great festivals of Athena at Athens, see Dict. of Ant. s. vv. Panathenaea and Arrhephoria. Athena was frequently represented in works of art; but those in which her figure reached the highest ideal of perfection were the three statues by Pheidias. The first was the celebrated colossal statue of the goddess, of gold and ivory, which was erected on the acropolis of Athens; the second was a still greater bronze statue, made out of the spoils taken by the Athenians in the battle of Marathon; the third was a small bronze statue called the beautiful or the Lemnian Athena, because it had been dedicated at Athens by the Lemnians. The first of these statues represented the goddess in a standing position, bearing in her hand a Nike four cubits in height. The shield stood by her feet; her robe came down to her feet, on her breast was the head of Medusa, in her right hand she bore a lance, and at her feet there lay a serpent. (Paus. 1.24.7, 28.2.) We still possess a great number of representations of Athena in statues, colossal busts, reliefs, coins, and in vase-paintings. Among the attributes which characterise the goddess in these works of art, we mention--1. The helmet, which she usually wears on her head, but in a few instances carries in her hand. It is usually ornamented in the most beautiful manner with griffins, heads of rams, horses, and sphinxes. (Comp. Hom. Il. 5.743.) 2. The aegis. (Dict. of Ant. s. v. Aegis.) 3. The round Argolic shield. in the centre of which is represented the head of Medusa. 4. Objects sacred to her, such as an olive branch, a serpent, an owl, a cock, and a lance. Her garment is usually the Spartan tunic without sleeves, and over it she wears a cloak, the peplus, or, though rarely, the chlamys. The general expression of her figure is thoughtfulness and earnestness; her face is rather oval than round, the hair is rich and generally combed backwards over the temples, and floats freely down behind. The whole figure is majestic, and rather strong built than slender: the hips are small and the shoulders broad, so that the whole somewhat resembles a male figure. (Hirt, Mythol. Bilderb. i. p. 46, &c.; Welcker, Zeitschrift für Gesch. der alten Kunst, p. 256, &c.) - A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, William Smith, Ed.
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3atext%3a1999.04.0104


Athena in Wikipedia Athena (pronounced /əˈθiːnə/) or Athene (/əˈθiːniː/; Attic: Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnā or Ἀθηναία, Athēnaia; Epic: Ἀθηναίη, Athēnaiē; Ionic: Ἀθήνη, Athēnē; Doric: Ἀθάνα, Athana; Latin: Minerva), also referred to as Pallas Athena (Παλλάς Αθηνά; pronounced / ˈpæləs/), is the goddess of war, civilization, wisdom, strength, strategy, crafts, justice and skill in Greek mythology. Minerva, Athena's Roman incarnation, embodies similar attributes.[4] Athena is also a shrewd companion of heroes and the goddess of heroic endeavour. She is the virgin patron of Athens. The Athenians built the Parthenon on the Acropolis of her namesake city, Athens, in her honour (Athena Parthenos).[4]...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Athena


If you notice a broken link or any error PLEASE report it by clicking HERE
© 1995-2017 Bible History Online





More Bible History