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November 22    Scripture

Intertestamental: History


Alexander's Successors: The Diadochi Diadochi ('successors'): name of the first generation of military and political leaders after the death of the Macedonian king and conquerorAlexander the Great in 323. To settle the question whether his empire should disintegrate or survive as a unity, and, if so, under whose rule, they fought four full-scale wars. The result, reached by 300, was a division into three large parts, which more or less coincided with Alexander's possessions in Europe, Asia, and Egypt. During the next quarter of a century, it was decided whether these states could endure. As it turned out, there were no great territorial changes, although there were dynastic changes. After 280, the period of state-forming came to an end.
http://www.livius.org/di-dn/diadochi/diadochi.htm


Alexander's Successors: The Settlement at Babylon Alexander's Successors: The Settlement at Babylon (323-322). Alexander died in the afternoon of 11 June 323 BCE, in Babylon. Next day, his generals met to discuss the new situation. Under normal circumstances, they, as representatives of the Macedonian nation, had to choose a new king, and the obvious candidate would be the brother of the dead king,Arridaeus. However, he was illegitimate, epileptic, and considered mentally unfit to rule. As a consequence, it was difficult to reach a solution.
http://www.livius.org/di-dn/diadochi/war01.html


Antiochus and the Jews According to the account of 1 Maccabees, the High Priests at Jerusalem appointed by Antiochus were involved in systematically changing the traditions of the Jews that were based on the laws of Moses, to make them conform to Greek beliefs. A gymnasium was constructed in Jerusalem, and instead of learning their ancient law, the priests engaged in wrestling contests in the Greek fashion, which meant they were naked. Those who were circumcised endeavoured to conceal it. A general history of the reign of Antiochus IV is given by Morkholm.
http://www.sentex.net/~tcc/fantioc.html


Brief History from Alexander to Herod By Alfred Edersheim. The political connection of the Grecian world, and, with it, the conflict with Hellenism, may be said to have connected with the victoriuos progress of Alexander the Great through the then known world (333 B..C.). [1 We do not here discuss the question, whether or not Alexander really entered Jersalem. Jewish legend has much to tell of him, and reports many supposed inquiries on his part or discussions betweem him and the Rabbis, that prove at least the deep impression which his appearance had made, and the permanent results which followed from it.] It was not only that his destruction of the Persian empire put end to the easy and peaceful allegiance which Judaea had owned to it for about two centuries, but that the establishment of such a vast Hellenic empire. as was the aim of Alexander, introduced a new element into the world of Asia. Everywhere the old civilisationgave way before the new. So early as the commencement of the second century before Christ, Israel was already surrounded, north, east, and west, with a girdle of Hellenic cities, while in the interior of the land itself Grecianism had its foothold in Galilee and was dominant in Samaria. But this is not all. After continuing the frequent object of contention between the rulers of Egypt and Syria, Israel ultimately passed from Egyptian to Syrian domination during the reign of Seleucus IV. (187-175 B.C.). His successor was that Antiochus IV., Epiphanes (175-164), whose reckless determination to exterminate Judaism, and in its placeto substitute Hellenism, led to the Maccabean rising. Mad as this attempt seems,it could scarcely have been made had there not been in Israel itself a party to favour his plans. In truth, Grecianism, inits worst form, had long before made its way, slowly but surely, into the highest quarters. For the proper understanding of this history its progress must be briefly indicated.
http://www.bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSEdersheim__Brief_History.htm


Chapter 30: The Hasmonean Dynasty Old Testament Life and Literature (1968) WITH Simon (141-135) a new era dawned for the Jews, and for the first time since the Babylonian conquest, they breathed the pure air of freedom. The atmosphere was charged with expectation. Simon seized the important port city of Gaza, providing Judah with a direct outlet to the Mediterranean world. Treaties were made with Rome and Sparta. Jewish coins were struck. Trade and industry increased and the arts were encouraged. A pro-Hellenistic, aristocratic, priestly group, later to be called the Sadducees, began to take form. The Hasidim tended to merge with other nationalists to become the nucleus of the religio-political party later called Pharisees.
http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/gerald_larue/otll/chap30.html


Cleopatra , Ptolemy XIII, Ptolemy IV, Ptolemy XV Caesarion Cleopatra VII, Ptolemy XIII, Ptolemy IV, Ptolemy XV Caesarion. In 51 BC, Cleopatra assumed power at the age of 17. She was required to marry so she took her brother, Ptolemy XIII, as her husband. He was only 12 by that time. Cleopatra soon dropped him from official documents and regarded herself as the sole ruler. Few years later, Ptolemy XIII challenged his sister-wife in order to oust her. Two court officials, Pothinus and Achilles, helped him. Cleopatra was alarmed in time so she fled to Syria, then she returned at Pelusium and was on standby.
http://www.youregypt.com/ehistory/history/greek/cleopatravii/


Daniel's Prophecies Come to Pass The Bible and Archaeology - The Intertestamental Period: Daniel's Prophecies Come to Pass - by Mario Seiglie. This series has traced the history of the Old Testament from Genesis through the captivity of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah, describing archaeological finds and historical accounts that have confirmed and illuminated the biblical account. In this issue we show more evidence that confirms the accuracy of the Bible accounts by picking up the story with the Intertestamental period: the time between the testaments, when the events described in the books of the Old Testament were completed but before the events that introduced the four Gospels.
http://www.gnmagazine.org/issues/gn22/archaeologydaniel.htm


Essenes, Nazarenes and the Development of Messianism By Jack Kilmon, Text and Images [Intertestimental]
http://www.historian.net/dssxr.htm


Hasmonean Revolt Hasmonean Revolt Against Seleucid Rule. We know little about life in Israel during the period of about 300 years between the time of the return from Babylon and the time of the taking over of the country by the Seleucids. We do know that religious observance was so important that they would not even defend themselves when attacked on the Sabbath (the weekly day of rest) so as not to desecrate it. The Seleucid rulers started a process of hellenisation. Among the Jewish leadership were those who served the Seleucid rulers by offering greater annual taxes for the sake of obtaining personal power. They collected them from the people. At the same time they weakened and opposed the influence of the Jewish religion so as to weaken the people. It was of course the people who suffered and who became more and more discontented.
http://artfuljesus.0catch.com/judaica/hasmonean.html


Hasmonean Rule From Jonathan to the Death of Simon Hasmonean Rule From Jonathan to the Death of Simon (160-134 BCE). Brief Account of Events Said to Have Occurred. After Judas' death, there followed a period when the Maccabean movement was out of power (160-53 BCE). In 153 BCE, Jonathan, Judas' brother and replacement regained popular support. Jonathan took advantage of internal weakness within the Seleucid kingdom to take political control of Jerusalem and Judea. In Syria, in 153-52 BCE, a rival to the throne, Alexander Balas, forced Demetrius I to offer an alliance to Jonathan, which he accepted, but Alexander Balas then made an even better offer to Jonathan. In 150 BCE, Demetrius I was defeated in battle by Alexander Balas. Thus, Jonathan became both political ruler and High Priest.
http://www.abu.nb.ca/Courses/NTIntro/InTest/Hist3.htm


History of Hannukah The holiday originated when Judah the Maccabee and his followers reclaimed the temple in the village of Modi'in from Syrian King Antiochus IV. The temple was cleansed and prepared for rededication. The Hebrew word Hanukkah means "dedication." When the sacred temple Menorah (candelabra) was relit, there was only enough sacred oil to burn for one day. Yet, according to tradition, the oil miraculously lasted eight days until more purified oil could be found.
http://www.theholidayspot.com/hanukkah/history.htm


History of Iran: Seleucid Empire The Hellenistic period is one of the most controversial in the history of Iran. The Greek or Macedonian dynasties were never fully accepted as more than occupants, and in hindsight their reign has been neglected. In the West, where the Hellenistic kings were defeated by Rome, most historians tend to look down on them as degenerated tyrants. The criticism is not wholly unfounded, but in many aspects the kingdoms of the age were vital and dynamic states with an eclectic and progressive view of the different cultures they embraced. The Seleucid Empire was by far the largest of them and its ambition was no less than to maintain the great empire of Alexander in the east. Jens Jakobsson
http://www.iranchamber.com/history/seleucids/seleucids.php


History of the Intertestamental Period Following the conquests of Alexander the Great and his early death in 323 B.C., his empire was divided by four of his generals. Israel initially fell under the rule of Seleucus, who held authority over Syria, but soon passed to Ptolemy, who had gained authority over Egypt. This period under the "Ptolemies" from 301 to 198 B.C. was generally one of peace for the Jews. However, in 198 B.C. the Seleucid king Antiochus III, also known as Antiochus the Great, re-conquered Israel. At the death of Antiochus III, his son Seleucus IV took the Syrian throne for twelve years after which another son of Antiochus III, Antiochus IV Epiphanes (illustrious) rose to power in 175 B.C.
http://www.davidccarson.com/briefhistory.htm


Intertestamental History By Steve and Terri White. With the ten northern tribes scattered over the former Assyrian Empire, and most of Judah remaining in Persia, only a tiny remnant returned to Jerusalem in 538 B.C. It was this group that rebuilt the temple and the walls of Jerusalem under the leadership of Ezra (the priest), Nehemiah, and Zerubbabel (descendant of David). Because of many delays and obstacles, it took about 100 years to finish the work. Life under Persian rule was relatively peaceful and prosperous.
http://koinonia-all.org/bible/Intertestament.htm


Jewish History from Alexander to the Death of Seleucus IV Jewish History from Alexander to the Death of Seleucus IV Eupator (333-175 BCE). The Diadochan Period. After a seventh month siege, from January to August 332, Alexander took control of the city of Tyre; the city was burnt and some 30,000 survivors, mostly women and children, while another 2,000 men capable of bearing arms were crucified (Diod. 17.46.4; Arr. 2.24.5-6; Curt. Ruf. 4.4.17). With the exception of Josephus (to be discussed below), nothing is said about the Jews by those ancient historians who wrote about Alexander (Ant. 11.8.1-7; 304-347). Arrian merely records, "The remainder of Syria known as Israel had already come over to him" (see 2.25.4; 20.4-5). This implies that the Jews and other peoples occupying Israel had already allied themselves with the Macedonian invaders before the fall of Tyre. From Tyre Alexander (and his army) advanced along the coast unopposed until he arrived in Gaza, still held by the Persians. The city refused him entry, so that Alexander was forced to lay siege to it.
http://www.abu.nb.ca/Courses/NTIntro/InTest/Hist1.htm


Judea: from Alexander to Herod the Great Warren Doud, Grace Notes [Intertestimental]
http://www.realtime.net/~wdoud/topics/judea.html


Maccabees and Hasmonean Kings Jerusalem: In Search of the Maccabees by By Jacqueline Schaalje. As is well known, the Jewish holiday of Chanukah is based on historic events. From the year 180 BCE until 161 BCE the Maccabees rebelled against the Syrian king Antiochus IV who persecuted the Jews. At the end of the period, after the rebels had conquered Judah and Jerusalem, the Temple was re-inaugurated.Generations-long struggles against the Syrian hegemony followed, at the end of which emerged the first Israeli kings, the Hasmonean dynasty (2ndto 1st Century BCE). They were the descendants of the Maccabees.
http://www.jewishmag.com/27MAG/archi/archi.htm


My Jewish Learning: Hanukkah History Overview: Hanukkah History Hanukkah is one of the few Jewish holidays not mentioned in the Bible. The story of how Hanukkah came to be is contained in the books of 1 and 2 Maccabees, which are not part of the Jewish canon of the Hebrew Bible. These books tell the story of the Maccabees, a small band of Jewish fighters who liberated the Land of Israel from the Syrian Greeks who occupied it. Under the reign ofAntiochus IV Epiphanes, the Syrian Greeks sought to impose their Hellenistic culture, which many Jews found attractive. By 167 B.C.E, Antiochus intensified his campaign by defiling the Temple in Jerusalem and banning Jewish practice. The Maccabees--led by the five sons of the priest Mattathias, especially Judah--waged a three-year campaign that culminated in the cleaning and rededication of the Temple.
http://www.myjewishlearning.com/holidays/Hanukkah/TO_Hanukkah_History.htm


Plutarch - Life of Pompey Towards Pompey the Roman people must have had, from the very beginning, the feeling which the Prometheus of Aeschylus has towards Heracles, when, having been saved by him, he says: "I hate the sire, but dearly love this child of his."1 For never have the Romans manifested so strong and fierce a hatred towards a general as they did towards Strabo, the father of Pompey; while he lived, indeed, they feared his talent as a soldier, for he was a very warlike man, 2 but when he was killed by a thunderbolt,2 and his body was on its way to the funeral pyre, they dragged it from its bier and heaped insults upon it. On the other hand, no Roman ever enjoyed a heartier goodwill on the part of his countrymen, or one which began sooner, or reached a greater height in his prosperity, or remained more constant in his adversity, than Pompey did. 3 And whereas there was one sole reason for the hatred felt towards Strabo, namely, his insatiable desire for money, there were many reasons for the love bestowed on Pompey; his modest and temperate way of living, his training in the arts of war, his persuasive speech, his trustworthy character, and his tact in meeting people, so that no man asked a p119favour with less offence, or bestowed one with a better mien. For, in addition to his other graces, he had the art of giving without arrogance, and of receiving without loss of dignity.
http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Plutarch/Lives/Pompey*.html


Pompey and the End of Jewish Independence (67 - 51 BCE) Jewish and Roman histories begin to intersect at this point, so that one cannot discuss Jewish history without discussing Roman history (The reverse is not as true, of course). When Salome died in 67 BCE, there arose a conflict between Hyrcanus II and his brother Aristobolus II over who would become both High Priest and king. The people opted for Aristobolus II, but the matter did not end there. Hyrcanus II, backed by Antipater, an Idumean, and the army of the Nabataean king, Aretas, who had lost much territory to the Jews, demanded that Hyrcanus II be reinstated as High Priest and made king.
http://www.abu.nb.ca/Courses/NTIntro/InTest/Hist5.htm


Ptolemaic dynasty - Ptolemy I - XV Ptolemaic Dynasty - Ptolemy I - XV " Cleopatra. This period is confusing due to all of the co-regencies. Scholars are not always in agreement on the order of reigns and, in some case, the reigns themselves, from Ptolemy VI through Ptolemy XI. In any event, Egypt's authority and wealth was intact until the death of Cleopatra, at which time, Egypt was overpowered by Rome.
http://www.crystalinks.com/ptolemaic.html


Ptolemaic Egypt The conquests of Alexander the Great brought Egypt within the orbit of the Greek world for almost 900 years. After 300 years of rule by the Macedonian Ptolemies, Egypt was incorporated into the Roman Empire in 30 BC, and was ruled first from Rome and then from Constantinople until the Persian and Arab conquests in 616 and 639 respectively. In 332 BC Alexander the Great, King of Macedon, conquered Egypt, with little resistance from the Persians. He was welcomed by the Egyptians as a deliverer. He visited Memphis, and went on pilgrimage to the oracle of Amun at the Oasis of Siwa. The oracle declared him to be the son of Amun. He conciliated the Egyptians by the respect which he showed for their religion, but he appointed Greeks to virtually all the senior posts in the country, and founded a new Greek city, Alexandria, to be the new capital. The wealth of Egypt could now be harnessed for Alexander's conquest of the rest of the Persian Empire. Early in 331 BC he was ready to depart, and led his forces away to Phoenicia. He left Cleomenes as the ruling monarch to control Egypt in his absence. Alexander never returned to Egypt.
http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/History/PtolemaicEgypt.html


Ptolemy Kings and Queens The House of Ptolemy: Kings, Queens and the Rest of the Royal Ptolemies. Chronological List of Ptolemaic rulers
http://www.houseofptolemy.org/housekng.htm


The Antiochan Crisis to the Death of Judas (174-160 BCE) Brief Account of Events Said to Have Occurred. Although little is known of events in Israel before Antiochus IV Epiphanes, from this point on, there are fairly detailed and reliable sources of information on Jewish history. Unfortunately, there is some confusion about the order of events in Jewish sources and a problem correlating these with the Hellenistic sources.
http://www.abu.nb.ca/Courses/NTIntro/InTest/Hist2.htm


The Diadochi Assume the Royal Title Demetrius' victory over Ptolemy at Salamis in 306 gave him and his fatherAntigonus Monophthalmus so much credit, that it was widely believed that they would reunite the empire of Alexander the Great. With some justification, the two men accepted the royal title; after all, the descendants of Alexander were by now all dead. The other Diadochi followed immediately. The story is told by Plutarch of Chaeronea in his Life of Demetrius 18. The translation was made by M.M. Austin.
http://www.livius.org/di-dn/diadochi/diadochi_t05.html


The Diadochi Chronicle The Babylonian Diadochi Chronicle (BCHP 3; a.k.a. ABC 10, Chronicle 10) is one of the historiographical texts from ancient Babylonia. It deals with the history of the Diadochi, the successors of Alexander the Great, and theBabylonian war between the generals Seleucus and Antigonus Monophthalmus.
http://www.livius.org/cg-cm/chronicles/bchp-diadochi/diadochi_01.html


The Diadochi: Antigonus Proclaims the Freedom of the Greeks In the spring of 314, the Third War of the Diadochi broke out. Antigonus Monophthalmus, who ruled great parts of Asia between the Hellespont and the Hindu Kush, had to fight against a coalition of Cassander of Macedonia,Lysimachus of Thrace, Ptolemy of Egypt, and Seleucus, who had once beensatrap of Babylonia but had been expelled by Antigonus. One of Antigonus' diplomatic initiatives was the proclamation of the independence of the Greek towns, which would seriously handicap Cassander. The story is told in theWorld History of Diodorus of Sicily (19.61-62). The present translation was made by M.M. Austin.
http://www.livius.org/di-dn/diadochi/diadochi_t02.html


The Diadochi: Antigonus' Winter Campaign Against Eumenes In June 316, the duel between Antigonus Monophthalmus and Eumenes started. The first general wanted to be sole ruler in the empire that had once been Alexander's, the latter had started as a defender of the rights of the official king, Philip Arridaeus, who was by now dead. Nevertheless,Eumenes continued the struggle. In January 315, Antigonus was victorious. The story is told by several authors, and one of them is the Roman biographer Cornelius Nepos (100-24 BCE), whose Life of Eumenes was translated by John S. Watson. The quoted text is section 8-10.
http://www.livius.org/di-dn/diadochi/diadochi_t17.html


The Diadochi: Demetrius becomes King of Macedonia In 298, the ruler of Macedonia, Cassander, died. His two brothers now divided the kingdom: Antipater received the western and Alexander the eastern half. Immediately, they started to quarrel. Alexander felt threatened, and in 294 invited two men to come to his assistance: Demetrius I Poliorcetess and Pyrrhus of Epirus. Pyrrhus was the first to intervene. In 294, he invaded Macedonia and restored the balance of power between the two brothers. He had just left the stage, when Demetrius entered. The story is told by Plutarch of Chaeronea, Life of Demetrius 36-37. The translation was made by John Nalson and belongs to the Dryden series.
http://www.livius.org/di-dn/diadochi/diadochi_t18.html


The Diadochi: Demetrius' Babylonian Campaign In May 311, Seleucus unexpectedly captured Babylon, the greatest city in the world and one of the most important parts in the empire of Antigonus Monophthalmus. In the autumn of 311, he sent his son Demetrius to expell Seleucus. His expedition did not reach its aims. The story is told by Diodorus of Sicily (World history, 19.100.5-7). The translation was made by Russel Geer.
http://www.livius.org/di-dn/diadochi/diadochi_t21.html


The Diadochi: The beginning of the Babylonian War In 320, Seleucus had been appointed as satrap of Babylonia, but Antigonus Monophthalmus had expelled him in the spring of 315. In May 311, Seleucus recaptured Babylon. This was the beginning of the Babylonian War, which was to last until the late summer of 309. Antigonus first sent his son Demetrius against one of the largest citie of the world. The story is told by Diodorus of Sicily (World History, 19.90-93); the translation was made by Russel M. Geer.
http://www.livius.org/di-dn/diadochi/diadochi_t20.html


The Diadochi: The Career of Lysimachus Lysimachus (361-281) was one of the Diadochi, the generals who contested the inheritance of Alexander the Great. After the king's death, he was madesatrap of Thrace, and fruitlessly fought to enlarge his power. Nevertheless, he accepted the royal title in 305. In the next couple of years, he greatly expanded his power in the Greek world and conquered the rich country that is now Turkey. However, the wars in Thrace were less successful: both his son Agathocles and Lysimachus himself were captured. However, this was balanced by his successes in Asia, and he became very rich and powerful, and tried to conquer Macedonia, with some success. Eventually, he also conquered Thessaly. His career is described by Pausanias, a Greek author who lived in the second century CE. The translation of Pausanias' Description of Greece1.9.5-10 was made by M.M. Austin.
http://www.livius.org/di-dn/diadochi/diadochi_t07.html


The Diadochi: The Career of Seleucus Seleucus had served under Alexander the Great and was vizier after his death. In 320, he was made satrap of Babylonia. Although he lost possession of his satrapy between 315 and 311, he grew out to be one of the most powerful monarchs after Alexander. The Greek historian Appian of Alexandria describes Seleucus' career in several chapters of his History of the Syrian War, which are here quoted in the translation of M.M. Austin.
http://www.livius.org/di-dn/diadochi/diadochi_t08.html


The Diadochi: The death of Antipater In the autumn of 319, Antipater died, the regent of the brother of Alexander the Great and his baby son Alexander. A year before, he had divided Alexander's empire: Ptolemy was recognized as the ruler of a virtually independent Egypt, Antigonus Monophthalmus was made supreme commander of the Macedonian forces in Asia, and Antipater was sole ruler of Macedonia proper. His death led to great changes among the Diadochi. The historian Diodorus of Sicily describes the events (World history 18.48-50). The translation was made by M.M. Austin
http://www.livius.org/di-dn/diadochi/diadochi_t01.html


The Diadochi: The death of Philip Arridaeus After the death of Alexander the Great, his half-witted brother Philip Arridaeus became king; a general named Perdiccas was made regent (323-320), and later succeeded by Antipater (320-319) and Polyperchon. King Philip was married to Eurydice, who tried to prevent that he was used by his regents, and played an important role to replace Polyperchon with Cassander. One of Philip's enemies was his step-mother Olympias, who tried to make her grandson Alexander IV king, and sided with Cassander's enemy Polyperchon. Early in 318, war broke out between the two women. The story is told by Diodorus of Sicily (World history, 19.11). The translation was made by Russel Geer.
http://www.livius.org/di-dn/diadochi/diadochi_t15.html


The Diadochi: The end of the Macedonian Royal House In 311, the Diadochi concluded a peace treaty. Ptolemy and Lysimachuswere confirmed in their territories, Egypt and Thrace; Cassander andAntigonus Monophthalmus remained supreme commanders of theMacedonian forces in Europe and Asia; the Greek towns were recognized by all parties as 'free and autonomous' (but Cassander kept garrisons at several places); and it was agreed that the boy king Alexander IV, son ofAlexander the Great and Roxane, would become sole ruler of the entire empire when he came of age, in 305. The result was, of course, that the royals were killed as soon as possible. Diodorus of Sicily tells the story in hisWorld history (19.105.1-4); the translation was made by M.M. Austin.
http://www.livius.org/di-dn/diadochi/diadochi_t03.html


The Diadochi: The Foundation of Halos In the autumn 304, Demetrius I Poliorcetes invaded Greece, where he liberated the towns that were garrisoned by Cassander. Two years later, the two kings faced each other in southern Thessaly (between modern Almirós and Soúrpi), but no battle was fought, because both sides knew that the real decision was to be made in the battle between Antigonus Monophthalmusand Lysimachus... (This rationalism is typical for warfare in this period.) After some time, Cassander and Demetrius concluded an armistice. The story is told by Diodorus of Sicily (World history, 19.100.5-7). The translation was made by Russel Geer.
http://www.livius.org/di-dn/diadochi/diadochi_t22.html


The Diadochi: The Greek League n 338 BCE, king Philip II of Macedonia defeated the army of the Greek towns at Chaeronea (text) and went to Corinth, where he founded the Greek League. The Greek towns were to stop fighting each other and share the burdens of a common war against Persia, in which Philip was to be their general (text; Eventually, Alexander the Great was the commander). In 303, Demetrius I Poliorcetes, one of the Diadochi, organized a similar League: this time, the common enemy was the Macedonian ruler Cassander, and Demetrius was to be the general. There was a body of councilors (representing the towns, the larger ones having more than one representative) who had to vote on the League's policy; five presidents oversaw the Council's meeting. Part of the League's charter can be read on an inscription from Epidaurus, which was translated by M.M. Austin.
http://www.livius.org/di-dn/diadochi/diadochi_t16.html


The Diadochi: The Inscription of Scepsis Between 314 and 311, Antigonus Monophthalmus, the strongest of the generals who were contending for the inheritance of Alexander the Great, fought the Third Diadoch War against Ptolemy of Egypt, Lysimachus of Thrace, and Cassander of Macedonia. In 311, he agreed to a peace treaty. An inscription found in Scepsis in the Troad contains the text of a letter he sent to the Greek towns to explain his behavior: he had not crushed Ptolemy and agreed to unfair demands by Cassander, because he wanted to settle the affairs in Greece as soon as possible. The translation was made by M.M. Austin.
http://www.livius.org/di-dn/diadochi/diadochi_t10.html


The Diadochi: The Invasion of the Gauls I Just when the situation in the hellenistic empires seemed to be stabilized, the Galatians invaded Greece. The deepest cause was the collapse of the kingdom that had once been Lysimachus': when this king was killed in 281, the tribes in the buffer zone in the north sided with the barbarous Galatians, who now found the way to the south open. These Galatians belonged to the La Tène-culture, which is often called 'Celtic'. The story is told by Pausanias (Guide for Greece 10.19.4-23.9); his source may or may not be Hieronymus of Cardia. The translation was made by Peter Levi.
http://www.livius.org/di-dn/diadochi/diadochi_t11.html


The Diadochi: The Liberation of Athens Few generals have received the honors that Demetrius I Poliorcetes, son ofAntigonus Monophthalmus, received in 307 when he liberated Athens. It was an important event in the Fourth War of the Diadochi (the successors ofAlexander the Great), because Demetrius and his father were called kings. A year later, they themselves assumed the title. The story is told by Plutarch of Chaeronea in his Life of Demetrius (8-10). The translation was made by M.M. Austin.
http://www.livius.org/di-dn/diadochi/diadochi_t04.html


The Diadochi: The Siege of Nora After the death of Alexander the Great on June 11, 323, Perdiccas was appointed as regent for Alexander's half-witted brother Philip Arridaeus and his baby son Alexander. Soon, Perdiccas lost control of the empire, and he had to fight a civil war against rebel officers like Ptolemy, Antipater, andCraterus. Perdiccas' most important ally was Eumenes of Cardia, who defeated Craterus. However, Perdiccas himself was assassinated and Antipater divided the empire again (settlement of Triparadisus, 320; text). He made Antigonus Monophthalmus supreme commander in Asia, and ordered him to fight against Eumenes. The story is told by Plutarch of Chaeronea in his Life of Eumenes. The anonymous translation belongs to the Dryden series.
http://www.livius.org/di-dn/diadochi/diadochi_t09.html


The Diadochi: The Siege of Rhodes In 305, Antigonus Monophthalmus, one of the Diadochi (successors ofAlexander the Great), sent out his son Demetrius to capture the city and island of Rhodes. It controlled the entrance to the Aegean Sea, and its capture was necessary if Antigonus wanted to liberate Greece andMacedonia. Diodorus of Sicily tells about the siege in his World History20.81 and 20.100. The translation was made by M.M. Austin.
http://www.livius.org/di-dn/diadochi/diadochi_t06.html


The Election of Arridaeus At the end of book ten his History of Alexander the Great of Macedonia,Quintus Curtius Rufus describes what happened in the days followingAlexander's death: Perdiccas was chosen as regent for Alexander's brotherArridaeus, and was, therefore, Alexander's successor. The chapters section 6-10 are given here in the translation of John Yardley.
http://www.livius.org/aj-al/alexander/alexander_t61.html


The Hasmonean Dynasty Chart. [ IHO Index ] [ Search ] [ House of Herod ] [ Roman Rulers ] [ House of Caesar ] [ Josephus ] [ Antiochus Epiphanes ] [ Maccabean Revolt ] [ Hasmonean Regime ] [ Rise of Antipater & Sons ]
http://virtualreligion.net/iho/hasmon2.html


The Hasmonean Dynasty The Silent Centuries. The Hasmonean Dynasty Growth and Decay (135 " 63 BC) by Al Maxey. For the first several years of his rule, John Hyrcanus was little more than a pawn in the hands of Antiochus VII. With the death of Antiochus VII in 128 BC, however, the people of Judea again proclaimed -- and managed to achieve -- their independence. Thus began the famous Hasmonean Dynasty (although some scholars insist it actually began with John's father Simon).
http://www.zianet.com/maxey/Inter4.htm


The Hasmonean Dynasty from Hyrcanus to Salome The Hasmonean Dynasty from (John) Hyrcanus to (Salome) Alexandra (134 - 67 BCE). Ptolemy, the man who murdered the father of (John) Hyrcanus and two brothers, also attempted to murder (John) Hyrcanus and take power; Hyrcanus prevailed over him after a protracted conflict, but lost his mother to Ptolemy, who had held her hostage. Antiochus VII Sidetes demanded that (John) Hyrcanus surrender territory taken by Simon, and successfully waged war against the Jewish state, besieging Jerusalem. (John) Hyrcanus was forced to pay indemnity for the territory seized by his father. After this less than promising start to his reign, however, (John) Hyrcanus maintained the borders of the state inherited from his father and even expanded them.
http://www.abu.nb.ca/Courses/NTIntro/InTest/Hist4.htm


The Intertestamental Fulfillment of Daniel 11 The first thirty-five verses of the eleventh chapter of Daniel paint a prophetic scenario so overwhelmingly in accord with subsequently recorded history that many interpreters have found the passage a basis for denying the traditional dating of the book. I am not among them. I hold strongly to the traditional authorship and dating of Daniel as a book written by the man Daniel sometime before 530 BC. I believe there is substantial external and internal evidence to support this view as well as convincing rebuttal of the assertions made by the traditional view's detractors. This evidence will be offered in another paper soon to be posted.
http://www.davidccarson.com/Daniel11.htm


The Intertestamental Period The period from the book of Malachi at the end of our Old Testament to the opening of Matthew at the beginning of our New Testament comprises about 400 years. These 400 "silent years" were only silent in the sense that there were no prophets from God who were writing Scripture. They were years which brought about dramatic and sweeping changes throughout the ancient world. These changes began with the arrival of a conqueror from the west known as Alexander the Great.
http://www.angelfire.com/nt/theology/15-400sy.html


The Intertestamental Period By Ernest L. Martin Ph.D., To many people, the teachings of the New Testament seem so foreign to those found in the Old Testament. In fact, it seems on the surface that the authors of the New Testament books almost lived in a different world than the prophets, kings and priests who composed the Old Testament writings. And in one way of looking at it, this is true. The types of writings which make up the New Testament are of a fundamentally different kind than those of the earlier Testament. However, all the writings of Scripture originate from the same source and both sections were inspired by the Spirit of YHWH. It is most important to understand that both the Old and the New Testaments complement one another and their full messages cannot be comprehended without both sections relying totally on each other. But, in order to blend the two together in a compatible way, the 400 year span known as the "Intertestament Period" must be studied and understood. Once this is done, it will be seen how sensible the New Testament teaching really is and how dependent it is upon that of the Old Testament. As the apostle Paul said, even the doctrines which comprised "the Mystery" (given to Paul and others only after 63 B.C.E.), are founded on "the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ Himself being the chief cornerstone" (Ephesians 2:20).
http://askelm.com/doctrine/d020601.htm


The Intertestamental Period 400 - 4 BC - Part 1 From Bible History Online Part One - The Intertestimental Period 400 - 4 BC. HISTORICAL TIME CHART (Historical with an emphasis on Judaism) 3 Part Series. Note: The dating is approximate and follows certain events in Israel, Rome, Greece, Persia, Egypt, and China. The Notes in blue are a commentary on the effects of hellenization on the Jewish people.
http://www.bible-history.com/resource/r_inter.htm


The Intertestamental Period 400 - 4 BC - Part 2 From Bible History Online Part Two - The Intertestimental Period 400 - 4 BC. HISTORICAL TIME CHART (Historical with an emphasis on Judaism) 3 Part Series. Note: The dating is approximate and follows certain events in Israel, Rome, Greece, Persia, Egypt, and China. The Notes in blue are a commentary on the effects of hellenization on the Jewish people.
http://www.bible-history.com/resource/r_inter2.htm


The Intertestamental Period 400 - 4 BC - Part 3 From Bible History Online Part Three - The Intertestimental Period 400 - 4 BC. HISTORICAL TIME CHART (Historical with an emphasis on Judaism) 3 Part Series. Note: The dating is approximate and follows certain events in Israel, Rome, Greece, Persia, Egypt, and China. The Notes in blue are a commentary on the effects of hellenization on the Jewish people.
http://www.bible-history.com/resource/r_inter3.htm


The Legacy of the Maccabees The Maccabee Rebellion. Devastating Desecraton. "The period of Alexander, who took possession of Israel in 332 [B.C.E.], passed off fairly quietly for the Hebrews. Their troubles came during the struggle between the Diadochi, since both the Seleucids and the Ptolemies coveted southern Syria and it only finally became a possession of the former in 195 [B.C.E.].""The Hebrews of Israel remained markedly hostile to the ideas and practices which had grown up among other peoples. Their resistance to the introduction of Gentile rites and customs into Jerusalem was the background of many famous scenes in their rebellion. Meanwhile all their writings in the last centuries of the Old Testament period emphasize their firm resolve to defend their traditions jealously and to keep their people apart from the world around them."
http://www.mystae.com/restricted/reflections/messiah/maccabees.html


The Reign of Herod the Great The Reign of Herod the Great, King of the Jews (37 - 4 BCE) - From 37 until 4 BCE, Herod reigned in Jerusalem and gradually, with the approval of the Romans, expanded his kingdom; his kingdom included both Jews and Gentiles, but he did not follow the Hasmonean policy of forcibly converting gentiles to Judaism. Early in his reign, Antonius and Octavian had a falling out, which led to another civil war. In 31 BCE, Octavius, with the support of the Roman senate, fought and defeated Antonius at the battle of Actium in Greece; both Antonius and Cleopatra managed to escape and arrived in Alexandria; but, when they realized that there was no way of escaping Octavius, they committed suicide. Herod convinced the victorious Octavius to confirm him in his former position as King of the Jews. Herod had serious trouble with his family and his court in general; he was not greatly appreciated by the Jews generally, which bothered him. In a desire to aggrandize himself and perpetuate his memory, he undertook many expensive building projects in parts of his kingdom and beyond. In 19 BCE, Herod undertook to rebuild and enlarge the Temple in Jerusalem. (See Testament of Moses [6] for an unflattering description of Herod's reign presented as a prophecy.)
http://www.abu.nb.ca/Courses/NTIntro/InTest/Hist7.htm


The Rise of Herod the Great (51 - 37 BCE) In 49 BCE, in Rome, a civil war erupted between Pompey and Julius Caesar. At first, Hyrcanus II and Antipater supported Pompey, as most from the east did, but quickly switched allegiances, when it was discovered that Caesar and his allies had been victorious over Pompey, who had fled to Egypt but who was murdered in 48 BCE in Egypt. In gratitude for the help given to Caesar, he appointed Hyrcanus as ethnarch of the Jews in 47 BCE and Antipater procurator.
http://www.abu.nb.ca/Courses/NTIntro/InTest/Hist6.htm


The Seleucid Empire (Syria) After the death of Alexander the Great in the afternoon of 11 June 323 BCE, his empire was divided by his generals, the Diadochi. One of them was his friend Seleucus, who became king of the eastern provinces - more or less modern Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon, together with parts of Turkey, Armenia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. His kingdom had two capitals, which he founded in c.300: Antioch in Syria (pictures) and Seleucia in Mesopotamia. Babylon was another important city. The empire was, like the empire of Alexander, actually the continuation of the empires before: the Assyrian, Babylonian, and the Achaemenid Empire.
http://www.livius.org/se-sg/seleucids/seleucids.html


The Silent Centuries Greek Rule -- The Ptolemies & Seleucids (332 - 168 BC) by Al Maxey. Covers: (Alexander) (The Diadochoi) (Ptolemy I) (Ptolemy II) (Ptolemy III) (Ptolemy IV) (Ptolemy V) (Antiochus III) (Seleucus IV) (Antiochus IV)
http://www.zianet.com/maxey/Inter2.htm


The Silent Years With the silence of Malachi and the voice of John the Baptist there is a period of some 400 years. This period has sometimes been called the Silent Years. But that can be misleading because there was much going on during this time. The Silence was with God's inspired writers, not with God's work. Electronic Christian Media
http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/event12.htm


Who Were the Samaritans? The gospel accounts in the New Testament speak periodically of a race of people called Samaritans. No effort is made by the gospel writers to cover up the historic enmity that had developed between this group and the Jewish people. John, the writer of the fourth gospel account, makes clear mention of this as he relates an encounter between Jesus and a Samaritan woman: "The Samaritan woman said to Him, "You are a Jew and I am a Samaritan woman. How can you ask me for a drink?' (For Jews do not associate with Samaritans.)" (John 4:9). So just who were the Samaritans, and why did the Jews hate them so, and vice versa?
http://www.davidccarson.com/samaritan.htm


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