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December 15    Scripture

Ancient Egypt: Naval
Ancient Ships, Vessels, Boats, and Naval Warfare

A Freighter of the 6th Dynasty - 2200 BC A Freighter of the late Sixth Dynasty (ca 2200 B.C.)The vessel pictured here was the common bulk-cargo carrier of the Nile in late Old Kingdom times. In its capacious open bunker on deck, grain could be carried loose or cattle could be stalled. A few pairs of oars on the foredeck served to manoeuvre the ship into shore or to supplement the current when the ship was travelling downstream; the usual wide square sail, spread to the prevailing north wind, would carry it upstream against the current. A pair of rudder stanchions, now permanently fixed, supported a single steering oar, hung to port or to starboard as the ship's course dictated.
http://www.geocities.com/ahktenar/ships/freighter_6th_dyn.html


A Nile ship of the Sixth Dynasty A Ship of 6th Dynasty. Before the middle of the Sixth Dynasty the bipod mast had generally disappeared in favour of a single stick of lesser height. Better designed to carry the wider, lower sail that had been evolving. The lower yard, slightly longer than the upper, is now fixed to the mast well above the deck, and clearly is capable of a wider arc of swing than the old short yard, which lay at or near deck level. The heavy single steering oar with its tiller is supported on a stanchion by a rope sling, to relieve the helmsman of its weight. The vessel shown here, from a tomb painting at Thebes of about 2259 B.C., was apparently primarily a passenger vessel. The patterned sail was probably made of heavy matting, a cheaper substitute for the usual canvas.
http://www.geocities.com/ahktenar/ships/ship_6th_dyn.html


A Noble's Yacht of the Middle Kingdom A nobleman's personal ship of the Middle Kingdom. Known from well-made funerary models, as well as from tomb wall-pictures, such vessels were used in the Middle Kingdom (2040- 1786 B.C.) to transport potentates and their bodyguards. The oars of the period are characteristically scoop-shaped and sometimes mounted on outswerving wooden thole-pins of the kind shown here. The bull-hide shields hung on the deckhouse are a testimony to the warlike times. The rig remains unchanged from that of the late Old Kingdom, but the single steering oar is now placed exactly amidships and sometimes worked by a tiller stick held in the helmsman's hand.
http://www.geocities.com/ahktenar/ships/noble_ship_mk.html


A Typical Byblos Ship A seagoing ship of the Fifth Dynasty. The seagoing craft of the Egyptians differed markedly from their river craft. The vessel here shown under oars belonged to a royal fleet the hogging truss that seems to have been characteristic of Egyptian seagoing craft. The stem-post at the bow reflects the foreign origin of the prototype, whereas the stern-post has been Egyptianized in the form of the head of a papyrus plant. Although referred to in the accompanying inscriptions as "Byblos-ships", the five vessels were in fact part of an expedition sailing the Red Sea to Punt, the modern Somaliland. The rig differs in no way from the standard form in use in Nile ships of the day.
http://www.geocities.com/ahktenar/ships/byblos_ship.html


A Warship of Ramesses III Fleet A seagoing warship of Ramesses III's fleet. A temple wall at Thebes shows us such ships in a naval battle with a fleet of the "Peoples of the Sea", a wave of migrating nations that appeared in the eastern Mediterranean about 1200 B.C. The ship is provided with high hoardings on the bulwarks to protect rowers and marines from missiles. The steering oars seem to be of the free-swinging type seen in the Phoenician trader. The great advance, however, is in the rig. Here for the first time we see the labour-saving single-yard sail with brails (lines running through rings on the sail and handled from the deck to furl the sail), which became the standard Mediterranean, and later European, type of sail and lasted until the coming of steam.
http://www.geocities.com/ahktenar/ships/ramesses3_warship.html


Amarna Period State Ship The state ship of an Egyptian magnate of the time of Tutankhamun. Essentially a large and gaily decorated version of the standard Nile passenger vessel, the state ship of Huy, Viceroy of Nubia in 1360 B.C., is provided with quarters (forward of the deckhouse) for his chariot horses. Traditional scenes of the god Montu smiting the king's foreign enemies decorate the overhanging stern and the fore and after "castles", partly to frighten away evil influences. A falcon standard serves the function of identifying the ship as the viceroy's.
http://www.geocities.com/ahktenar/ships/amarna_state_ship.html


Ancient Egypt: Early Ship Construction Khufu's Solar Boat. In modern ship construction a skeleton is built first which is then covered with a skin. During the Old and Middle Kingdoms ships were built from the outside in. This way of doing things was mostly due to a lack of timber suitable for keels, but continued for centuries after they began importing cedar wood from Byblos which was long enough for keels. Mortises were cut into the planks into which wooden tenons were inserted. The V-shaped holes did not penetrate the outer surface.
http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/timelines/topics/shipconstruction.htm


Ancient Egypt: River Boats Fishing Boats, Transportation Barges and Pleasure Boats. While some Egyptians thought fish to be unclean, dried fish were nevertheless a staple food for most of the population. Reed rafts served for fishing. Nets and weir baskets were made from willow branches. The Nile didn't just feed the Egyptians, it was both an obstacle and the main highway. Too wide to be bridged, there must have been a great many ferryboats carrying people and wares from one shore to the other. If you wanted to go anywhere, going by river would generally have been a good choice. We tend to forget that, until the invention of the steam engine, travelling by ship was generally faster and cheaper than any other kind of locomotion
http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/timelines/topics/riverboats.htm


Ancient Egypt: Ships and Boats The slow flowing Nile was ideal for transportation and from earliest times Egyptians built boats for transportation, fishing and enjoyment. Their importance in everyday life is reflected in the role they played in mythology and religion. Little is left of actual boats. Remains of Old Kingdom boats were found at Tarkhan and Abydos, and King Khufu's ship is well known and demonstrates best how ships were built during that period.
http://nefertiti.iwebland.com/timelines/topics/navigation.htm


Ancient Egypt: Solar Ships and Funerary Boats Mythology, Funerary Boats and Religious Ceremonies
http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/timelines/topics/solarships.htm


Ancient Egyptian Boats Egyptians pioneered the development of river craft and there were many different types built for various uses. Agricultural produce, troops, cattle, stone and funeral processions were all carried on the Nile and its canals. These boats were made of bundles of bound papyrus reeds. Papyrus is different from paper because papyrus is a laminated material made from thinly cut strips from the stalk of Cyprus Papyrus plant. It was believed to be first used about 4000 B.C., and became Egypt's major exports.
http://www.kingtutshop.com/freeinfo/egyptian-boats.htm


Ancient Egyptian Ships and Shipping JSTOR: Ancient Egyptian Ships and Shipping By William Edgerton. University of Chicago. The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Vol. 39, No. 2 (Jan., 1923), pp. 109-135 (article consists of 27 pages) Structurally speaking all boats known to have been employed by the Ancient Egyptians may be divided into two classes: reed boats and boats build by wooden planks.
http://www.jstor.org/pss/528485


Ancient Egyptians Boat By Dr. Sherin ElKhawaga. Egyptians pioneered the development of river craft and there were many different types built for various uses. Agricultural produce, troops, cattle, stone and funeral processions were all carried on the Nile and its canals. These boats were made of bundles of bound papyrus reeds. Papyrus is different from paper because papyrus is a laminated material made from thinly cut strips from the stalk of Cyprus Papyrus plant. It was believed to be first used about 4000 B.C., and became Egypt's major exports.
http://www.abblogger.com/yourboatportal/2157362/


Barques, Barges and Byblos Boats By Anita Stratos. The ancient Egyptians once again reached out of the past to awe the world with another of their buried secrets - the Abydos ships. In 1991 in the desert near the temple of Khentyamentiu, archaeologists uncovered the remains of 14 ships dating back to the early first dynasty (2950-2775 BC), possibly associated with King Aha, the first ruler of that dynasty. These 75 foot long ships are buried side by side and have wooden hulls, rough stone boulders which were used as anchors, and "sewn" wooden planks. Also found within their desert graves were remains of the woven straps that joined the planks, as well as reed bundles that were used to seal seams between planks. The Abydos ships have the honor of being the world's oldest planked boats.
http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/aboat.htm


Egyptian Galleons in Ancient Egypt Ancient Ships in Art History: Egyptian Galleons in Ancient Egypt and Egyptian Art This ship is typical of the vessels used during the reign of Pharaoh Sahure over 4500 years ago in Egyptian history. During this time Egypt's expanding interests in trade goods such as ebony, incense such as Myrrh and frankincense, gold, copper and other useful metals inspired the ancient Egyptians to build suitable ships for navigation of the open sea. They traded with Lebanon for cedar and traveled the length of the Red Sea to the Kingdom of Punt, which is modern day Ethiopia and Somalia for ebony, ivory and aromatic resins. Ship builders of that era did not use pegs (treenails) or metal fasteners, but relied on rope to keep their ships assembled. Planks and the superstructure were tightly tied and bound together...
http://www.artsales.com/ARTistory/Ancient_Ships/06_egyptian_galleons.html


Egyptian Papyrus Boat Egyptian ship made of papyrus is one of the ancient in the world. Firstly it represented itself only a papyrus raft and to about 3500 year B.C. it became already a real ship. The ship was used only for navigation on the river Nile. Her bow and her stern were raised specially to pull her across shallows. But foreseeing the possibility to raise the bow and the stern higher with the help of ropes, Egyptians started their voyages at sea. The known expeditions of Tour Heyerdal on the papyrus rafts Ra-1 (1969) and Ra-2 (1970) showed that papyrus could stand two months of seafaring. Of course, Ra-1 had sunk earlier but it was due to great roughness at sea and the fault of the crew who did not pull the rigging steering the curve of the stern. On Ra-2 the stern was raised sufficiently from the very beginning of the seafaring. Ra-2 departed ÑÀÔÈ and in two months she reached Bridgetown, the capital of Barbados. Constructively Ra-2 was made of short papyrus bundles as they saturated less water. Bolivian Indians from the lake of Titikaka built Ra-2. From ancient times up to nowadays they navigate on such cane vessels calling them 'totorus'.
http://sailhistory.com/content/view/85/


Egyptian Royal Barge (replica) There were many different types of boats such as the warship. The warship was a boat that was steered by a large bladed oar in the stern; it usually had a wooden hull, cloth sail and rigging of papyrus fiber. This ship needed about 250 soldiers. Another type of boat carried the dead to the afterlife. Also boats were used to ship things to different places. The early boats were made from papyrus reeds bound together with string made from reed fibers. Most Egyptians used ferries to cross the Nile. Noblemen used grand boats for business and pleasure. The sun boat was used to carry the sun god Rah on his daily journey from one side of the world to the other. Huge river barges towed by a fleet of small boats carrying heavy cargo such as stones were called cargo boats. Egyptian farmers used flat deck wide boats to transport animals. These boats were called cattle boats. Huge canopy boats for the pharaoh were called royal boats. Without boats the Egyptians would not have been able to travel from place to place getting valuable items.
http://www.egyptiandreams.co.uk/product_info.php?products_id=751


Egyptian Sea Vessel Artifacts Archaeology News " Egyptian Sea Vessel Artifacts Discovered At Pharaonic Port of Mersa Gawasis Along Red Sea Coast. Discovery includes steering oars, other evidence of Egypt's sea-faring past. (Boston) -- When Kathryn Bard reached through the small hole that opened in a hillside along Egypt's Red Sea coast, her hand touched nearly 4,000 years of history. The opening that Bard, an associate professor of archaeology at Boston University, and her team's co-leader Rodolfo Fattovich, a professor of archaeology at Italy's University of Naples "L'Orientale," discovered was the entrance to a large, man-made cave. Two days later at a site about 30 meters beyond this cave, the team removed sand covering the entrance to a second cave, one that held the well-preserved cedar timbers of an ancient Egyptian sea-faring vessel.
http://archaeologynews.multiply.com/journal/item/14


Egyptian Ships in Ancient Egypt Ancient Ships in Art History: Egyptian Ships in Ancient Egypt and Egptian Art Hapshetsut's Expedition to Punt The record of ancient seafaring and trade as recorded in Egyptian art at Queen Hatshepsut's temple at Deir el-Bahri Circa 1480 BCE. Hatshepsut is well known for her ambitious building projects in Egypt particularly the erection of several Obelisks' at Karnack and her funerary Temple at Deir el-Bahri. In her time Hatshepsut was a model of feminine mystic, power and political acumen. Her accomplishments in ancient Egypt rank well when compared with , Queen Ferdinand of Spain, Queen Elizabeth 1 of England and Catherine the Great of Russia. After examining the contribution she made to the new Kingdom, historians generally agree this person was one of the greatest contributors to Egypt's ancient legacy in world history. Hatshepsut's character and personal history is another story, this page is dedicated to her expedition to Punt. This expedition is an indicator of her leadership and skill in motivating and governing the Egyptian society of her time to high achievement... The story of Hatshepsut's expedition to punt is recorded for posterity in the Egyptian art on the wall of her memorial temple.
http://www.artsales.com/Ancient%20Ships/iHatshepsut'sExpedition.htm


Eternal Egypt - Ancient Egyptian Nile Boats Boats and ships were very important means of transport on the River Nile. Egyptians traveled within the country and to the Sudan and to other African countries to bring back animals such as lions, elephants, leopards, baboons, and cattle. They also imported exotic products such as leather, gold, ivory, ebony, electrum, ostrich feathers, and incense. Electrum is a natural alloy of gold and silver. When traveling to the south, or upstream, sails were required but on the way north, or downstream, the masts were not needed and were placed horizontally on board.
http://www.eternalegypt.org/EternalEgyptWebsiteWeb/HomeServlet?ee_website_action_key=action.display.module&module_id=144&language_id=1&story_id=17&text=text
http://www.eternalegypt.org/EternalEgyptWebsiteWeb/HomeServlet?ee_website_action_key=action.display.story&language_id=1&story_id=17


Phoenician War Galley Maritime History/ Ancient Mesopotamian Ships/ Phoenician War Galley This 19th century print depicts a Phoenician bireme, a war galley with two banks of oars, battering ram, and single mast. Deck, passengers and pavisade were above the rowers. This design was also favored by early Greek and Tyrian galleys. The bireme introduced by the Phoenicians c. 800 BC became the leading warship of the Mediterranean world in the centuries to follow. Notwithstanding this depiction, these vessels became very large in later centuries. B.C.
http://www.ahrtp.com/EarlyShipsOnLine/pages/MesopotamianShip1.htm


Queen Hatshepsut's State Barge A state barge of Queen Hatshepsut. Carved on the walls of Queen Hatshepsut's funerary temple at Deir el-Bahri, opposite modern Luxor, are several representations of Egyptian fleets... One scene shows a group of state barges being rowed on the Nile; one of the barges is pictured here. The hull is of a traditional style resembling that of the dwa-towy ship of King Khufu. The cheeks of the bow bear the sacred eye of Horus, a sphinx standard indicates that the ship belongs to the royal fleet, and a light pavilion, standing amid- ships, shelters the royal passenger and her attendants. When the queen is not actually on board, as is the case here, a ceremonial fan lying on a throne symbolizes her potent presence.
http://www.geocities.com/ahktenar/ships/hatshepsut_state_barge.html


Queen Hatshepsut's Trading Vessel A seagoing ship of the Empire Period. One of a fleet of five ships represented in a scene in the temple of Queen Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahri (ca 1500 B.C.), this vessel shows clearly the hogging truss that seems to have been characteristic of Egyptian seagoing craft. The stem-post at the bow reflects the foreign origin of the prototype, whereas the stern-post has been Egyptianized in the form of the head of a papyrus plant. Although referred to in the accompanying inscriptions as "Byblos-ships", the five vessels were in fact part of an expedition sailing the Red Sea to Punt, the modern Somaliland. The rig differs in no way from the standard form in use in Nile ships of the day.
http://www.geocities.com/ahktenar/ships/hatshepsut_trader.html


Seagoing Vessels of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egpt: Seagoing Vessels - Warships and Merchant Men Keelless seagoing vessels like this one from the time of King Sahure (2500 BCE) traded with the Phoenician cities, importing cedar wood and other merchandise, and were sent as the first Egyptian trade expedition to the Land of Punt. The bipedal mast carried a vertical sail. It was steered by six oars and had sixteen rowing oars. The bow was decorated with an eye. A rock served as anchor [1]. Being rounded its action was solely based on its weight and the friction created when dragging over the bottom of the sea. When winds were strong it was mostly useless and the seamen were forced to seek shelter in the lee of some land or even beach the vessel.
http://nefertiti.iwebland.com/timelines/topics/seagoingvessels.htm


Shipbuilding in Ancient Egypt Eternal Egypt " Shipbuilding in Ancient Egypt Beginning in the Old Kingdom, numerous reliefs and paintings depict shipbuilding. The most distinguished of them is found in Saqqara in the mastaba of the official Ti from the Fifth Dynasty. Workers are shown lopping the trunk of a tree with axes and smoothing it with an adze, an axlike tool with a curved blade at right angles to the handle. One man is sawing a log, perhaps a deck beam, while two other men with chisels and clubs are cutting holes for pegs in a plank. On one of the hulls, a plank, probably the bulwark, is being fastened. At least seven pegs can be counted in the gap between the plank and the side of the ship.
http://www.eternalegypt.org/EternalEgyptWebsiteWeb/HomeServlet?ee_website_action_key=action.display.module&story_id=&module_id=199&language_id=1
http://www.eternalegypt.org/EternalEgyptWebsiteWeb/HomeServlet?ee_website_action_key=action.display.story&language_id=1&story_id=17


Ships and Boats of Egypt By Marie Parsons. When men live by water, whether marsh, river, or sea, they eventually discover ways to build vehicles to move across that water. Egypt's life has always turned around its River, the Nile, and its marshes in the Delta.The cheapest form of primitive boat was the pot boat, simply a clay container large enough to accommodate a passenger. It was meant for places free of rocks and was ideal for getting around the marshy areas of the Nile delta. Egypt was fairly treeless and it would be difficult to find other means of building boats. The Egyptians did find enough wood to make planked boats. There is evidence that the Old Kingdom of Egypt had the first planked boats ever made. These were used even in burial rituals. Fourteen have recently been found buried in the region of Abydos.
http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/egyptships.htm


The Ancient Egyptian Navy By Troy Fox. The use of river vessels and ships in Egyptian warfare is as old as conflict in Egypt itself, though probably at first there was little capability for sea travel. The Nile was always the principal means of transport in Egypt, and the sailing and construction of boats can be traced back to the papyrus rafts of the Predynastic Period. Boats (see also Bargues, Barges and Byblos Boats) were commonly depicted in red paint on the buff colored pottery of the Naqada II Period.
http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/navy.htm


The Ancient Egyptian Navy Predynastic through Middle Kingdom. The use of river vessels and ships in Egyptian warfare is as old as conflict in Egypt itself, though probably at first there was little capability for sea travel. The Nile was always the principal means of transport in Egypt, and the sailing and construction of boats can be traced back to the papyrus rafts of the Predynastic Period. Boats (see also Bargues, Barges and Byblos Boats) were commonly depicted in red paint on the buff colored pottery of the Naqada II Period.
http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/navy.htm


The Barge of Pharaoh Khufu The state barge of King Khufu of the Fourth Dynasty. Based on the preserved Nile barge found beside the Great Pyramid and a relief representation from the Fifth Dynasty temple of Sahure, this reconstruction shows a royal state ship of the type known to the Egyptians as a dwa-towy (that which the Two Lands praise). The Great Pyramid example, which was built for King Khufu about 2570 B.C., measured 43.4 m in length. It has here been reconstructed with the double mast and sail (see drawing below) that it probably normally used, although they were not found in the burial pit. In such a vessel the Pharaohs of the Old Kingdom made their official visits to the provinces.
http://www.geocities.com/ahktenar/ships/khufu_barge.html


The Barge of the God Amun The ceremonial barge of the god Amun. Among the many annual festivals in honour of the state god Amun, king of the gods, were some in which the god - in the form of his image - was ferried on the river at Thebes, the god's own city. For the purpose, a gorgeous barge of royal type was used; it was built of Lebanon cedar and overlaid down to the waterline with gold. This barge was named Amun-woser-het (Amun is powerful of aspect). The ship is shown here as it appeared in the reign of King Amunhotep III (1417 - 1379 B.C.) of the Eighteenth Dynasty. Inside the shrine-shaped cabin of the fifty-metre-long vessel stood a smaller, portable, gilded boat in whose cabin the god's statue rested, protected from vulgar gaze by a veil.
http://www.geocities.com/ahktenar/ships/amun_barge.html


The Egyptian Mastery of Ships Rediscover Ancient Egypt: The Egyptian Mastery of Ships Transferring people, minerals, and goods between Ancient Egypt and other faraway places was much more extensive and common than is generally imagined. The seas were not barriers, but high roads for active international commerce. Traveling by water has been (and continues to be) the most effective, economical, and safest way to travel for both people and goods. Travel by land complements travel by water for major/large goods. The Ancient Egyptians had the means to travel the high seas"with a large number of high quality ships. They also had the geographic knowledge to travel the open seas. The evidence shows that their means and knowledge enabled them to reach the farthest countries of the earth. The following pages will detail the wealth of high quality ships and the Ancient Egyptian knowledge of high seas travel.
http://www.egypt-tehuti.org/articles/ships.html


The Ptolemaic Navy Eternal Egypt " The Ptolemaic Navy The Ptolemies intended to rule the Mediterranean Sea to ensure the safety of Egypt's northern shores. This was achieved by building a powerful fleet of ships. Their navy was one of the cornerstones of the empire, protecting Egypt and guaranteeing its political and economic independence. King Ptolemy the First Soter was the founder of this massive sea force and it continued to grow under his successors. He was so dedicated to the development of his naval fleet that his contemporaries called him "the Prince of Ships." http://www.eternalegypt.org/EternalEgyptWebsiteWeb/HomeServlet?ee_website_action_key=action.display.module&module_id=271&language_id=1&story_id=17&text=text
http://www.eternalegypt.org/EternalEgyptWebsiteWeb/HomeServlet?ee_website_action_key=action.display.story&language_id=1&story_id=17


World's Most Ancient Ship Timbers Found in Egypt UsaToday.com World's Most Ancient Ship Timbers Found in Egypt Ship timbers from a mothballed Middle Kingdom industrial shipyard at Wadi Gawasis in Egypt provide the most ancient direct evidence for seafaring in complex watercraft anywhere in the world. In addition to marine incrustations and destruction by marine mollusks (shipworms), the technology and dimensions of hull components are consistent with what is expected of seagoing ships in the Middle Kingdom and offer unique testimony to the organization and achievement of the ancient Egyptian's sailing expeditions to Africa.
http://www.usatoday.com/tech/science/2006-03-05-snapshot-notes_x.htm


World's Oldest Ship Found in Egypt Remains of World's Oldest Ship Found in Egypt By Heather Whipps, Special to LiveScience. Excavations at an ancient Egyptian shipyard have unearthed remains of the world's oldest seafaring ships. The 4,000-year-old timbers were found alongside equally ancient cargo boxes, anchors, coils of rope and other naval materials just as old, at what archaeologists are calling a kind of ancient military administration site.
http://www.livescience.com/history/060306_desert_ships.html


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