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May 30    Scripture

Intertestamental: People
People during the period between the Testaments.

Alexander Balas Rival of Demetrius I who (ca. 153 BCE) claimed to be son of Antiochus IV... Balas attracted the support of a loose coalition of Egypt, Rome, Pergamum, Cappodocia & Judea -- all of which were interested in weakening the Seleucid dynasty. In return for Judean support he appointed Judah Maccabee's brother, Jonathan, high priest, giving legitimacy to the Hasmonean family's de facto rule in Jerusalem...
http://virtualreligion.net/iho/a_balas.html


Alexander the Great (Alexander of Macedon) Biography King of Macedonia and Conqueror of the Persian Empire. Alexander III the Great, the King of Macedonia and conqueror of the Persian Empire is considered one of the greatest military geniuses of all times. He was inspiration for later conquerors such as Hannibal the Carthaginian, the Romans Pompey and Caesar, and Napoleon. Alexander was born in 356 BC in Pella, the ancient capital of Macedonia. He was son of Philip II, King of Macedonia, and Olympias, the princess of neighboring Epirus. He spent his childhood watching his father transforming Macedonia into a great military power, winning victory after victory on the battlefields throughout the Balkans. When he was 13, Philip hired the Greek philosopher Aristotle to be Alexander's personal tutor. During the next three years Aristotle gave Alexander a training in rhetoric and literature and stimulated his interest in science, medicine, and philosophy, all of which became of importance in Alexander's later life.
http://www.historyofmacedonia.org/AncientMacedonia/AlexandertheGreat.html


Alexander the Great, Project by JJP Alexander the Invincible, later renamed by the Romans, Alexander III The Great of Macedon. Alexander accomplished greater deeds than any other ruler before or after him. This project is dedicated to the most charismatic and heroic king of all times. Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon (Alexander the Great, Alexander III of Macedon) (356-323 B.C.), King of Macedonia, was born in late July 356 BC in Pella, Macedonia, he was one of the greatest military genius in history. He conquered much of what was then the civilized world, driven by his divine ambition of the world conquest and the creation of a universal world monarchy.
http://1stmuse.com/frames/


Antigonus Antigonus the Successor "Diadochoi" by Ben Martinez Alexander's death in Babylon on (June 10, 323 B.C.) left the empire without a direct heir at the time of his death, since Alexander had an unborn child with a Bactrian princess Roxane. The vast empire that Alexander conquered with the sword was loosely held together and after his death the leading officers present in Babylon came together to discuss who was going to exercise power on behalf of the Argead dynasty until a king was named. Perdiccas was in the strongest position to assume the role, having been Alexander's chief lieutenant during the last months of his riegn... Plus Periccas own report that Alexander gave him his ring, its seal the symbol of the state. Perdiccas with the ring given to him by Alexander and acting as a Chiliarch(Vizier) summoned the council of generals to find a successor to Alexander's empire.
http://members.tripod.com/~Kekrops/Hellenistic_Files/Antigonus.html


Antigonus I Monophthalmus (one eye) 382-301 BC Antigonus I Monophthalmus (one-eyed) was one of Alexander the Great's most important generals, and one of the most able of his successors. He came closer than any of his colleagues to reuniting Alexander's empire during the wars of the Diadochi (successors), eventually falling to a coalition that saw most of his fellow successors unite against him. He was the son of a Macedonian nobleman, and a commander in the army that Alexander the Great led into Asia in 334 BC.
http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/people_antigonusI.html


Antiochus I Soter Son of Seleucus I & co-regent of eastern provinces (Armenia, Mesopotamia & Persia) from 292-281 BCE. No sooner had he inherited control of the western provinces (281 BCE), than Gallic invasions of Asia Minor forced him to form an alliance with his rival Antigonus II of Macedonia.
http://virtualreligion.net/iho/antiochus_1.html


Antiochus I Soter Antiochus I Soter ('the savior'): name of a Seleucid king, ruled from 281 to 261.
http://www.livius.org/am-ao/antiochus/antiochus_i_soter.html


Antiochus II Theos Antiochos II Theos ('the god'): name of a Seleucid king, ruled from 261 to 246.
http://www.livius.org/am-ao/antiochus/antiochus_ii_theos.html


Antiochus III The Great - Antiochus III Megas ('the Great'): name of a Seleucid king, ruled from 222 to187.
http://www.livius.org/am-ao/antiochus/antiochus_iii.html


Antiochus III The Great Antiochus III the Great (Megas), (c. 241 - 187 BC, ruled 223 - 187 BC), younger son of Seleucus II Callinicus, became ruler of the Seleucid kingdom as a youth of about eighteen in 223 BC. (His traditional designation, the Great, stems from a misconception of Megas Basileus (Great king), the traditional title of the Persian kings, which he adopted.)
http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Bios/AntiochusIIIGreat.html


Antiochus IV Epiphanes Since the third son of Antiochus III was not in direct line for the Seleucid throne, he was sent to Rome as a hostage after his father's defeat by the Romans (189 BCE) . Fourteen years later (175 BCE) his older brother, Seleucus IV, secured his release shortly before being murdered by his own chief minister. Antiochus avenged his brother's death & claimed the throne instead of his nephew, Demetrius, who was a 12 year old hostage in Rome. When Ptolemy VI sought to occupy Israel, Antiochus moved swiftly to defeat & claim control of most of Egypt & Cyprus (169BCE). Despite these victories, however, Roman intervention on behalf of the Ptolemaic kingdom deprived him of all his territorial gains. His retreat (166 BCE) set the stage for the Jewish revolt led by Judah Maccabee (165 BCE).
http://virtualreligion.net/iho/antiochus_4.html


Antiochus V Eupator Antiochus V Eupator (c. 173 BC - 162 BC, reigned 164 -162 BC), was only nine when he succeeded as head of the Seleucid dynasty, following the death in Persia of his father Antiochus IV Epiphanes. Regent for the boy was the general Lysias who had been left in charge of Syria by Epiphanes. Lysias was however seriously challenged by other generals and was therefore in a precarious situation. To make matters worse, the Roman senate kept Demetrius, the son of Seleucus IV and the righteous heir to the throne, as a hostage. By threatening to release him, the senate could easily control the Seleucid government.
http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Bios/AntiochusVEupator.html


Antiochus VI Dionysus Antiochus VI Dionysus: name of a Seleucid king, ruled from 145/144 to 140 BC.
http://www.livius.org/am-ao/antiochus/antiochus_vi_dionysus.html


Antiochus VII Sidetes Antiochus VII Sidetes: name of a Seleucid king, ruled from 138 to 129 BC.
http://www.livius.org/am-ao/antiochus/antiochus_vii_sidetes.html


Antipater The story of Antipater's life is virtually the story of Macedonia itself. He was an indispensable part of the glorious reigns of both Philip and Alexander and witnessed the rise of his homeland from a backwater to the greatest power in the world. He was born at the very beginning of the fourth century, probably in 398 BC Over fifteen years older than Philip II, the monarch with whom his career would be inextricably linked, his life began in the era of Xenophon and Socrates when the Spartan victory in the Peloponnesian war was a very recent memory.
http://hometown.aol.co.uk/bobbbennett/antipate.htm


Antipater (397 -319) Antipater was a senior Macedonian general under both Philip II and Alexander the Great. He outlived Alexander, and played an important role in holding his empire together until his death of natural causes in 319 BC. He was a conservative Macedonian, apparently unenthusiastic for Alexander's adventures in Asia, but loyal to the royal family. He was also a close friend and correspondent of Aristotle.
http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/people_antipater.html


Antipater in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE an-tip'-a-ter (Antipatros): One of two envoys sent by the senate of the Jews to the Romans and Spartans (1 Macc 12:16; 14:22). (Bible-History Online)
http://www.bible-history.com/isbe/A/ANTIPATER/


Cassander (358-297 BC) Cassander was the son of Antipater. He was a minor figure during the reign of Alexander the Great, but after the death of his father rose to be ruler and then king of Macedonia. Antipater was the regent of Macedonia during Alexander's expedition to the east. In 324 BC he had been summoned to Alexander's court at Babylon, and Craterus sent west to replace him. Rather than travel in person, Antipater sent his son Cassander. Alexander and Cassander formed an immediate dislike of each other, so severe that Cassander was suspected of having poisoned the king.
http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/people_cassander.html


Cassander King of Macedonia Cassander (c. 355-297 B.C.) as son of Antipater did not accompany the Macedonian army on its invasion of Asia, but remained in Europe during his father's regency over Macedonia and Greece. Displeased at his father's choice of Polyperchon for his successor, he set himself to oust his rival from the regency and sought help from Antigonus in Asia Minor.
http://www.historyofmacedonia.org/AncientMacedonia/Cassander.html


Catholic Encyclopedia: Herod Herod was the name of many rulers mentioned in the N.T. and in history. It was known long before the time of thebiblical Herods. (See Schürer, "Hist. of the Jewish People", etc., Div. I, v. I, p. 416, note.) The Herods connected with the early history of Christianity are the following:Herod, surnamed the Great, called by Grätz "the evil genius of the Judean nation" (Hist., v. II, p. 77), was a son ofAntipater, an Idumæan (Jos., "Bel. Jud.", I, vi, 2). The Idumæans were brought under subjection by John Hyrcanus towards the end of the second century B. C., and obliged to live as Jews, so that they were considered Jews (Jos., "Ant.", XIII, ix, 4). Yet Antigonus called Herod a half-Jew (Jos., "Ant.", XIV, xv, 2, and note in Whiston), while the Jews, when it furthered their interests, spoke of Herod their king as by birth a Jew (Jos., "Ant." XX, viii, 7). Antipater, the father of Herod, had helped the Romans in the Orient, and the favour of Rome brought the Herodian family into great prominence and power.
http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07289c.htm


Cleopatra Cleopatra VII: The End of Laxism. Ptomely XII Auletes died in 51 BC leaving the power in the hands of his two oldest children: Cleopatra VII (18 years old) and Ptolemy XIII (10 years old).Following the Egyptian tradition, Cleopatra got married with her own brother. At the age of 18, she became the ruler of Upper and Lower Egypt. A very heavy destiny for this young promising queen. Descendant of the Greek culture, she inherited the Greek knowledge brought by Alexander the Great and the Egyptian culture. She had knowledge in litterature, mathematics, astronomy, medecine,... She could even ride a horse. All that knowledge wouldn't have been useful if she wasn't talented for languages. She could speak easily with people from neightbouring countries without translators. She was also the first Ptolemy to speak the Egyptian language. All above these talents, she had a great sense of humour. The ideal woman, isn't she ?
http://www.geocities.com/thetropics/shores/7037/cleo.htm


Cleopatra Berenice III Information about Cleopatra Berenice III the queen of the Ptolemaic Empire.
http://www.livius.org/be-bm/berenice/berenice_iii.html


Cleopatra I Cleopatra I Syra, queen of Egypt, daughter of Antiochus III king of Syria presumably by his first wife Laodice III, born between c. 219 and 210, and probably before 212, engaged to Ptolemy V king of Egypt 196, married to him in 194/3 at Raphia, mother of Ptolemy VI, Ptolemy VIII and presumably of Cleopatra II, incorporated in the dynastic cult with Ptolemy V in 194/3 as the Manifest Gods, Qeoi EpifaneiV, senior coruler with Ptolemy VI September 180, died between 9 Mesore year 3 = 10 September 178 and 9 Thoth year 5 = 14 October 177.
http://www.geocities.com/christopherjbennett/ptolemies/cleopatra_i.htm


Cleopatra I Syra Cleopatra I Syra (204-176): queen of the Ptolemaic Empire.
http://www.livius.org/cg-cm/cleopatra01/cleopatra_i_syra.html


Cleopatra II Cleopatra II (c.189-c.115): queen of the Ptolemaic Empire.
http://www.livius.org/cg-cm/cleopatra01/cleopatra_ii.html


Cleopatra II Cleopatra II (Greek:ÊëåïðÜôñá, c.185 BC - 116) was a queen of Egypt, and the daughter of Ptolemy V and Cleopatra I. Following the death of their mother (175), she was married to her brother, Ptolemy VI. They and their brother, Ptolemy VIII, were co-rulers of Egypt from 171 BC to 164. In 170, Antiochus IV of Syria invaded Egypt, resulting in a war which Egypt eventually won with Rome's help in 168. She became regent for her son Ptolemy VII on her husband's death in 145, and married her other brother, Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II the next year, whereupon Ptolemy Euergetes slew his nephew/stepson and made himself king. In 142 he took her younger daughter, his niece, Cleopatra III, as wife without divorcing his sister and made his new wife joint ruler.
http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Bios/CleopatraII.html


Cleopatra III Cleopatra III: queen of the Ptolemaic Empire, ruled from 116 to 101, first withPtolemy IX Soter Lathyros, later with Ptolemy X Alexander.
http://www.livius.org/cg-cm/cleopatra01/cleopatra_iii.html


Cleopatra III & Ptolemy IX Soter II (Lathyros) Egypt: Rulers, Kings and Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt: Cleopatra III & Ptolemy IX Soter II (Lathyros). 116-107 & 88-80 B.C. Ptolemaic Dynasty. Cleopatra III & Ptolemy IX Soter II (Lathyros) were co-regents during the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Cleopatra III was the niece of Physcon (Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II) and was married to him while her mother was still his official wife. She bore Physcon two sons - Ptolemy IX Philometor Soter II (Lathyros) and Ptolemy X Alexander I as well as three daughters, Cleopatra IV, Cleopatra Tryphaena, and Cleopatra Selene.
http://www.touregypt.net/32dyn09.htm


Cleopatra VII Cleopatra VII was born in 69 BC in Alexandria, Egypt. She was the last Pharaoh of Egypt. The Ptolemies were Macedonian in decent, but ruled as Egyptians, as Pharaohs. What is often not associated with Cleopatra was her brilliance and her devotion to her country. She was a quick-witted woman who was fluent in nine languages, however, Latin was not one of them. She was a mathematician and a very good businesswoman. She had a genuine respect for Caesar, whose intelligence and wit matched her own. Antony on the other hand almost drove her insane with his lack of intelligence and his excesses. She dealt with him and made the most of what she had to do. She fought for her country.
http://www.crystalinks.com/cleopatra.html


Cleopatra VII & Ptolemy XII Egypt: Rulers, Kings and Pharaos of Ancient Egypt: Cleopatra VII & Ptolemy XII. In the springtime of 51 BC, Ptolemy Auletes died and left his kingdom in his will to his eighteen year old daughter, Cleopatra, and her younger brother Ptolemy XIII who was twelve at the time. Cleopatra was born in 69 BC in Alexandria, Egypt. She had two older sisters, Cleopatra VI and Berenice IV as well as a younger sister, Arsinoe IV. There were two younger brothers as well, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV. It is thought that Cleopatra VI may have died as a child and Auletes had Berenice beheaded. At Ptolemy Auletes' death, Pompey, a Roman leader, was left in charge of the children.
http://www.touregypt.net/cleopatr.htm


Demetrius I Soter Demetrius I Soter ('the savior'): name of a Seleucid king, ruled from 161 to 150.
http://www.livius.org/de-dh/demetrius/demetrius_i_soter.html


Demetrius II Demetrius II: king of ancient Macedonia, ruled 239-229.
http://www.livius.org/de-dh/demetrius/demetrius_ii.html


Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, 106-47 BC Shakespeare portrays - with gentle comedy - Pompey as the font of all military wisdom. Cicero - who generally supported Pompey but whose private letters are venomous about his failings - could still claim, when civil war began, that he would die for him. When the poet Lucan wrote his great epic of the Civil Wars in the age of Nero, Pompey had become the Republican hero and Caesar, the villain.
http://web.mac.com/heraklia/Caesar/contemporaries/pompey/index.html


Herod in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE her'-ud: The name Herod (Herodes) is a familiar one in the history of the Jews and of the early Christian church. The name itself signifies "heroic," a name not wholly applicable to the family, which was characterized by craft and knavery rather than by heroism. The fortunes of the Herodiam family are inseparably connected with the last flickerings of the flame of Judaism, as a national power, before it was forever extinguished in the great Jewish war of rebellion, 70 AD. The history of the Herodian family is not lacking in elements of greatness, but whatever these elements were and in whomsoever found, they were in every ease dimmed by the insufferable egotism which disfigured the family, root and branch. (Bible History Online)
http://www.bible-history.com/isbe/H/HEROD/


History of Israel: Hellenistic and Maccabean Era Rulers by Felix Just S...J. Ph.D. PTOLEMIES (rulers in Egypt) mentioned in the Bible (Deuterocanonical books) and Apocrypha:Ptolemy I "Soter" (a.k.a. Ptolemy Lagi) - one of the Greek generals who fought each other in the Wars of the Diodochi (not directly named, but alluded to in the dreams and visions of Daniel 2:3, 41-43; 7:20a, 24a; 8:8, 22); founder of the dynasty that rules Egpyt and surrounding territories for most of the three centuries before Christ; founded the famous library of Alexandria.[Ptolemy II "Philadelphus" - advanced the hellenization of Egypt and the prominence of Alexandria; had the Septuagint (LXX) translated; not mentioned in Bible][Ptolemy III "Euergetes" - not mentioned in the Bible]Ptolemy IV "Philopator" - (3 Macc 1:2; 3:12; 7:1)[Ptolemy V "Epiphanes" - his crowning is commemorated on teh Rosetta Stone; not mentioned in the Bible]
http://catholic-resources.org/Bible/History-HellenisticEra.htm


Hyrcanus in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE her-ka'-nus (Hurkanos): "Son of Tobias, a man of great dignity," who had a large sum of money deposited in the Temple of Jerusalem when Heliodorus was sent to confiscate it in 187 BC (2 Macc 3:11 ff). (Bible-History Online)
http://www.bible-history.com/isbe/H/HYRCANUS/


Jewish Encyclopedia - Hyrcanus, John (Johanan) by Richard Gottheil and Meyer Keyserling High priest; prince of the Hasmonean family; born about 175; died 104 (Schürer). He was a wise and just ruler and a skilful warrior. As a young man he distinguished himself as a general in the war against the Syrian general Cendebeus, whom he defeated. That John was given the surname "Hyrcanus" on account of this victory, is a tradition to which Grätz and others attribute historical significance. When his father, Simon Maccabeus, was assassinated at Jericho by his son-in-law Ptolemy, John succeeded in escaping from those sent by Ptolemy to murder him also. From Gadara, where he at that time lived, John hastened to Jerusalem, where the people gladly received him as Simon's successor (135). He never assumed the title of king, being content with that of high priest. The beginning of his reign was not happy. He could not avenge the murder of his father, for Ptolemy, whom he had shut up in the fort Dagon, subjected Hyrcanus' mother to cruel tortures on the walls of the fort whenever her son attempted to attack it. Hyrcanus, therefore, raised the siege after several months, although his mother bore the tortures with heroic determination, and encouraged him to punish the murderer. Finally, however, she was put to death, as was, presumably, an imprisoned brother also; while Ptolemy himself fled to Rabbath Ammon (Philadelphia; 135 B.C. ).
http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view...jsp?artid=1004&letter=H


Johanan (John) Hyrcanus Johanan [John] Hyrcanus (d.104 BCE) Grandson of Mattathias of Modein and chief architect of Judean dominance of Israel. The youngest and only surviving son of Simon Thassi succeeded his father as high priest in 134 BCE. He was the fourth Hasmonean to rule Jerusalem. But his tenure began with a year-long Syrian siege that forced him agree to tear down the city's fortifications and renew tribute the Greek emperor [133 BCE]
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/Hyrcanus.html


Jonathan Maccabaeus Jonathan Maccabaeus was leader of the Hasmonean Dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BCE. He is called also Apphus (Ἀðöïῦò (Syriac, image)) = "the dissembler" or "the diplomat", in allusion to a trait prominent in him; 1 Maccabees ii. 5).Jonathan Maccabeus was one of the sons of Mattathias Maccabaeus. His father was a Kohen credited as the founding figure of the rebellion of the Maccabees against Antiochus IV Epiphanes of the Seleucid Empire. However Mattathias died in 167 BCE while the rebellion was only beginning.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jonathan_Maccabaeus


Judah Maccabee Second leader of the Judean revolt against the Greco-Syrian empire [166 BCE]. Westerners have traditionally referred to the third son of Mattathias of Modein by the Latinate form of his name: Judas Maccabeus. A Judean priest, he assumed command of Judean resistance to Greek forces after his father's death [165 BCE]. His defeat of the Greek governor of Samaria led to even more stunning victories over larger Greek armies at Beth-horon & Emmaus
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/maccabee_judah.html


King Herod the Great Herod (73-4 BCE) was the pro-Roman king of the small Jewish state in the last decades before the common era. He started his career as a general, but the Roman statesman Mark Antony recognized him as the Jewish national leader. During a war against the Parthians, Herod was removed from the scene, but the Roman Senate made him king and gave him soldiers to seize the the throne. As 'friend and ally of the Romans' he was not a truly independent king; however, Rome allowed him a domestic policy of his own. Although Herod tried to respect the pious feeling of his subjects, many of them were not content with his rule, which ended in terror. He was succeeded by his sons.
http://www.livius.org/he-hg/herodians/herod_the_great01.html


Lysimachus Macedonian King of Thrace. Lysimachus (c. 361-281 B.C.) was a member of Alexander's Companion cavalry who particularly distinguished himself in India. Following Alexander's death he became governor of Thrace. After Perdiccas had rejected the hand of Antipater's daughter Nicaea, Lysimachus married her and in 315 he joined the coalition of Ptolemy, Seleucus, and Cassander againstAntigonus.
http://www.historyofmacedonia.org/AncientMacedonia/Lysimachus.html


Lysimachus (c.360-281 BC) Lysimachus was a Macedonian companion of Alexander the Great before he became king. During Alexander's campaigns in Asia he served as a member of Alexander's bodyguard, but he only came to prominence after Alexander's death. In the initial distribution of provinces at Babylon in 323 BC, Lysimachus was given Thrace, the crucial land bridge between Macedonian and Asia. There he played an important but perhaps underappreciated role in maintaining the security of Greece against attack from the north and from rebellions in Thrace, one of which broke out in 323, preventing him from playing a role in the Lamian War.
http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/people_lysimachus.html


Maccabees in Smith's Bible Dictionary - Maccabees(a hammer), The. This title, which was originally the surname of Judas, one of the sons of Mattathias, was afterward extended to the heroic family of which he was one of the noblest representatives. Asmonaeans or Hasmonaeans is the Proper name of the family, which is derived from Cashmon, great grandfather of Mattathias. The Maccabees were a family of Jews who resisted the authority of Antiochus Epiphanes king of Syria and his successors who had usurped authority over the Jews, conquered Jerusalem, and strove to introduce idolatrous worship. (Bible History Online)
http://www.bible-history.com/smiths/M/Maccabees/


Maccabees, Jewish Family, The Columbia Encyclopedia Maccabees or Machabees (both: m k´ b z) (KEY) , Jewish family of the 2d and 1st cent. B.C. that brought about a restoration of Jewish political and religious life. They are also called Hasmoneans or Asmoneans after their ancestor, Hashmon. The Maccabees appear in history as the family of a priest, Mattathias, dwelling in Modin, who opposed the Hellenizing tendencies of the Syrian ruler Antiochus IV. Antiochus had taken advantage of factionalism among the Jews and had stripped and desacralized the Temple and begun a religious persecution. Mattathias, after killing an apostate Jew who took part in a Greek sacrifice, killed the royal enforcing officer. With his five sons he fled to the mountains and was joined by many Hasidim. Thus began a guerrilla war.
http://www.bartleby.com/65/ma/Maccab-fam.html


Macedonia FAQ: Alexander the Great Alexander the Great (356-323 BC), the king of Macedonia that conquered the Persian empire and annexed it to Macedonia, is considered one of the greatest military geniuses of all times. He is the first king to be called "the Great." Alexander is supposed to have been fair skinned, with a ruddy tinge to his face and chest. Plutarch stated that he had a pleasing scent. Like all Macedonians, Alexander liked his liquor, but his fondness for wine also caused some of his outbursts of rage. Alexander liked drama, the flute and the lyre, poetry and hunting, but what he truly wanted in his life, was a glory and valor, rather than easy living and riches. He was not fond of athletic contests, according to Plutarch.
http://faq.macedonia.org/history/alexander.the.great.html#h


Mattathias Maccabeus - Jewish Encycloedia The originator of the Maccabean rebellion. His genealogy is given as follows in the First Book of Maccabees, the most authentic source: "Mattathias, the son of John, the son of Simeon, a priest of the sons of Joiarib, from Jerusalem; and he dwelt at Modin" (I Macc. ii. 1). Josephus ("Ant." xii. 6, § 1) traces the genealogy back for one generation further, mentioning Asamoneus (= Hasmonæus) after Simon. But this Hasmonæus should not be considered as Mattathias' great-grandfather, but merely as a distant ancestor of the whole house, since only so is it comprehensible why both Greek and rabbinical sources of the following period call the whole house that of the Hasmoneans. The fact, moreover, that the names John and Simeon recur in the family in the very next generation after Mattathias, while the name "Hasmonæus" is not found in historic times, is a proof that the first bearer of this name belongs to antiquity.
http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?letter=M&artid=263


Pompey (106 BC - 48 BC) Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus is best known in history as a member of the First Triumvirate with Gaius Julius Caesar and Marcus Licinius Crassus. He was awarded the cognomen MAGNUS as a result of extraordinary military skill demonstrated at a very early age. His interest was less in politics than in military endeavors and as a result he became an unwitting tool in the hands of Caesar's enemies.
http://www.dl.ket.org/latin1/historia/people/pompey.htm


Ptolemy I Period of Alexander the Great - General of Alexander - Founder of the Great Library of Alexandria. Ptolemy was one of Alexander the Great's boyhood friends and became one of his most trusted generals. He played a principal part in the campaigns of Alexander in Afghanistan and India.When Alexander the Great died Ptolemy took charge of one third of all the land that Alexander had conquered, becoming satrap (governor) of Cyrenaica and Egypt.
http://www.alexander-the-great.co.uk/ptolemy.htm


Ptolemy I Soter The First King of Ancient Egypt's Ptolemaic Dynasty. By Jimmy Dunn In the ancient world, there is no surprise that military men often became rulers. These men, most of whom rose through the military ranks, usually had considerable administrative skills and had proved themselves to be leaders. Almost certainly the first man to unite Egypt at the dawn of civilization was a military man who became king, and this tradition has been followed throughout the history of the world, up unto our present times.
http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/ptolemy1.htm


Ptolemy I Soter (367 BC–283 BC) Ptolemy I Soter was the ruler of Egypt (323 BC - 283 BC) and founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty. In 305 BC he took title of King.The son of Lagus, a Greek nobleman of Eordaea, he was one of Alexander the Great's most trusted generals, and among the seven "body-guards" attached to his person. He played a principal part in the later campaigns of Alexander in Afghanistan and India. At the Susa marriage festival in 324, Alexander had him marry the Persian princess Artacama, but we find no further mention of her. When Alexander died in 323, Ptolemy is said to have instigated the resettlement of the empire made at Babylon. He was now appointed satrap of Egypt under the nominal kings Philip Arrhidaeus and the young Alexander IV.
http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Bios/PtolemyISoter.html


Ptolemy II Philadelphus The Second King of Egypt's Greek Period. By Jimmy Dunn. In about 285 BC, Ptolemy I Soter probably took as his co-ruler one of his sons by Berenice, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, who became the sole ruler of Egypt and the rest of his father's empire upon the elder king's death in about 282 BC. He took the Egyptian name, Meryamun Setepenre, which means "Beloved of Amun, Chosen of Re"... His reign can only be described as successful, considering the expansion of his possessions around the Mediterranean, the internal stability in Egypt, and the fulfillment of many of his father's imaginative projects, such as the Pharos Lighthouse and the Alexandrian University and Library
http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/ptolemy2.htm


Ptolemy II Philadelphus [308-246 BCE] Son of Ptolemy I who consolidated Alexandria's control of Israel & north Africa and developed it as a major center of Greek culture. Yet, in politics Ptolemy II was less influenced by Greek tradition than the Egyptian cult of the Pharaohs. Not only did he promote the worship of his deceased parents as gods, he also portrayed himself & his sister consort as sibling deities [theoi adelphoi]. The ruler cult that he actively sponsored was mimicked by later Seleucid [e.g., Antiochus III & IV] & Roman rulers [e.g., Caligula & Nero] as well as by his own descendents.
http://virtualreligion.net/iho/ptolemy_2.html


Ptolemy III Euergetes The Third, The Third King Of Egypt's Ptolemaic Dynasty. Ptolemy III Euergetes (Benefactor), the third ruler of Egypt'sPtolemaic Dynasty, was the son of Ptolemy II Philadelphus by one of his early wives named Arsinoe. However, his father apparently abandoned this first Arsinoe to marry his full sister, who was also named Arsinoe and who is frequently referred to as Arsinoe II. It was she who raised Ptolemy III Euergetes in his blood mothers place. He succeeded to the throne at about the age of 30, taking the Egyptian name Iwaennetjerwysenwy Sekhemankhre Setepamun, which means, "Hear of the [two] Benificent Gods, Chosen of Ptah, Powerful is the South of Re, Living Image of Amun". Jimmy Dunn.
http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/ptolemyiii.htm


Ptolemy III Euergetes Ptolemy (Ptolemaios) III Euergetes (Benefactor) Ptolemy III Euergetes I, (Ptolemaeus III) (Evergetes, Euergetes) (246 BC-222 BC). The third ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, he was the eldest son of Ptolemy II of Egypt Philadelphus and Arsinoe II of Egypt. He came to power in 246 BC upon the death of his father. He is most noted for his invasions of the northern kingdom of Syria which he commenced upon the murder of his eldest sister Berenice Phernophorus.
http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Bios/PtolemyIIIEuergetesI.html


Ptolemy IV Information about Ptolemy XIV: king of the Ptolemaic Empire, from 47 to 44 co-ruler of Cleopatra VII.
http://www.livius.org/ps-pz/ptolemies/ptolemy_xiv.html


Ptolemy IV Philopator The Fourth King of Egypt's Greek Period. Under the Ptolemies, there was no real national foundation established for their rule in Egypt as the successor and son ofPtolemy III Euergetes, Ptolemy IV Philopator took the throne. These kings had been viewed by the local Egyptians with nothing more positive than resentful acquiescence. Basically, the Ptolemies had run Egypt as a private estate for their own benefit and gratification, even though we can say that they produced some amazing results, at least in Alexandria. Thus, the Egyptians needed only a weakening of control at the top to produce a whole string of violent insurrections, intended to reestablish the old pharaonic tradition and shift the cultural center of gravity back to Memphis. Jimmy Dunn
http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/ptolemy4.htm


Ptolemy IV Philopator Ptolemy IV Philopator: king of the Ptolemaic Empire, ruled from 222 to 204.
http://www.livius.org/ps-pz/ptolemies/ptolemy_iv_philopator.html


Ptolemy IX Soter Lathyros Ptolemy IX Soter Lathyros: king of the Ptolemaic Empire, ruled from 116 to 107 (with Cleopatra III) and from 88 to 81.
http://www.livius.org/ps-pz/ptolemies/ptolemy_ix_soter.html


Ptolemy V Epiphanes The Fifth King of Egypt's Ptolemaic Period. Ptolemy V Epiphanes ("manifest"), the fifth king of EgyptPtolemaic Period began life precariously. His father, Ptolemy IV Philopator was a weak king who died at the relatively young age of 41, after a dissolute life shrouded by controlling advisors. After his mother, Arsinoe III's death at the hands of his father's advisers, Sosibius and Agathocles, these same people took custody of the child, who was then only five years old. However, when the Alexandria mob found out about the murder of his mother, they lynched Agathocles (Sosibius disappears from the record at about the time of his accession tot he throne) in about October of 203 BC, leaving him to be raised by one ambitious adviser after another. This caused near anarchy, particularly in Upper Egypt. In fact, what Ptolemy V inherited from his father was considerable trouble. Jimmy Dunn
http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/ptolemyv.htm


Ptolemy V Epiphanes Ptolemy V Epiphanes: king of the Ptolemaic Empire, ruled from 205 to 180.
http://www.livius.org/ps-pz/ptolemies/ptolemy_v_epiphanes.html


Ptolemy VI Philometor The Ptolemies in Egypt provide us with an interesting dynasty fraught with all manner of intrigue. After the death of Ptolemy V Epiphanes the Dynasty becomes even more complicated. Jimmy Dunn
http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/ptolemy6.htm


Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator was an Egyptian king of the Ptolemaic period. His reign is controversial, and it is possible that he did not reign at all, but was only granted royal dignity posthumously.
http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Bios/PtolemyVIINeosPhilopator.html


Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Tryphon (also known as Physcon, meaning potbelly, Ptolemy the Younger and Ptolemy Kakergetes) was the eighth ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. The reign of Ptolemy VIII has been referred to as a disaster in every way, and Ptolemy VIII has often been called a tyrant and repulsive. Acording to Athenaeus Deipnosophistani (XII 549e), "Through indulgence in luxury his body had become corrupted with fat and with a belly to measure it with one's arm....." Jimmy Dunn
http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/ptolemyviii.htm


Ptolemy X Alexander King of the Ptolemaic Empire, ruled from 107 to 88...
http://www.livius.org/ps-pz/ptolemies/ptolemy_x_alexander.html


Ptolemy XI Alexander Information about Ptolemy XI Alexander: king of the Ptolemaic Empire, ruled briefly in 80.
http://www.livius.org/ps-pz/ptolemies/ptolemy_xi_alexander.html


Ptolemy XII Auletes Information about Ptolemy XII Auletes ('the flutist'): king of the Ptolemaic Empire, ruled from 80 to 58 and from 55 to 51.
http://www.livius.org/ps-pz/ptolemies/ptolemy_xii_auletes.html


Ptolemy XIII Information about Ptolemy XIII: king of the Ptolemaic Empire, ruled from 50 to 47 as co-ruler and rival of Cleopatra VII.
http://www.livius.org/ps-pz/ptolemies/ptolemy_xiii.html


Seleucus I Maceonian King of Asia Seleucus (c. 358-281 B.C.), son of Antiochus (one of Philip's generals), fought in the Companion cavalry and later became commander of the crack heavy infantry formation, the Hypaspistae. He took Perdiccas' side immediately after Alexander's death, but was later instrumental in his murder following the failure of the Egyptian campaign. Antipater appointed him governor of Babylon in 321.
http://www.historyofmacedonia.org/AncientMacedonia/SeleucusI.html


Seleucus I Nicator Seleucus I Nicator ('victor'): one of the Diadochi, founder of the Seleucid Empire, ruled from 311 to 281 BC.
http://www.livius.org/se-sg/seleucids/seleucus_i_nicator.html


Seleucus II Callinicus Seleucus II Callinicus ('bautiful victor'): name of a Seleucid king, ruled from 246 to 225 or 224
http://www.livius.org/se-sg/seleucids/seleucus_ii_callinicus.html


Seleucus II Keraunos Seleucus III Keraunos ('thunderbolt'): name of a Seleucid king, ruled from 225 or 224 to 222 BC.
http://www.livius.org/se-sg/seleucids/seleucus_iii_keraunos.html


Seleucus IV Philopator Seleucus IV Philopator ('father lover'): name of a Seleucid king, ruled from 187 to 175.
http://www.livius.org/se-sg/seleucids/seleucus_iv_philopator.html


The Maccabees The Maccabees (166-129 BCE) by Mitchell Bard. The death of Alexander the Great of Greece in 323 BCE led to the breakup of the Greek empire as three of his generals fought for supremacy and divided the Middle East among themselves... Ptolemy secured control of Egypt and the Land of Israel. Seleucus grabbed Syria and Asia Minor, and Antigonus took Greece. Israel was sandwiched between the two rivals and for the next 125 years Seleucids and Ptolemies battled for the prize. The former finally won in 198 B.C. when Antiochus III defeated the Egyptians and incorporated Judea into his empire. Initially, he continued to allow the Jews autonomy, but after a stinging defeat at the hands of the Romans he began a program of Hellenization that threatened to force the Jews to abandon their monotheism for the Greeks' paganism... Antiochus backed down in the face of Jewish opposition to his effort to introduce idols in their temples, but his son, Antiochus IV, who inherited the throne in 176 B.C. resumed his father's original policy without excepting the Jews. A brief Jewish rebellion only hardened his views and led him to outlaw central tenets of Judaism such as the Sabbath and circumcision, and defile the holy Temple by erecting an altar to the god Zeus, allowing the sacrifice of pigs, and opening the shrine to non-Jews.
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/Maccabees.html


Who Was Judah Maccabee Anyway? by Rabbi Shimon Apisdorf. Close your eyes and picture Arnold Schwartzenegger: His Uzi has just jammed, he's got one arm in a sling, he's about to take on 300 bad guys all at once - and he's wearing a yarmulka. That's who Judah Maccabee was! Two thousand years ago, one family led by one man stood between the mighty Greek army and the conquest of the Jewish people. The family was the Hasmoneans, and the man was Judah Maccabee.
http://www.torah.org/features/holydays/judahmaccabee.html


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