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November 18    Scripture

Weapons & Warfare: General


Hoplite Sword (Greece) The hoplite sword was essentially a slashing weapon and was generally worn slung from a baldric over the right shoulder so that it hung almost horizontally on the left. Alexander the Great is shown with a sword of this type in a period mosaic from Pompeii.
http://www.larp.com/hoplite/grswrd1.jpg


A Beginner`s Guide to Roman Arms and Armour Museum of Antiquities in Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom A `virtual book` that provides an illustrated introduction to the arms and armour of Roman soldiers. [ancient weapons] [Weapons and Warfare]
http://museums.ncl.ac.uk/archive/arma/welc/beginner/page01.htm


Achaemenid Persia - its history, people and warfare. This site has been inspired by the stories and images of Ancient Persia. It is meant to be a resource for those interested in Iran, its people and their history. In particular, it focuses on the romance and colour of the "Achaemenid Empire". It contains information on the achievements, the events and the individuals that shaped its history. For those who have an interest in recreating a Persian army in miniature, there are descriptions of the armies and warfare of the Achaemenid period including detailed notes on their battles, organisation and equipment. Weapons & Warfare.
http://members.ozemail.com.au/~ancientpersia/


ALEXANDER 'the Great' A L E X A N D E R "The Great" (356 -323 B.C.) A L E X A N D R O S by Plutarch In an amazing eleven-year journey of conquest, young Alexander of Macedonia conquered all the way from Egypt to India. Behind him came Greek institutions and the Greek language, which became the standard of the ancient world. The intoxication of power caused Alexander to become strange to his friends, and he died unhappy. Weapons & Warfare.
http://www.e-classics.com/ALEXANDER.htm


Alexander the Great and His Army by Gerald L. Conroy. Conroy discusses in his article the tactics and strategies of Alexander and his army. Weapons & Warfare.
http://members.tripod.com/~Kekrops/Hellenistic_Files/Alexander_and_His_Army.html


Ancient and Medieval History Good help. Created by Ann Ivey and Mark M. Minzak. [General Ancient War Links]
http://library.uwf.edu/eli/Arts/Ancient.shtml


Ancient Battles Miniature Wargaming Information on Warhammer Alexander the Great, how to paint military miniature soldiers, ancient battle maps, miniature wargaming rules, alexander the great's campaigns. [General Ancient War Links]
http://www.ancientbattles.com/


Ancient Egypt Edged Weapons One distinguishes between two kinds of battle axe: the cutting and the piercing axe. Both were used by Egyptian soldiers, but under different circumstances. The cutting axe is a blade fastened to a sizable handle, the idea being to keep as far as possible from harm's way. As relatively little power was exerted the affixing of the blade to the handle was not very critical. The head was generally inserted into a hole or groove in the wooden handle and tied fast.
http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/weapons/edged_weapons.htm


Ancient Egypt Projectiles, Javelin, Bow and arrow, slingshot Ancient Egyptian Weapons: Projectiles, Javelin, Bow and arrow, slingshot. The Throw Stick This somewhat boomerang shaped weapon had little military value, but was, according to the tomb depictions of hunting scenes, extensively used for hunting fowl in the thickets of the Delta reed marshes. They were cheap to make (unlike the much more sophisticated arrows) and their loss was of little importance. Decorative throw sticks were found in Tutankhamen's tomb.
http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/weapons/missiles.htm


Ancient Egypt War Weapons To win a war, the successful adversary must have a leading superiority in tactics and weapons. Even though a tactic could fail, if the army had good weapons, it could still help the soldiers to win. Even if the strategy to save more people actually meant more losses because it did not work, there could still be a victory in the end. Every army must have weapons that are efficient, handy, and not so bulky and light enough to carry, those are the principles to a good weapon. The Egyptians had all the characteristics in their tactics and weapons.
http://primaryschool.asfg.mx/CPProyecto/Ancient_Egyptian_Weapons...htm


Ancient Egyptian Warfare Ancient Egyptian Warfare for Kids [General Ancient War Links]
http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/egypt/war/index.htm


Ancient Europe: Text and Documents Ancient Greece and Rome The Presocratics Anaxagoras Anaximander Anaximenes Empedocles Parmenides Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans Thales Zeno Weapons & Warfare.
http://history.hanover.edu/project.html


Ancient Galleys "Until about 800 B.C. a variety of ships were used in the Aegean sea. However, they had not yet developed the basic forms of the classical age. Most ships were more or less symmetrical in design (similar to Viking ships, though much more primitive and less seaworthy), and the standard fighting technique was to board the enemy vessel. Then, around 800 B.C., the ram was developed as a ship-to-ship weapon. Suddenly, speed and maneuverability became prime concerns. Includes info on the penteconter, the triaconter, the bireme, the trireme, the quadrireme, quinquereme, Liburnes. Note: The Latin Bireme, Trieme, Quadrireme, Quinquereme correspond to the Greek Biere, Triere, Tetrere and Pentere. The terms are usually used interchangable today. There is some confusion about the use of the term Biere in early Greek - apparently, the old terms Triakonteros and Pentekonteros were originally used to describe both one and two decked ships, and the term Biere was only used later, as a translation of the Latin term Bireme." [by Stephan Schulz]
http://www4.informatik.tu-muenchen.de/~schulz/triremes.html


Ancient Greek Infantry I. Tactical Warfare: Formation of the phalanx; defensive and offensive fronts. II. Armor and Weapons: Hoplite armaments, shields, swords etc.; chariots. III. Military Hierarchy: Infrastructure from Generals to "packers". IV. Military Pay: Integration of monetary funds for military duties, mercenaries. V. Military Duty: Duty to the state and to the gods. VI. Bibliography:
http://atschool.eduweb.co.uk/sirrobhitch.suffolk/Portland%20State%20University%20Greek%20Civilization%20Home%20Page%20v2/DOCS/7/seanh.htm


Ancient Greek Infantry : Armor and Weapons Hoplite armaments, shields, swords etc.; chariots. The armor and weapons used during war varied in accordance to the wealth of the soldier, technological advancements, and battle tactics. The heavy-infantry soldier was perhaps the most formidable soldier because of his wealth and social stature. The hoplites, who were armed with a variety of armaments, were formed into heavy-infantry phalanxes.
http://atschool.eduweb.co.uk/sirrobhitch.suffolk/Portland%20State%20University%20Greek%20Civilization%20Home%20Page%20v2/DOCS/10/seanh8.htm


Ancient Greek Infantry : Bibliography A Couple references.
http://atschool.eduweb.co.uk/sirrobhitch.suffolk/Portland%20State%20University%20Greek%20Civilization%20Home%20Page%20v2/DOCS/10/seanh6.htm


Ancient Greek Infantry : Military Duty Duty to the state and to the gods. Military duty in ancient Greece was perceived and practiced by citizens as an important component of civic duty as well as piety to the gods. The causes of war were usually political , naturally imbued with pious issues, and were also instigated by breaches in good faith between city-states. The citizen of ancient Greece was also a soldier, allowing him to engage in war and to become involved in civic duties. The predominant duty of the citizen was his participation in war, through which he was partaking in the act of defence of the values and honor of his city-state, regardless of whether the war was defensive or offensive.
http://atschool.eduweb.co.uk/sirrobhitch.suffolk/Portland%20State%20University%20Greek%20Civilization%20Home%20Page%20v2/DOCS/10/seanh5.htm


Ancient Greek Infantry : Military Hierarchy Infrastructure from Generals to "packers". The military hierarchy of ancient Greece could in retrospect be viewed as running parallel to its social hierarchy. The aristocratic class were the wealthiest and most politically powerful individuals of the populace. Their social position gave them an identical stature in the military hierarchy, for they assumed complete authority as trierarchs of both land and sea forces. Not only did they instigate wars but they also led them on the battle fields.
http://atschool.eduweb.co.uk/sirrobhitch.suffolk/Portland%20State%20University%20Greek%20Civilization%20Home%20Page%20v2/DOCS/10/seanh3.htm


Ancient Greek Infantry : Military Pay Integration of monetary funds for military duties, mercenaries. Pay for military services rendered was essentially nonexistent. Military duty was concieved of as a duty to the state which meant that warfare was part of a citizen's responsibilities. Prior to military salaries, soldiers obtained pay through their victories; they sacked cities and confiscated booty which came to be their reward for military service. Not until the early fifth-century B.C. did payments for military service become common. The Athenians initiated their pay system in a time of peace during the thirty-year truce between the Delian League and the Peloponnesian League .
http://atschool.eduweb.co.uk/sirrobhitch.suffolk/Portland%20State%20University%20Greek%20Civilization%20Home%20Page%20v2/DOCS/10/seanh4.htm


Ancient Greek Infantry : Tactical Warfare Formation of the phalanx; defensive and offensive fronts. Prior to the evolution of the phalanx during the seventh-century BC, war was fought by very limited forces derived exclusively from the social infrastructure of Greek city-states. Quite commonly the aristocratic class constituted the majority of the army. Battles were usually won with specialized offensive charges from which the strongest forces in the army, being that of the chariots and cavalry, often became the decisive factor. Chariots and horses were obtained solely for the nobility; through their wealth and social supremacy nobles could afford to purchase these military luxuries and would have the leisure time to practice them. Often battles were clashes between the noble classes of differing city-states, henceforth, leading to their hegemony over the rest of the population.
http://atschool.eduweb.co.uk/sirrobhitch.suffolk/Portland%20State%20University%20Greek%20Civilization%20Home%20Page%20v2/DOCS/10/seanh1.htm


Ancient Greek Military I. Tactical Warfare: Formation of the phalanx; defensive and offensive fronts. II. Armor and Weapons: Hoplite armaments, shields, swords etc.; chariots. III. Military Hierarchy: Infrastructure from Generals to "packers". IV. Military Pay: Integration of monetary funds for military duties, mercenaries. V. Military Duty: Duty to the state and to the gods. Weapons & Warfare.
http://atschool.eduweb.co.uk/sirrobhitch.suffolk/Portland%20State%20University%20Greek%20Civilization%20Home%20Page%20v2/DOCS/7/seanh.htm


Ancient Greek Military Technology Ancient Greeks invented the use of technology in warfare. It is the base of military superiority of the civilization of the West. The first such invention was the Phalanx which was used against the Persians. The Athenians produced very fast triremes. The Greeks in Sicily developed the first advanced catapults. In the period of Alexander the Great colossal siege engines were produced. Alexander introduced an army that could move very fast (even today very important) a fact which requires an organization and planning. The Greek Ptolemaic kings of Egypt produced very large ships. The wars of the Diadochi for the control of the territory conquered by Alexander the Great continued for many years. The Romans very fast acquired the Greek military technology and developed the most organized military system the world ever has seen. The small city states of Greece were intergrated in an Empire that could afford the loss of many thousands of soldiers in a battle or in catastrophical events.Pyrrhus of Epirus experienced this fact. Approximately 400000 Roman soldiers died in the Carthaginian war. Around 100000 Romans died in a storm off Cape Pachynus in 255 BC which destroyed a Roman fleet. By Michael Lahanas
http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/WarTech.htm


Ancient Greek weaponry The Hellenistic Age began with the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and lasted until the true establishment of the Roman Empire upon the death of Cleopatra in 30 BC. The method of warfare inancient Greece, and the world, consisted of arrows spears, swords, axes and shields. Because of its ease of casting and superiority in strength, bronze was preferred in the making of weapons.
http://www.7cs.com/greece/grkwpns.htm


Ancient History Warfare / Battles / Weapons / Arms & Armor / Violence & Aggression Resources on ancient battles, wars, conflicts, weapons, and armor, as well as violent punishments and gladiators. Art of War - Gladiators @ Battles and Wars - War Gamers - Crucifixion @ Warriors and Soldiers - Egyptian Military @ Weapons / Warfare / Armor - Weapons & Warfare.
http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/warfareconflictarmor/Warfare_Battles_Weapons_Arms_Armor_Violence_Aggression.htm


Ancient Military History Resources This Military History resource page is intended to ease the search for quality sites.
http://www.historesearch.com/ancientmil.html


Ancient Near East Since the beginning of civilization, the reality of war and the imposition of one persons will upon another has been a constant threat. In the sixth millennium BCE, as people began to settle the Mesopotamian region, disputes among cities naturally arose and the first raids took place. By the fourth millennium, enough cities had arisen to make distances between some as little as 20 to 30 miles. Here, arguments arose over who had the right to water sources or even questions of where boundaries lay. This continued to snowball until the terrible truth of warfare emerged. Weapons & Warfare.
http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Olympus/5993/warfare.html


Ancient Roman Technology Perhaps the greatest areas of roman technology were those where roman civilization excelled: technology for building and warfare. Roman roads and Julius Caesar's construction of the bridge over the river Rhine are fine examples of roman capability; which clearly depended greatly on roman technology. Weapons & Warfare.
http://www.mariamilani.com/ancient_rome/ancient_roman_technology.htm


Ancient Scripts and World History Weapons & Warfare. [Lots of Links]
http://members.aol.com/TeacherNet/Ancient.html


Ancient Swords (Greece) Pictures of swords and armor, replicas.
http://www.deepeeka.co.in/sword1.html


Ancient warfare - Wikipedia Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. In Europe and the Near East, the end of antiquity is often equated with the fall of Rome in 476. In China, it can also be seen as ending in the 5th century, with the growing role of mounted warriors needed to counter the ever-growing threat from the north. In India, the ancient period ends with the decline of the Gupta Empire (6th century) and the beginning Islamic conquests from the 8th century. In Japan, the ancient period can be taken to end with the rise of feudalism in the Heian period. [General Ancient War Links]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_warfare


Archaeological Museum, Nauplion Late Helladic (Mycenaean) finds from Asine, Berbati, Dendra, Kazarma, Midea, Nauplia and Tiryns (1600-1100 B.C.) - Geometric finds from Asine, Nauplia, Tiryns and private colections (1100-700 B.C.) - Archaic finds from Tiryns, Myloi and Corinthia (700-480 B.C.) - Classical finds from Tiryns, Halieis, and private collections (480-323 B.C.), - Hellenistic finds from Asine and Mycenae (323 - 146 B.C.) and Roman finds from Mycenae (up to ca. 500 A.D.) Weapons & Warfare.
http://www.greece-museums.com/museum/12/


Archaeology of Greece Study guides for individual periods of Greek archaeology. Weapons & Warfare.
http://www.classics.unc.edu/courses/clar244/index.html


Armamentarium: Roman Arms and Armor The book of Roman arms and armour. Weapons & Warfare.
http://museums.ncl.ac.uk/archive/arma/


Assyrian Warfare From about 900 B.C. Assyrian kings sent out their armies to conquer new lands. Over 300 years Mesopotamia and lands further to the east and west became part of an Assyrianempire. Conquering foreign cities brought wealth.Regions which had been conquered by the Assyrian army had to pay tribute to the king every year. If they rebelled against his rule, or refused to give tribute, the king would lead his army against them.
http://www.mesopotamia.co.uk/warfare/home_set.html


Athenian Vases with painting of equipments Arms and Armour: Representations of Warfare. UNIVERSITY OF NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE; THE SHEFTON MUSEUM OF GREEK ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY. In addition to the actual items of arms and armour in the Shefton Museum, there are several Athenian vases on which the paintings show further details of the equipment. These vase-paintings are, therefore, an important source for the study of the hoplite's equipment, but they do not represent the battles and fighting tactics truly. The artist was strongly influenced by the heroic warfare of the epic and Homeric poems, where individual champions met to fight isolated duels.
http://www.ncl.ac.uk/shefton-museum/arms/warfare.html


Bronze ´Corinthian´ Helmet ca. 600 BC Italy MS 1608 The most common type of helmet in use during the Archaic period. Beaten out of a single sheet of bronze, it provided good protection to the forehead, nose and cheek areas. The two cheek pieces are separated to leave a gap exposing the mouth. Its shape only approximates the contours of the human skull, necessitating a fur or felt lining. Headgear Photos from Univ. Penn.
http://www.bible-history.com/images2/greek_warrior_mask2.gif


Bronze ´Piceno-Corinthian´ Helmet ca. 550 BC Ascoli Piceno (ancient Asculum), Italy, Tomb of the Warrior MS 1534 This helmet originally carried a detachable horsehair crest. In perhaps a local modification by the Piceni, a tribe of central Italic people on the Adriatic coast northeast of Rome, the protective cheek and lower jaw pieces are formed from a single sheet of bronze. The nose piece has been restored from another helmet. Headgear Photos from Univ. Penn.
http://www.bible-history.com/images2/greek_warrior_mask.gif


Chariots in Greece A chariot is a two-wheeled, horse-drawn vehicle. In Latin biga is a two-horse chariot, and quadriga is a four-horse chariot. It was used for battle during the Bronze and Iron Ages, and continued to be used for travel, processions and in games after it had been superseded militarily. Early forms may also have had four wheels, although these are not usually referred to as chariots. The critical invention that allowed the construction of light, horse-drawn chariots for use in battle was the spoked wheel. In these times, most horses could not support the weight of a man in battle; the original wild horse was a large pony in size. Chariots were effective in war only on fairly flat, open terrain. As horses were gradually bred to be larger and stronger, chariots gave way to cavalry. The earliest spoke-wheeled chariots date to ca. 2000 BC and their usage peaked around 1300 BC (see Battle of Kadesh). Chariot races continued to be popular in Constantinople until the 6th century.
http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/GreekChariot.html


Chronology of Ancient Egypt Carnegie Museum of Natural History [Weapons & Warfare.]
http://www.carnegiemnh.org/exhibits/egypt/chronology.htm


Classical Archaeology Glossary The Faculty of Classics and the Museum of Classical Archaeology. Weapons & Warfare.
http://www.classics.cam.ac.uk/


Classics Greek and Latin Discussion Group Archives of CLASSICS-L@LSV.UKY.EDU Classical Greek and Latin Discussion Group Weapons & Warfare.
http://lsv.uky.edu/archives/classics-l.html


Defensive Equipment of the Egyptian Army Ultimately, and outside of military architecture such as fortresses, the ancient Egyptians used three forms of defensive military equipment, which included body armor and helmets, shields and siege shelters, though most of these items were seen fairly late in the Dynastic period (with the exception of the shield, which may be dated back as for as the predynastic period. By Troy Fox
http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/defense.htm


Documents in Ancient Military History Egyptian History; The Battle of Megiddo, 1469 BC., The Battle of Kadesh, 1294 BC., Roman History; Caesar`s Battles with Vercingetorix, 52 BC., Antony`s Campaign Against the Medes, 36 BC., The Battle of Actium, 31 BC., Augustus` Speech Before the Battle., Antony`s Speech Before the Battle., The Battle., The Battle of Teutoburg Forest, AD 9. Description of the Roman Army, AD 70., The Invasion of Galilee, AD 70., The Siege of Jerusalem, AD 70., The Siege of Masada, AD 72., Description of the Roman Army, AD 163., The Battle of Adrianople, AD 378., [Egyptian History. Roman History. Weapons & Warfare.]
http://www.hillsdalesites.org/personal/hstewart/war/Ancient...htm


East Greek Hoplite Aryballos ca. 600&endash;570 BC 31-9-1 This little container, intended to hold perfume or scented unguents, gives a naturalistic impression of a warrior´s face staring out from behind his protective helmet. Compare this Ionian helmet type, with its separately attached cheek pieces, with the bronze examples (MS 1608, MS 1534). H. 6.5; L. 6.0; W. 5.5 cm. Photo courtesy Public Information Office, Univ. of Pennsylvania Museum
http://www.bible-history.com/images2/greek_warrior_mask3.gif


Egyptian Dynasties Egyptian Middle Kingdom Dynasties 18th Dynasty Ahmosis 1539-1514 Amenophis I 1514-1493 Thutmosis II 1483-1479 Hatshepsut 1479-1458 Thutmosis III 1479-1426 Amenophis II 1426-1400 Thutmosis IV 1400-1390 Amenophis III 1390-1353 Akhenaten 1353-1336 Smenkhkare 1334-1333 Ay 1323-1319 Tutankhamum 1333-1323 Thutmosis I 1493-1483 Horemheb 1319-1292 19th Dynasty Ramses I 1292-1290 Seti I 1290-1279 Ramses II 1279-1213 Merneptah 1213-1204 Seti II 1204-1198 Amenmesse 1203-1200 Siptah 1198-1193 Tawosret 1193-1190 20th Dynasty Sethnakhte 1190-1187 Ramses III 1187-1156 Ramses IV 1156-1150 Ramses IV 1150-1149 Ramses VI 1145-1137 Ramses VII 1137-1129 Ramses VIII 1129-1128 Ramses IX 1128-1110 Ramses X 1110-1106 Ramses XI 1106-10 21st Dynasty 22nd Dynasty 23rd Dynasty 24th Dynasty BIBARCH™.
http://www.bibarch.com/Chronology/Egyptian/EgyptDynasties.htm


Egyptian Museum, Cairo 120,000 objects in the museum. Weapons & Warfare.
http://www.egyptianmuseum.gov.eg/


Electronic Resources for Classicists University of California, Irvine. Weapons & Warfare.
http://www.tlg.uci.edu/index/resources.html


Exploring Ancient World Cultures Weapons & Warfare.
http://eawc.evansville.edu/index.htm


Exploring Ancient World Cultures Weapons & Warfare.
http://eawc.evansville.edu/eawcindex.htm


First Punic War (Chronology of Events) First Punic War (264-241 B.C.) Barbara Saylor Rodgers
http://www.uvm.edu/~bsaylor/rome/events.html


Greek and Roman Military History Roman Military History List of Recommended Readings. Weapons & Warfare.
http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Periods/Roman/Topics/Warfare/home.html


Greek Art and Architecture A Historical Overview; Architecture; Sculpture; Painting and Pottery; Decorative Arts; Greek Revivals. Weapons & Warfare.
http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761561691/greek_art_and_architecture.html


Heraklion Museum Weapons & Warfare.
http://www.interkriti.org/museums/hermus.htm


History of Warfare - Land Mesopotamia and Egypt Preliminary skirmishes Foot soldiers Fortification and siege A pharaoh on the warpath From chariot to cavalry The Assyrian war machine Medes and Persians Greece and Rome Byzantium and Islam Middle Ages The footsoldier Gunfire Science of the battlefield Warfare in the Ancient World
http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=aa29


Images from History Weapons & Warfare.
http://www.hp.uab.edu/image_archive/index.html


Images of Ancient Iran Weapons & Warfare.
http://tehran.stanford.edu/Images/Ancient/an1.html


Images of Medieval Armor These portraits are from a collection I picked up on a recent sojourn to southern France, near the walled fortress at Mondragon along the Rhone River. The credit for these wonderful illustrations goes to a brilliant artist named August Racinet, whom I was sadly unable to meet, despite my best efforts. [General Ancient War Links]
http://www.cs.usu.edu/~watson/bartholomew/armorimages.html


Interactive Historical Atlas Historic Atlas Resource - Europe. Weapons & Warfare.
http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/europe/maps.html


King Darius Battles Deals with the Persian Empire battles: The Ionian Revolt, The Battle of Marathon, The Battle of Thermopylae. The Persian Wars. Events leading up to the Persian Wars, the Lydians, King Croesus and the Persians.and the formation of the Delian League. [People in History] [Tools and Searches]
http://ancienthistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa010103a.htm


Louvre Museum Weapons & Warfare.
http://www.louvre.fr/llv/commun/home.jsp?bmLocale=en


Medieval Siege Warfare Medieval siege warfare: A reconnaissance By Bernard S. Bachrach from The Journal of Military History [General Ancient War Links]
http://www.deremilitari.org/RESOURCES/ARTICLES/bachrach1.htm


Mesopotamian Chronology 9000-500 Mesopotamia 9000 - 500 B.C. Weapons & Warfare.
http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/1024/mesopotamia.html


Museums Weapons & Warfare.
http://www.icom.org/vlmp/


National Archaeological Museum, Athens Weapons & Warfare.
http://www.culture.gr/h/1/eh151.jsp?obj_id=3249


Naval Warfare in Ancient India [General Ancient War Links]
http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/cha.htm


Naval Warfare in Ancient India India has an extensive sea-board, being bounced on three sides of her borders by the sea. She has a net-work of large and navigable rivers, free from the freezing effects of a severely cold climate. She has also a wealth of forests, abounding in strong timber which might be readily utilised for the construction of ships and boats. These natural advantages--coupled with the steadiness in the direction of the monsoons over the Indian Ocean and China Sea--aided the Hindus to acquire that nautical skill and enterprise for which they were justly famous in the ancient world. [General Ancient War Links]
http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/cha.htm


Oriental Institute Museum Highlights Weapons & Warfare.
http://asmar.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/HIGH/OI_Museum_Highlights.html


Overview of archaic and classical Greek history Peloponnesian War [Greece Ancient War Links]
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus:text:1999.04.0009&query=toc


Peloponnesian War Peloponnesian War Links to Brief descriptions about the battles [Greece Ancient War Links]
http://history.boisestate.edu/westciv/peloponn/


Peloponnesian Wars - Thucydides The History of Peloponnesian War. Thucydides. [Greece Ancient War Links]
http://classics.mit.edu/Thucydides/pelopwar.html


Perseus Project Weapons & Warfare.
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/


Persian Wars Weapons & Warfare.
http://www.historyforkids.org/


Phalanx Formation The phalanx (Ancient Greek: φάλαγξ, Modern Greek: φάλαγγα, phālanga) (plural phalanxes or phalanges (Ancient and Modern Greek: φάλαγγες, phālanges)) is a rectangular mass military formation, usually composed entirely of heavy infantry armed with spears, pikes, or similar weapons. The term is particularly (and originally) used to describe the use of this formation in Ancient Greek warfare. The word phalanx is derived from the Greek word phalangos, meaning the finger. The term 'phalanx' itself does not refer to a distinctive military unit or division (e.g., the Roman legion or the contemporary Western-type battalion) but to the general formation of an army's troops. Thus a phalanx did not have a standard combat strength or composition. Many spear-armed troops historically fought in what might be termed phalanx-like formations. Indeed, the word has come into use in common English to describe "a group of people standing, or moving forward closely together" [1]; c.f. "a phalanx of police" [2]. As well, the bone structure in the hands and feet earned its name, the Phalanx bones, from the arrangement of bones and joints which, when viewed from the sides, appear to be standing in a phalanx formation. This article, however, focuses on the use of the military phalanx formation in Ancient Greece, the Hellenistic world, and other ancient states heavily influenced by Greek civilization.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phalanx_formation


Prehistoric Archaeology of the Aegean Weapons & Warfare.
http://projectsx.dartmouth.edu/history/bronze_age/


Rome: The Punic Wars The seventh chapter of the learning module, Rome; this chapter narrates the history of the three conflicts between Rome and Carthage which left Rome in control of the Carthaginian Empire.
http://wsu.edu/~dee/ROME/PUNICWAR.HTM


Ships of the Ancient Greeks Ancient Greek Ships, Michael Lahanas. Neolithic period ships. Minoan ship. Homeric ship. Post-Homeric, Classical Period ships. Hellenistic Period ships. Stories and quotes.
http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Ships/Ships.htm


Siege Warfare The development of fortification has always been partly dictated by the type of siege tactics and equipment used against them. The basic techniques of siege craft established in the ancient world continued to dominate siege warfare until the introduction of the cannon, some techniques were still employed in this day and age. Basically, an attacker confronted by a wall has five options, if you include retreat. The are as follows; 1) Blockade " to cut off supply of provisions and re-enforcements to the fortification. 2) Escalade " to attack the wall using scaling ladders and or siege towers. 3) Breach " to cause a breach in the wall by attacking the masonry of the wall using siege equipment (bore, ram, mouse). 4) Mining " to cause a breach in the wall by undermining it, or combination of escalade, breaching and mining. 5) Retreat " to retreat was also an option when attacked or threatened by a relieving force. (6) trickery- to gain access by means of ruse or treason. Weapons & Warfare.
http://www.angelfire.com/wy/svenskildbiter/siege.html


Siege Warfare: The Art of Offence and Defence The Glory That Was Rome. Siege Warfare Artillery and Fortifications. The development of fortification has always been partly dictated by the type of siege tactics and equipment used against them. The basic techniques of siege craft established in the ancient world continued to dominate siege warfare until the introduction of the cannon, some techniques were still employed in this day and age. Basically, an attacker confronted by a wall has five options, if you include retreat. The are as follows; 1) Blockade " to cut off supply of provisions and re-enforcements to the fortification. 2) Escalade " to attack the wall using scaling ladders and or siege towers. 3) Breach " to cause a breach in the wall by attacking the masonry of the wall using siege equipment (bore, ram, mouse). 4) Mining " to cause a breach in the wall by undermining it, or combination of escalade, breaching and mining. 5) Retreat " to retreat was also an option when attacked or threatened by a relieving force. (6) trickery- to gain access by means of ruse or treason. [General Ancient War Links]
http://www.angelfire.com/wy/svenskildbiter/siege.html


Silver Decadrachm (Chariot) ca. 400&endash;375 BC Syracuse 29-126-41 "Racing four-horse chariot with a flying Nike personifying Victory crowning the driver. The space below is filled with captured Punic arms. This spectacular coin may commemorate the victory of Dionysius I over the Carthaginian general Himilcon and the deliverance of Syracuse from its Punic siege in 396 BC The reverse of the coin is signed by Euaenetus, one of the most renowned coin designers of antiquity. Commemorative types became especially popular in the Hellenistic period after Alexander´s death in 323 BC" Dia. 34.0 mm. Photo courtesy Public Information Office, Univ. of Pennsylvania Museum
http://www.bible-history.com/images2/chariot_coin.gif


The Ancient Greek World Index LAND and ARCHAEOLOGICAL TIME, DAILY LIFE, ECONOMY, RELIGION and DEATH, and more. University of Pennsylvania Museum
http://www.museum.upenn.edu/Greek_World/Index.html


The Chariot in Egyptian Warfare Actually, the chariot is difficult to classify as a piece of militaryequipment. It was certainly a mode of transportation, but at the same time, most analyst consider it a weapon. Clearly, in the hands of the Hittites, one of Egypt's chief opponents during the New Kingdom, their heavy machines were weapons used to crash into the troops of their enemies. However, the Egyptian chariots were not used in the same manner, and their use was more of a supporting role to the archers who manned them. By Troy Fox
http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/chariots.htm


The First Punic War Punic Wars
http://www.unrv.com/empire/first-punic-war.php


The Second Punic War (218-202 BC). The Second Punic War, fought between Carthage and the Roman Republic from 218-202 BC, marked the end of major Carthaginian military opposition to Rome. The term "punic" comes from the Latin "poeni," which means "Phoenician" and refers to the Carthaginians. [North Park University]
http://www.unrv.com/empire/second-punic-war.php


Vatican Museums Weapons & Warfare.
http://www.christusrex.org/www1/vaticano/0-Musei.html


Voice of the Shuttle - Classics GENERAL CLASSICS RESOURCES. Weapons & Warfare.
http://vos.ucsb.edu/browse.asp?id=2708


Warfare in Ancient Greece As the economic resources of Greek city-states and individuals increased during the seventh century B.C., armies of foot soldiers were formed within the wealthier city-states. Known as hoplites, these soldiers were characteristically equipped with about seventy pounds of armor, most of which was made of bronze. The typical panoply included an eight- to ten-foot thrusting spear with an iron tip and butt, and bronze armor consisting of a helmet, cuirass (chest armor), greaves (shin guards), and a large shield about thirty inches in diameter. The heavy bronze shield, which was secured on the left arm and hand by a metal band on its inner rim, was the most important part of a hoplite's panoply, as it was his chief defense. [General Ancient War Links]
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/gwar/hd_gwar.htm


Warfare in Ancient Rome Roman military technique and technology was not an indigenous invention but an adaptation and evolution of the knowledge of other civilizations. The success of Roman warfare methods and equipment is plainly seen from the fact that not only did they command a large empire of ever-increasing area, they also managed to keep their kingdom united until the 5th century CE - a task which could not be fulfilled even by the Greeks. During the first period of its history, Rome was an empire in the making, establishing its own territory and fending off aggression. During this time its leadership frequently changed hands, resulting in changing trends in military technology. [General Ancient War Links]
http://library.thinkquest.org/C0122667/rome/war.html


Warfare in the Ancient World Warfare in the Ancient World (Until the end of the Roman Empire) [General Ancient War Links]
http://www.deremilitari.org/resources/ancientwarfare.htm


Warfare in the Ancient World (Bibliographies) Greek Warfare Greek Military History Roman Warfare Roman Military History Late Roman Army bibliography (short) Units of the Roman Army Roman Fortifications Byzantine Warfare Byzantine Military History Byzantine Fortifications General and Comparative Material [Weapons and Warfare]
http://web.archive.org/web/20031002114647/http://www.fiu.edu/~eltonh/army.html


Warfare in the Ancient World: FAQ [General Ancient War Links]
http://web.archive.org/web/20031003090033/www.fiu.edu/~eltonh/warfare/faq.html


Warfare in the Roman World This page is a collection of resources relevant to the subject of Warfare in the Roman World. It covers material from the Republic and Empire, as late as the Arab Invasions of the seventh century
http://web.archive.org/web/20030812222703/www.fiu.edu/~eltonh/warfare/rwarfare.html


Weapons and Armor Headgear Photos from Univ. Penn.
http://www.museum.upenn.edu/GREEK_World/men_weapons.html


Weapons and Warfare in Ancient Israel The book of Judges describes the period when the Israelites were settling into the Promised Land following the Exodus from Egypt. Because the conquest was not complete, warfare was frequent, and resulted in the hero stories preserved in Judges. These heroes were known as "judges", meaning, not people who decided court cases, but military leaders who delivered Israel from her enemies. What weapons did these heroes use, and what was their strategy in defeating their enemies?The Bible does not usually give a detailed description of weapons or of military strategy. Yet we have a good knowledge of weapons from archaeological discoveries and drawings, paintings and reliefs. by James Moyer Ph.D.
http://www.wcg.org/lit/bible/hist/weapons.htm


Weapons and Warfare in the Ancient World Weapons & Warfare.
http://www.bible-history.com/resource/ww_wwar.htm


Weapons in Ancient Egypt The Old Kingdom had soldiers equipped with a great variety of weapons: shields, spears, cudgels, maces, daggers, bows and arrows... Quivers and battle axes came into use before the second Intermediary Period, which was a time of revolution in the Egyptian martial arts. The earliest metal arrowheads date from the 11th dynasty (ca.2000 BCE), made of copper hardened by hammering.
http://nefertiti.iwebland.com/weapons/index.html


Web Sources For Military History Ancient War History Links, Early European War, Napoleonic WAR Links, US Revolutionary War Links, French Revolution Links, War of 1812, US Civil War Links, United States Civil War Photos, World War I Links, World War II, Korean War Links, Vietnam War Links, Persian Gulf War Links, [General Ancient War Links]
http://tigger.uic.edu/~rjensen/military.html


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