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May 29    Scripture

Bible History: Archaeology & Sites


Ancient Egypt/Nubia Site Map Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. This first installment of the Oriental Institute Map Series presents seven Site Maps covering the ancient Near East (Egypt, Sudan, The Levant, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran), locating primary archaeological sites, modern cities, and river courses set against a plain background. They enlarge to 300 dpi.
http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/lab/map/maps/egypt.html


Ancient Iran Site Map Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. This first installment of the Oriental Institute Map Series presents seven Site Maps covering the ancient Near East (Egypt, Sudan, The Levant, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran), locating primary archaeological sites, modern cities, and river courses set against a plain background. They enlarge to 300 dpi.
http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/lab/map/maps/iran.html


Ancient Iraq Site Map Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. This first installment of the Oriental Institute Map Series presents seven Site Maps covering the ancient Near East (Egypt, Sudan, The Levant, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran), locating primary archaeological sites, modern cities, and river courses set against a plain background. They enlarge to 300 dpi.
http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/lab/map/maps/iraq.html


Ancient Lands of the Bible Have you ever read some of the places in the Bible and wondered where they were located, today? It only takes a few moments to realize there are places mentioned in the Bible that we cannot find on a map, today. Over the years, these places have changed names. You can tell how some of them have changed because they still look a little or sound a little like their ancient names. However, some of them don't look or sound anything like the original names. I've compiled a list of ancient biblical countries or peoples and their current names or regions. Below that list there is a list of ancient cities and where they are located. [Biblical Archaeology]
http://www.jcsm.org/biblelessons/AncientLands.htm


Ancient Near East Site Maps Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. This first installment of the Oriental Institute Map Series presents seven Site Maps covering the ancient Near East (Egypt, Sudan, The Levant, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran), locating primary archaeological sites, modern cities, and river courses set against a plain background.
http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/INFO/MAP/ANE_Maps.html


Ancient Sudan & Nubia Site Map Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. This first installment of the Oriental Institute Map Series presents seven Site Maps covering the ancient Near East (Egypt, Sudan, The Levant, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran), locating primary archaeological sites, modern cities, and river courses set against a plain background. They enlarge to 300 dpi.
http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/lab/map/maps/sudan.html


Ancient Syria Site Map Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. This first installment of the Oriental Institute Map Series presents seven Site Maps covering the ancient Near East (Egypt, Sudan, The Levant, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran), locating primary archaeological sites, modern cities, and river courses set against a plain background. They enlarge to 300 dpi.
http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/lab/map/maps/syria.html


Ancient Turkey Site Map Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. This first installment of the Oriental Institute Map Series presents seven Site Maps covering the ancient Near East (Egypt, Sudan, The Levant, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran), locating primary archaeological sites, modern cities, and river courses set against a plain background. They enlarge to 300 dpi.
http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/lab/map/maps/turkey.html


Archaeological Sites In one sense the entire Levant is an immense archaeological site. It is not possible for us to provide details on all the important sites let alone all sites. So, we decided to begin with some sites to which we have taken student groups as part of their study of archaeology and the Bible. We will branch out as we have the time and resources. The archaeology of the New Testament refers to the excavation, preservation, and analysis of the material culture of biblical peoples during the New Testament period (ca. 4 BC - AD 135). This, of course, entails the study of socio-cultural systems outside the Levant including Asia Minor, Greece, Rome, and even as far as Spain and Roman Britain. The archaeology of the Hebrew Scriptures, that of the Old Testament in Christian terminology, refers to that of the Tanach. Interestingly, some Israeli archaeologists narrowly construe biblical archaeology to be that of the Hebrew Scriptures. We, of course, disagree preferring a much broader focus. [Archaeology] [Sites]
http://www.bibarch.com/ArchaeologicalSites/ArchSites.html


Archaeological Tour in the steps of Jesus Text and Images [Archaeology] [Bible History]
http://www.historian.net/Step1.html


Archaeology & The Jewish Temple Inscriptions Archaeology & The Temple Inscriptions of The House of Yahweh [Archaeology] [Bible History]
http://www.excel.net/~hoy/t-inscr/tinscr.html


Archaeology and History Attest to the Bible's Reliability By Richard M. Fales, Ph.D. [from the Biblical and American Archaeologist]
http://www.drfalesbaa.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=23&Itemid=31


Archaeology and the Bible a list of questions and answers pertaining to archaeological evidence related to Biblical events, provided by ChristianAnswers.Net [Biblical Archaeology]
http://www.christiananswers.net/archaeology/home.html


Archaeology and the Bible Can the Bible be trusted? If we are to study its pages and read what it has to say to us in our daily situation and current events, we must be convinced that it is a book with power to change lives, to lift people up, and to give hope. We must believe in its authenticity and in its inspiration and understand its history and meaning, before it can have any impact on our minds and lives.
http://www.amazingdiscoveries.org/archaeology.html


Archeology Confirms The Bible's Reliability By Louis Rushmore
http://www.forerunner.com/forerunner/X0003_Archeology1.html


Ark of the Covenant - Pharaoh Pillages the Temple "Who is the Pharoah that Pillaged the Temple of Jerusalem and did he really steal the Ark of the Covenant?" By Richard M. Fales, Ph.D. [from the Biblical and American Archaeologist]
http://www.drfalesbaa.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=25&Itemid=31


Arqueogeografia Links [Biblical Archaeology]
http://www.pmministries.com/ceninvestiga/arqueogeografia.htm


Artist's Conception of City of David The City of David is located on the Ophel hill, a hill sloping southward from the southeastern side of the Temple Mount. Today the Ophel is an archaeological garden, open to the public for study tours. Extensive excavations in this area, carried out since 1968, cut through about 2,500 years of history and include some 25 layers. Important finds from the First (960 - 587 BCE) and Second Temple periods (515 BCE - 70 CE), Roman times (63 BCE - 324 CE), the Byzantine era (324 - 638) and the early Muslim period (7th C.) show how the city's successive rulers used the remains of their predecessors' structures for their own buildings. Four additional biblical sites are located in this area: the Gihon Spring, Warren's Shaft, Hezekiah's Tunnel, and the Pool of Siloam. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.forallbelievers.org/CityofDavid3207.jpg


Beth Shean Roman period ruins 2 The public toilets at Beth Shean [images] [Israel]
http://realtravel.com/tiberias-photos-p16555-7547178.html


Beth Shean Roman period ruins. [images] [Israel]
http://www.israelimages.com/searchresult.php?comefrom=catsub&src_text_arr[]=343


BibArch focus on people of the Levant and other regions related to the biblical record. [Biblical Archaeology]
http://www.bibarch.com/


Bible Archaeology a summary of "the wealth of information that has literally been unearthed by the spades of patient, dedicated people which helps to confirm the historical accuracy of the Bible". [Biblical Archaeology]
http://www.biblelight.org/arch1.htm


Bible Archaeology The aim of this special edition is to point the reader to the wealth of information that has literally been unearthed by the spades of patient, dedicated people which helps to confirm the historical accuracy of the Bible - God`s Word. [Archaeology] [Bible History]
http://www.biblelight.org/bl8.htm


Biblical Resources: Archaeology of Ancient Cultures on one of four pages of general biblical resources, provided by Prof. Torrey Seland of Volda College, Norway. [Biblical Archaeology]
http://www.torreys.org/bible/


Black Obelisk From Assyria The Black Obelisk was discovered by Henry Layard in 1845 and describes the campaigns of Shalmanezer 111 of Assyria who reigned at about 850 B.C. [Archaeology]
http://www.biblelight.org/arch9.htm


Bosporus Kingdom Nice Overview of the Jewish presence with images and info. The Bosporus Kingdom encompassed the coastal areas of the eastern Crimea and the Taman Peninsula where the straights of Kerch (the Cimmerian Bosporus) connect the Black Sea to the Sea of Azov. Homer characterized the early Cimmerian inhabitants of this region as living in a country of darkness that was situated on the northern edge of the populated world. [Archaeology]
http://www.pohick.org/sts/bosporus.html


Christian Information Ministries Christian Information Ministries, Bill Crouse. Bill has led several teams in search for the Ark and is considered to be one of the world's foremost scholars in Ark studies. Recently, he contributed several chapters to the book: The Explorers of Ararat, edited by B. J. Corbin and Rex Geissler. [Biblical Archaeology]
http://www.christianinformation.org/crouse.html


Church of All Nations at Foot of Mount of Olives The Church of All Nations ('The Basilica of the Agony") is situated at the foot of the Mount of Olives, the site of a Jewish cemetery in use since ancient times. The church was built in the early 1920s on the remains of a 5th century Byzantine structure and a later Crusader church. Designed by the Italian architect Antonio Barluzzi, the basilica features twelve cupolas, each representing one of the twelve sponsoring nations. The Rock of the agony where, according to Christian tradition, Jesus knelt to pray, is the central feature of the basilica. Much of the original Byzantine mosaic pavement has been preserved and foundations of the Crusader church can be seen in the garden among the ancient olive trees. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/jerusalem-church-of-all-nations.htm


Church of the Holy Sepulchre This is the holiest Christian site in Jerusalem. The church was first built in the 4th century by Emperor Constantine's mother Helena over the site of a Roman pagan temple to Venus. The present building is Crusader (12th century) and contains the last five stations of the cross. The church is divided among several denominations, each responsible for its own section. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.bibleplaces.com/holysepulcher.htm


Church of the Holy Sepulchre (article) The Church of the Holy Sepulchre is located in the northwest quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem. It is believed to be built on the site of the tomb where Jesus was buried and resurrected in 33 AD. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/jerusalem-church-of-holy-sepulchre.htm


Cities Excavated in Israel (Click on Sites with Images) [Archaeology]
http://www.antiquities.org.il/sites_gallery_eng.asp


Cities Mentioned in the New Testament [Archaeology] This page contains links to archaeological sites from the New Testament period. Cities specifically mentioned in the New Testament are included, along with sites related to the social world of the New Testament, either historically (e.g., Masada) or architecturally (e.g., Ostia). There is also a series of links to various maps of the Ancient Near East, a section devoted to epigraphic resources, and a search engine directly linked to the Argos database of the ancient world.
http://catholic-resources.org/Bible/NT_Geography.htm


Cuneiform Tablets PERSEPOLIS AND ANCIENT IRAN, Multiple images (with high resolution photos)

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago
http://www-oi.uchicago.edu
http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/PA/IRAN/PAAI/PAAI_Tablets.html


Cyrenaica Synagogue Nice Overview of the Synagogue with images and info. [Archaeology]
http://www.pohick.org/sts/cyrenaica.html


Delos Synagogue Nice Overview of the Synagogue with images and info. [Archaeology]
http://www.pohick.org/sts/delos.html


Does Archaeology Support Bible History? Book Excerpt from Hard Sayings of the Bible by Walter C. Kaiser Jr., Peter H. Davids, F. F. Bruce and Manfred T. Brauch [Archaeology] [Bible History]
http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3817/is_/ai_n8875058


Dome of the Rock The third most important shrine in Islam, built in 683 C.E. by Ommayad Caliph Abd El-Malik Ibn Marwan. Built on Mount Moriah and named after the large rock inside the mosque where, according to tradition, Isaac was prepared for sacrifice, and from where Mohammed rose to heaven. The rock is also considered the foundation stone of the Temple. Below is found "The Cave of the Prophets." [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/jerusalem-dome-of-the-rock.htm


Dome of the Rock (article) The third most important shrine in Islam, built in 683 C.E. by Ommayad Caliph Abd El-Malik Ibn Marwan. Built on Mount Moriah and named after the large rock inside the mosque where, according to tradition, Isaac was prepared for sacrifice, and from where Mohammed rose to heaven. The rock is also considered the foundation stone of the Temple. Below is found "The Cave of the Prophets." Mauriah Conway [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://jeru.huji.ac.il/ee21.htm


Dung Gate The Dung Gate is mentioned in the book of Nehemiah as a dispatch point for the city's refuse. It would appear that it was through this gate that the refuse was removed from the city. Notice the Western Wall just above the Dung Gate and the Temple Mount in the background. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.rickriordan.com/dung_gate.htm


Egypt At The Time Of Moses Bricks for building were made from clay and strengthened with straw; this was a manufacturing method employed in Egypt over 1,000 years before Christ. [Archaeology]
http://www.biblelight.org/arch4.htm


Egypt Synagogue Nice Overview of the Synagogue with images and info. [Archaeology]
http://i-cias.com/egypt/cairo08.htm


Excavations in the City of David The City of David is located on the Ophel hill, a hill sloping southward from the southeastern side of the Temple Mount. Today the Ophel is an archaeological garden, open to the public for study tours. Extensive excavations in this area, carried out since 1968, cut through about 2,500 years of history and include some 25 layers. Important finds from the First (960 - 587 BCE) and Second Temple periods (515 BCE - 70 CE), Roman times (63 BCE - 324 CE), the Byzantine era (324 - 638) and the early Muslim period (7th C.) show how the city's successive rulers used the remains of their predecessors' structures for their own buildings. Four additional biblical sites are located in this area: the Gihon Spring, Warren's Shaft, Hezekiah's Tunnel, and the Pool of Siloam. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.cityofdavid.org.il/Gallery_eng.asp?id=62


Gamla Nice Overview of the Synagogue with images and info. [Archaeology]
http://www.bibleplaces.com/gamla.htm


Garden Tomb The Garden Tomb is part of "Skull Hill," a rock-hewn tomb, and a tranquil garden, first identified by General Gordon in the 19th century. Some have supported it as the place of Jesus' crucifixion and burial. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.bibleplaces.com/gardentomb.htm


Garden Tomb (article) In 1883, British general Charles Gordon discovered a beautiful garden tomb. A stone outcropping jutting out nearby resembled what Gordon believed Calvary must look like. The site is located along Nablus Road, just outside the walls of the Old City, northwest of the Damascus Gate. Gordon concluded that this could be the location of the crucifixion and burial of Jesus. However, its authenticity is often doubted [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.sandalphon.com/gtcross.html


Gates of the Old City - Damascus Gate Damascus Gate The most massive and ornate of all of Jerusalem's gates. The road running off it leads to Shechem (Nablus) and then to Damascus (Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]
http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/DamaGate.jpg


Gates of the Old City - Dung Gate Dung Gate The Dung Gate is mentioned in the book of Nehemiah as a dispatch point for the city's refuse. It would appear that it was through this gate that the refuse was removed from the city (Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]
http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/DungGate.jpg


Gates of the Old City - Golden Gate Golden Gate The Mercy (Golden) Gate (Bab el Rahmeh) appears in the legends of all three religions. An early Jewish tradition holds that it is through that gate that the Messiah will enter jerusalem. According to Christian tradition, Jesus made made his last entry to Jerusalem through the Mercy Gate. The Muslims refer to it as the Gate of Mercy and believe it to be the gate referred to in the Koran, through which the just will pass on the Day of Judgment (Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]
http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/GoldGate.jpg


Gates of the Old City - Golden Gate Herod's Gate The first name was given to the gate by pilgrims, who erroneously believed that it led to Herod's palace. It is also known in Arabic as the Flower Gate (Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]
http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/HeroGate.jpg


Gates of the Old City - Jaffa Gate Jaffa Gate this gate is the principal entrance to the Old City. Its name in Arabic is Bab-el-Khalil, the gate of Hebron, as the main road to Hebron started here. It was also called Jaffa Gate because the road to Jaffa and the coast also started from it (Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]
http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/JaffGate.jpg


Gates of the Old City - Lion's Gate Lion's Gate Known in Hebrew as the Lion's Gate. Legend has it that the lions engraved on both sides of the gate were placed there by the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, because he had dreamed that he would be devoured by lions unless he built a wall around the Holy City for the defence of the citizens (Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]
http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/LionGate.jpg


Gates of the Old City - the Valley Gate (Sha'ar HaGai ) Sha'ar HaGai Nehemiah mentions that he began his trip to the city from Sha'ar HaGai. The name refers to a site on the way to Jerusalem. The Hebrew name Sha'ar HaGai is a translation of the Arabic Bab el Wad, the Valley Gate, which leads to Jerusalem (Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]
http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/ShaHagai.jpg


Gates of the Old City - Zion Gate Zion Gate The western gate of the Old City, named after Mount Zion. In Arabic it is known as "the Prophet David's Gate", because one passes through King David's tomb on Mount Zion(Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]
http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/ZionGate.jpg


Herodium Also known as el-Fureidis, Har Hordos, Herodeion, Herodion, Jebel Fureidis. Constructed over a small pre-existing hill, the Herodium was a fortress for Herod to quickly flee to from Jerusalem and a luxurious palace for his enjoyment. He chose to be buried here and the mountain is the shape of a tumulus. Herod's tomb has not been discovered in the recent excavations. [Archaeology]
http://www.bibleplaces.com/herodium.htm


Hezekiah's Tunnel The most magnificent waterworks of ancient Jerusalem is Hezekiah's Tunnel. The tunnel is hewn inside the hill in order to protect the access to water from enemies. It channels the water from the Gihon fountainhead to the Shiloah pool, which was within the new walls of the city built by Hezekiah. King Hezekiah built the tunnel in preparation for the Assyrian siege: "This same Hezekiah also stopped the upper watercourse of Gihon, and brought it straight down to the west side of the city of David." (Chronicles II, 32;30) The external entrance to the Gihon spring was hidden: "... and many people gathered together, and they stopped up all of the fountains" (Chronicles II, 32; 4). Then the waters of the Gihon were channeled through the tunnel to the Shiloah Pool, also built by Hezekiah (Kings II, 20; 20). The pool was located outside the original fortifications of the City of David (Chronicles II, 32; 30), but within the wall that Hezekiah had built. This is the main reason for thereconstruction of the southern part of the wall. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.bibleplaces.com/heztunnel.htm


Hezekiah`s Aqueduct A tunnel was constructed from the spring at Gihon - what is now called the Virgin`s Fountain - under the city walls and through the rock to the southern end of the city of Jerusalem, to the pool of Siloam. This would be a difficult feat in these days of sophisticated surveying and measuring equipment. It was even more remarkable for the times of Hezekiah, because the impending invasion meant there was very little time and gangs of workmen had to start from either end. When the tunnel was complete, the spring outside the city was blocked up and the water flowed into the city. [Archaeology]
http://www.biblelight.org/arch10.htm


Internet Resources for the Study of Judaism and Christianity: Archaeology from the University of Pennsylvania [Biblical Archaeology]
http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/rs/resources.html#archaeology


Jaffa Gate Photo Jaffa Gate is the principal entrance to the Old City. Its name in Arabic is Bab-el-Khalil, the gate of Hebron, as the main road to Hebron started here. It was also called Jaffa Gate because the road to Jaffa and the coast also started from it [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.rickriordan.com/jaffa_gate.htm


Jericho A recent photograph of the synagogue-remains found near Jericho and a mikveh [Archaeology]
http://www.pohick.org/sts/jericho.html


Jerusalem Yields natural waterworks For more than 100 years, archaeologists and historians have puzzled over the haphazard routes, slopes and dimensions of two underground water supply systems discovered beneath the remains of ancient Jerusalem. Although most researchers regard the subterranean waterworks as the products of early, error-prone engineers and construction workers, a new analysis indicates that residents of the holy city skillfully altered a natural network of underground channels and tunnels to ensure a dependable water supply. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1200/is_/ai_11703027


Jerusalem: From Town to Metropolis Over time, the Judean capital city of Jerusalem grew and expanded well beyond the small boundaries of the City of David. At first, the Temple Mount was an addition to the city and was, apparently, fortified in some way (which still remains unknown). Later, the process of expansion "beyond the walls" occured after the population continued to increase. The Bible mentions the names of residential neighborhoods outside the City of David, such as Mishneh (Kings II 22;14) and Makhtesh (Zephania 1;11). The main growth in population occurred around 721 C.E., when the Northern Israelite kingdom of Israel was destroyed by Assyria and the refugees fled to the Southern Israelite kingdom of Judea; and in 701 C.E., when King Sennacherib of Assyria led a military campaign, conquering the coastal cities of the Land of Israel. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.usm.maine.edu/maps/exhibit1/theme7.html


Josephus' description of Sebastos The historian Flavius Josephus, who was born around 7 or 8 CE, published a history of the Jewish War between 75 and 79 CE and a history of the Jewish people in 93-94 CE. Both these works contain a detailed description of the city of Caesarea and its harbour, Sebastos. Despite certain inevitable inaccuracies, the data contained in these descriptions has been of great value in assisting the reconstruction of the layout and appearance of the harbour in the Flavian period. [Articles of Interest] [Caesarea] [Archaeology]
http://park.org/Canada/Museum/caesarea/Joseph.html


Links to other Bible and Archaeology Sites These links are taken from Digger Doyle's favorite archaeology links. [Biblical Archaeology]
http://www.digbible.org/links.html


Map of Iron Age Sites [Archaeology] [Israel]
http://www.biblemysteries.com/images/philarch1.gif


Map of Jerusalem Region and Surrounding Area During the stay in Jerusalem we will make day-trips to sites in the Jerusalem region and we will make several visits to sites on the way from Jerusalem to Tiberius on the Sea of Galilee. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Facts%20About%20Israel/Israel%20in%20Maps/Jerusalem%20and%20Surrounding%20Area


Map of Near East Archaeological Sites shows sites at which the University of Chicago's Oriental Institute has worked. [Biblical Maps]
http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/lab/map/


Map of Near Eastern Sites Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. Oriental Institute expeditions have worked in virtually every region of the Near East, excavating the remains of these ancient cultures and studying and recording their monuments. The scattering of red dots (each representing a site where the Institute has worked) on the map attests to the broad range of that involvement.
http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/lab/map/site.html


Map of Sites in Southern Syria and Palestine Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. ORIENTAL INSTITUTE MAP SERIES - LEVANT SITE MAP. This Map enlarges to 300 dpi for a great picture.
http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/lab/map/maps/levant.html


Maps of the Tel Rhov Dig [Maps] [Israel] [Archaeology]
http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/7987/maps.html


Masada Also known as es-Sebbeh, Horvot Mezada, Mesada, Mezada, Sebbeh, The Stronghold. The summit of Masada sits 190 feet (59 m) above sea level and about 1500 feet (470 m) above the level of the Dead Sea. The mountain itself is 1950 feet (610 m) long, 650 feet (200 m) wide, 4250 feet (1330 m) in circumference, and encompasses 23 acres. The "Snake Path" climbs 900 feet (280 m) in elevation. From the west, the difference in height is 225 feet (70 m). [Archaeology]
http://www.bibleplaces.com/masada.htm


Moab The Moabite stone was discovered in 1868. It was found in the land of Moab and was carved with an inscription. [Archaeology]
http://www.biblelight.org/arch7.htm


Mount of Olives (article) Through the Lion's Gate in the eastern wall of Old Jerusalem and east, across the Kidron Valley, lies the Mount of Olives. Also called Olivet (Hebrew name, Har Hamishha), the Mount of Olives is not a mountain at all, but a slope blending into other slopes. Despite this, it is the tallest of the mountains and hills around Jerusalem, rising approximately 2,900 feet above sea level. Mary Beach [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.biblewalks.com/Sites/MountOlives.html


Mount of Olives - Dominus Flevit Church Christian tradition has it that after Jesus had left Bethphage on his way to Jerusalem, he passed through this place. It is on this site that the city of Jerusalem appeared to him, following a speech bemoaning the destiny of the city. This is echoed in the name of the church, which means in Latin: "The Lord Cried." This tradition traces back to Byzantine times. On constructing the new church in 1954, a large cemetery was uncovered further to the east, which dates from the age of the second Temple. In the courtyard lie sarcophagi, some of which carry inscriptions in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek, with names like Zechariyah, Jesus, Mary, and "Azariyah. The alter, both in the new church and in the ancient church, faced towards the west, namely the Temple mount, not towards the east as usual. The modern aspe has an arched window through which the old city and temple mount loom up. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.wgz.org/chromatic/mideast/dominus_flevit.html


Mount of Olives Travel Info Through the Lion's Gate in the eastern wall of Old Jerusalem and east, across the Kidron Valley, lies the Mount of Olives. Also called Olivet (Hebrew name, Har Hamishha), the Mount of Olives is not a mountain at all, but a slope blending into other slopes. Despite this, it is the tallest of the mountains and hills around Jerusalem, rising approximately 2,900 feet above sea level. Mary Beach [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.trekker.co.il/english/mount_of_olives/


Mount Zion - article Geographically, the mountain known as Zion is an elongated triangular plateau that forms the ridge between the Kidron valley to the east and the Tyropoean valley to the west. Rising slightly above the surounding Judean countryside and flanked to the east by a constant water supply from the Gihon spring, this mount was most likely chosen as a habitation for its natural features as a citadel. Jared Washam [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.crystalinks.com/zion.html


Mount Zion - General View The name "Mount Zion" now refers to the part of the western hill south of the Old City beyond Zion Gate. In the Old Testament period, the name was used for the lower eastern hill, now known as the City of David. The present Mount Zion is bordered on the west and south by the Hinnom Valley and on the east by the Tyropean Valley. Although now outside the city walls, Mt. Zion was within the city walls in the late second Temple period (2nd century B.C.E.- 70 C.E.). As the tradtional site of King David's tomb it has long been the focus of Jewish pilgrimage. The area also contains several sites sacred to Christianity: the room of the last supper (the Upper Room), the Church of St. Peter in Gallicantu, and the Dormition Abbey. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://jesus-messiah.com/html/zion-mount.html


Museum of Classical Archaeology: Glossary The who, what, when and where of Classical myths and history featured in the Cast Gallery. University of Cambridge [Bible Search] [Various Versions]
http://www.classics.cam.ac.uk/museum/


Noah's Ark: Its Final Berth Christian Information Ministries, Bill Crouse [Biblical Archaeology]
http://www.fni.com/cim/technicals/noah.txt


Olive Culture in Ancient Israel by David Eitam [Biblical Archaeology]
http://www.gemsinisrael.com/e_article000008705.htm


Ophir `Gold from Ophir for Beth-horon 30 Shekels` is the translation of an inscription on a potsherd that was found at Tell Qasileh (near Tel Aviv). The exact location of Ophir remains a mystery, although there have been many ideas put forward by Bible students. [Archaeology]
http://www.biblelight.org/arch6.htm


Oriental Institute Table of Contents Multiple images and Maps (with high resolution photos)

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago
http://www-oi.uchicago.edu
http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/OI_TOC.html


Oriental Institute Tabler of Contents Multiple images and Maps (with high resolution photos)

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago
http://www-oi.uchicago.edu
http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/OI_TOC.html


Oriental Institute, University of Chicago The directory contains a TABLE OF CONTENTS (Website Query/Search), ABZU (Index to Ancient Near Eastern Resources on the Internet), THE MUSEUM, MUSEUM EDUCATION, & STORE (SUQ), ELECTRONIC, RESOURCES, RESEARCH & PROJECTS, DEPARTMENTS, and PUBLICATIONS.
http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/default.html


Ostia Synagogue Nice Overview of the Synagogue with images and info. [Archaeology]
http://www.pohick.org/sts/ostia.html


Pool of Bethesda The Pool of Bethesda is adjacent to St. Anne's Church. It is mentioned in the Gospel of John (5:2ff.) in conjunction with Jesus' healing of a paralyzed man. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.allaboutarchaeology.org/pool-of-bethesda-faq.htm


Qumran Also known as Kh. Mird, Kh. Qumran, Goumran, Gumran, City of Salt(?), Ir ha-Melah(?), Secacah(?), Kumran, Mesad, Mesad Hasidim (?), Oumran, Qumeran. Khirbet Qumran 10 miles south of Jericho, Qumran was on a "dead-end street" and provided a perfect location for the isolationist sect of the Essenes to live. The site was excavated by Catholic priest Roland deVaux from 1953-56. More recent excavations of the site have taken place under the direction of Hanan Eshel. [Archaeology]
http://www.bibleplaces.com/qumran.htm


Recent Discoveries at Ashkelon (article) By David Schloen, Assistant Professor of Syro-Palestinian Archaeology The Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations The Oriental Institute The University of Chicago
http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/PROJ/ASH/NN_Spr95/NN_Spr95.html


Ruins of Babylon The same account as the Bible event was recorded for the library at Nineveh and the clay tablet of the record is now in the British Museum. [Archaeology]
http://www.biblelight.org/arch12.htm


Scrolls from the Dead Sea : The Ancient Library of Qumran and Modern Scholarship an exhibit at the Library of Congress, Washington, DC. [Biblical Archaeology]
http://sunsite.unc.edu/expo/deadsea.scrolls.exhibit/intro.html


Second Temple Synagogue Literary Archive a collection of ancient literary references to Second Temple synagogues. In keeping with current scholarly practices, only sources contemporaneous with the Second Temple period are cited.
http://www.pohick.org/sts/lit.html


Sepphoris—A City Set On a Hill (Pastoral Bible Institute) - Archaeological discussion of two potential sites for the "city set on a hill" allusion of Jesus in his Sermon on the Mount. [Archaeology]
http://www.heraldmag.org/literature/arch_1.htm


Sketch of Valleys, Walls, and Gates of Jerusalem The three valleys that almost surround the Old City are mentioned many times in the Bible. They are the Tyropean, Kidron, and Hinnom Valleys. The Tyropean Valley is located just to the west of the Ophel. It is difficult to see today because it has been filled in during construction and reconstruction in the Old City. The Kidron Valley is located between the Mount of Olives and the Temple Mount. All travelers coming to Jerusalem from the east pass through this valley. The Hinnom Valley is located just south of the Old City. This was the place where the city's garbage dump was located. Jesus made smbolic reference to the unfaithful being cast into "gehenna," thus using the Hinnom Valley as a symbol or example of a wasted or worthless life. The present walls of the Old City were built by the Ottoman ruler Suliman the Magnificent, between 1537-1542 C.E. The walls of the time of Jesus were further to the south than the walls of today. The Old City is divided into four sections: the Christian Quarter to the northwest, the Muslim Quarter to the northeast, the Armenian Quarter to the southwest, and the Jewish Quarter to the southeast. If you are interested in seeing images of all the gates of the Old City, see "Gates of the Old City." [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]
http://www.bible-history.com/jerusalem/firstcenturyjerusalem_the_land_of_jerusalem.html


Space Radar of Jerusalem Region This space radar image shows the area surrounding the Dead Sea along the West Bank between Israel and Jordan. The yellow area at the top of the image is the city of Jericho. A portion of the Dead Sea is shown as the large black area at the top right side of the image. The Jordan River is the white line at the top of the image which flows into the Dead Sea. Jerusalem, which lies in the Judaean Hill Country, is the bright, yellowish area shown along the left center of the image. Just below and to the right of Jerusalem is the town of Bethlehem. The city of Hebron is the white, yellowish area near the bottom of the image. (The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 3, 1994 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour.) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.godweb.org/maps/134.htm


Synagogues of the World - Jerusalem The Rabban Yochanan Ben Zakai synagogue is on Mishmeret Kehuna Street in the Old City. It served as the center of the Sephardic community and, to this day, the Chief Sephardic Rabbi, the Rishon LeZion, ceremoniously assumes his office here. The Ben-Zakai is named after the Second Temple sage Rabban Yochanan Ben Zakai, as legend deems this spot as the location of his Beit Midrash, study hall. [Archaeology]
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/synjeru.html


Tel Hazor - Find a Dig For several millennia during the Bronze and Iron Ages, history tells us that Hazor was the city in northern Israel and perhaps one of the greatest cities in all of the Eastern Mediterranean. Hazor and its kings are mentioned in the militaristic boasts and diplomatic correspondences of ancient Near Eastern rulers, while the Book of Joshua famously refers to Hazor as "the head" of all the Canaanite kingdoms. Even after the Israelites had conquered and resettled the city, Hazor still dwarfed the rest of the major cities of the Israelite kingdom of David and Solomon, including Jerusalem. Hazor remained a principle settlement in the northern kingdom of Israel until the Assyrian ruler Tiglath-Pileser III destroyed the city in 732 B.C.
http://www.findadig.com/digs/tel_hazor


Tel Mardikh On this site of a 4,000 year old fortification, perhaps the most remarkable `find` of the century has been uncovered - 18,000 fired clay and rock tablets relating to the economy, administration and international dealings of this once great empire of Ebla. [Archaeology]
http://www.biblelight.org/arch8.htm


Temple Mount The Temple Mount compound, which occupies about a sixth of the territory of the Old City, is sacred to the two monotheistic religions: Judaism and Islam. The mountain is identified with the place where Isaac was sacrificed. It is here that the first and second temples were built. After the destruction of the second temple, the mountain remained desolate until the Moslem conquest in the year 638. The Muslims have constructed various sites on the mountain. Some of the more famous ones are: the gilded Dome of the Rock and El-Aqsa Mosque. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/jerusalem-temple-mount.htm


The Ancient Wall inside today's Jewish Quarter This wide wall is located in the heart of the reconstructed Jewish quarter of today's Old City. A segment of it was left exposed in the quarter so that visitors could easily see it and gain an insight into the strength of the fortification. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.bibleplaces.com/jewishquarter.htm


The Byt Yhwh Ostracon A tax receipt uncovered from 900-700 BC revealing the Temple as the House of Yahweh. It is translated as saying, "According to your order, Ashyahu, the king, to give by the hand of [Z]echaryahu silver of Tarshish for the house of Yahweh 3 shekels." [Archaeology] [Bible History]
http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/westsem/bytyhwh.html


The Capernaum Synagogue Aside from various references to Capernaum in the Gospels, the earliest literary attestation of Capernaum is from Josephus, who refers to the village in connection with a fertile spring. The Jewish historian reports he spent a night there with a fever during the second year of the Jewish War. For centuries, Capernaum has traditionally been identified as a site located on the northwestern shore of the Sea of Galilee, about three miles west of the upper Jordan River. In 1838, Edward Robinson correctly identified there the remains of a synagogue that was partly excavated by Charles Wilson between 1865 and 1866.
http://www.pohick.org/sts/capernaum.html


The Dead Sea Scrolls Probably the most valuable of these documents is the `Isaiah Scroll`. Some 23 feet long and made of leather, it is a remarkable testimony to the textual accuracy of the Bible as we know it today. Modern methods of estimating the age of the scroll and its flax, or linen cover, reveal the fact that it is a transcription of the complete text of the book of Isaiah made in about 100 B.C. AT SOME POINT rather early in the spring of 1947, a Bedouin boy called Muhammad the Wolf was minding some goats near a cliff on the western shore of the Dead Sea. Climbing up after one that had strayed, he noticed a cave that he had not seen before and he idly threw a stone into it. There was an unfamiliar sound of breakage. The boy was frightened and ran away. But he later came back with another boy, and together they explored the cave. [Archaeology]
http://www.biblebasics.co.uk/bb2.htm


The Dig At Bet Shean In this area lies the 80 metre (263 feet ) high tel of Beth-shean, one of the oldest cities in Bible Lands. The remains of twenty layers of settlement have been found going back more than three thousand years B.C. [Archaeology]
http://www.biblelight.org/arch3.htm


The famous 'Pilate' inscription of Ceasarea This stone was discovered at Caesarea. Its inscription commemorates Pilate's erection and dedication of a Tiberium, a temple to the divine genius of Tiberius, the Roman Emperor during Pilate's tenure in office. It reveals the extent to which Romanization had advanced in Caesarea and replaced Jewish worship. Ironically, Tiberius himself forbade his worship in Rome but allowed it in the eastern parts of the empire. The fact that the inscription is written in Latin is also a sign of Romanization since Greek was still the language of international affairs, and the locals in Judea spoke Aramaic or Hebrew. [Jesus] [Archaeology]
http://cojs.org/cojswiki/Pontius_Pilate’s_Tiberium_Inscription,_26-36_CE


The Garden of Gethsemane The Garden of Gethsemane is located across the Kidron valley to the east of Jerusalem and on the western slope of the Mount of Olives. The word Gethsemane means "oil press" or "olive press" which leads scholars to believe that the garden was a grove of olive trees in which was located an oil press. Susan Clayton [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.allaboutarchaeology.org/garden-of-gethsemane-faq...htm


The Gihon Spring In a land as dry as the Land of Israel, the main consideration in determining the location of a city or village, is its proximity to the nearest water source. The only permanent water source of ancient Jerusalem was the Gihon Spring. Its name is derived from the fact that it doesn't flow steadily, but rather in random eruptions with lapses in between them (Giha in Hebrew means eruption). The Gihon Spring is located in a cave on the eastern side of the City of David. To provide access to the water during times of siege, shafts were hewn through the rocky hillside of David's City from inside the city's walls. Warren's Shaft is such a shaft. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://dqhall59.com/gihon.htm


The Gihon Spring (blog) An early 19th century explorer, Charles Warren, discovered a tunnel leading to the Gihon Spring. Warren's Shaft seen here can be visited on a tour of the City of David, and the steps of the ancient Jerusalemites can be retraced to the well. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://blog.bibleplaces.com/uploaded_images/fa54e299e424_DC27/GihonSpringtb1107055664.jpg


The Gihon Spring, Hezekiah's Tunnel, and the Pool of Siloam Excavations found a tower system built over the Gihon spring, from which water could be raised up to those in the city. The next two photos show those ruins. The photos are taken about midway up the tower, the top one looking up, the lower one looking down toward where a water pool once was. It is believed that the tower was orginally built even prior to the time of the Judges, by the Cannanite people living in the land (circa 1800's BC). [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]
http://www.bibleistrue.com/qna/pqna21.htm


The Hazor Excavations Some past excavation details as well as seasonal reports. a joint project of the Hebrew University, Complutense University of Madrid and the Israel Exploration Society. Currently being excavated are Israelite private and administrative buildings, a Canaanite high place and a large palace. Impressive works of art and four cuneiform tablets - part of Hazor's archives - have been unearthed in the past 6 seasons.
http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/reports.htm


The Hazor Excavations (History of Hazor) Hazor comprises of two distinct sections: The upper city (the acropolis) and the lower city (the fortified enclosure) lying close to the north. Hazor was the largest site of the Biblical period of Israel. It was approximately 10 times the size of Jerusalem in the days of David and Solomon. (Canaanite and Israelite Hazor with some photos).
http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/history.htm


The Hazor Excavations (Picture Gallery) Hazor comprises of two distinct sections: The upper city (the acropolis) and the lower city (the fortified enclosure) lying close to the north. Hazor was the largest site of the Biblical period of Israel. It was approximately 10 times the size of Jerusalem in the days of David and Solomon. (Canaanite and Israelite Hazor with some photos).
http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/gallery.htm


The House Of David At Tel Dan in upper Galilee in Northern Israel a fragment of an inscription on basalt stone has been uncovered. It was part of the paving near the entrance of the outer gate of the ancient city of Dan. In 1992, in order to tidy up the site for presentation to visitors, a heap of debris was removed which dated from the time of the Assyrian destruction of the city by Tiglath-pileser lll - no doubt a legacy of his campaign against northern Israel. [2 Kings 15v29] Unexpectedly, a hitherto unknown gateway to the city was uncovered. The entrance led to a courtyard where stood a low stone platform large enough to take a throne. This possibly marked the place where the king would sit on ceremonial occasions. [Archaeology]
http://www.biblelight.org/arch5.htm


The House of Yahweh Inscription This recently published inscription documents an offering brought to the Temple in Yerusalem which it specifically Names the Temple as: Bayit Yahweh -- House of Yahweh. This is the earliest reference to the Temple found to date, outside of the scriptures. [Archaeology] [Bible History]
http://www.excel.net/~hoy/t-inscr/lbinscr.html


The Jebusite Foundation During the 1960's the British archeologist Kathleen Kenyon excavated the eastern slope of the city's hill. She succeeded in exposing, at the middle of the slope, the remains of the solid Jebusite defense wall that King David had to overcome in his conquest of Jerusalem. Only the small section pictured was exposed during the excavation. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.jstor.org/pss/544661


The main street in Ancient Corinth Photo [images] [Archaeology]
http://www.shunya.net/Pictures/Greece/Corinth/Corinth1.jpg


The Pool of Bethesda and the Church of St. Anne (article) Further in the chapter, we read that Jesus heals the sick man found at the pool. "Bethesda", which means a spring fed pool with five porches, is Hebrew in origin, coming from the word "Chesda", meaning house of mercy. The supposed remains of the pool of Bethesda are on the east side of Jerusalem, contiguous on one side to St. Stephen's gate and on the northern side is the area of the temple mount. It is believed to be 120 paces long and 40 paces wide and about 8 feet deep but contains no water. On its west end are some old dammed up arches which are connected to the five porches mentioned in the verses. There is some discussion among scholars that there are only three or four porches instead of five. During the Roman Period, a temple dedicated to the god Serapis was located on this site. Anne Stanford [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.atlastours.net/holyland/st_anne_church_and_bethesda_pool.html


The Rosetta Stone A brief study about the deciphering of the ancient Hieroglyphs and the discovering of the Rosetta Stone. [Bible History Online Study]
http://www.bible-history.com/resource/ff_hiero.htm


The Temple Mount For centuries, the crown jewel of the city has been the Temple Mount, which is located atop Mount Moriah across the Kidron Valley from the Mount of Olives. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/jerusalem-temple-mount.htm


The Valley of Hinnom The Valley of Hinnom is located outside of Jerusalem to the southwest of the city walls. This valley, along with the Kidron Valley, was in ancient times one of the major defenses guarding the Holy city. Kendra Howard [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.palestineremembered.com/GeoPoints/Silwan_1593/Picture_10222.html


The Wide Wall from the Jewish Quarter This wall, which was discovered by Professor Avigad, is an impressive archaeological testimony of the fortification effort by King Hezekiah. The length of the segment of the exposed wall is 65 meters, and its width is 7 meters. The wall is assumed to be from the period of Hezekiah, because clay fragments identified with that period were found near the wall. Underneath the wall, remnants of houses were found which also date to that same time period. This is an example of fortification in times of emergency, as Isaiah the prophet aptly describes the situation: "...and ye numbered the houses of Jerusalem, and ye broke down the houses to fortify the wall." (Isaiah 22;10). [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.biblewalks.com/Sites/BroadWall.html


Topographical Maps of Sites in Palestine Topographical Maps of Israel. Inscriptions of the Land of Israel: Browse by Maps. This map goes into great detail with AUTOCAD renderings of the site, with links to inscriptions and pictures.
http://www.palestineremembered.com/Acre/Maps/Story584.html


Traditional Upper Room According to tradition (going back only to the 10th century), this is the place where Jesus celebrated the Passover feast with his disciples before he was arrested. Also according to tradition he appeared here after his resurrection. The hall was constructed by the Crusaders. The Fransciscans who bought it in 1335 introduced some changes in it. At the beginning of the 15th century, the Jews sought to buy the site because the Tomb of David is located on the lower floor. This attempt entailed a conflict between Jews and Christians. Eventually in 1551, the Muslims took possession of the site and transformed it into a mosque with "prayer niches" which can still be seen today. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.flickr.com/photos/sanhotim20002000/2531018751/


Via Dolorosa Via Dolorosa, which means the way of suffering, was the way which those condemned to death by the Romans had to proceed along, carrying the cross on their backs, with a sign bearing the prisoner's name and his charges. Jesus' Via Dolorosa started from the place of his trial and ended with his crucifixion in Golgotha and his burial at the Holy Sepulchre. The tradition relating to Jesus' walking along the Via Dolorosa had its origin in Byzantine times and at first the procession would be held from Gethsemane to Golgotha. It was during the period of the crusades, in the 13th century, that the present Via Dolorosa tradition evolved. There are 14 stations along the Via Dolorosa, nine of which are on the road and the remaining five within the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. STATION 1 - JESUS IS CONDEMNED TO DEATH; STATION 2 - JESUS RECEIVES THE CROSS; STATION 3 - JESUS FALLS FOR THE FIRST TIME; STATION 4 - JESUS MEETS HIS GRIEVING MOTHER; STATION 5 - SIMON OF CYRENE CARRIES THE CROSS; STATION 6 - VERONICA WIPES THE FACE OF JESUS; STATION 7 - JESUS FALLS FOR THE SECOND TIME; STATION 8- JESUS SPEAK TO THE WOMEN OF JERUSALEM; STATION 9 - JESUS FALLS FOR THE THIRD TIME; STATION 10 - JESUS IS STRIPPED OF HIS GARMENTS; STATION 11 - JESUS IS NAILED TO THE CROSS; STATION 12 - JESUS DIES ON THE CROSS; STATION 13 - JESUS' BODY IS TAKEN FROM THE CROSS; STATION 14-JESUS IS LAID IN THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/jerusalem-via-dolorosa.htm


Via Dolorosa (article) To Christians, the city of Jerusalem holds particular significance because it was the site of Christ's condemnation, crucifixion. And burial. The Via Dolorosa is the traditional route that Jesus is thought to have taken from Pilate's hall to Golgotha. Latin for "way of sorrows," (Beers 328) the Via Dolorosa is a commemoration of Christ's arduous journey. The path is made up of fourteen different stations of the cross, each of which recounts a particular point along the way. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.atlastours.net/holyland/via_dolorosa.html


Western Wall of the Temple Mount The Western Wall is one of the few surviving sections of the huge Temple Mount enclosure built by King Herod 2,000 years ago. After the destruction of the second temple by the Romans in 70 C.E., the Western Wall gradually became a Jewish holy place "by proxy," and symbolizes not only he mourning for the destroyed Temple , but also the eternal hope of redemption. The western wall is 20 meters high. The seven lower layers, some 7 meters in height, are constructed of huge stones, cut in the special fashion typical of Herod. Additional layers, from later periods , are found on top of those laid by Herod. Further layers from the second temple period are still buried. Extensive excavations have been carried out on this site since the six-day war. The Western Wall owes its significance to its close proximity to Judaism's holiest place, the Holy of Holies on the Temple Mount. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://mosaic.lk.net/g-wall.html


Western Wall Photo The Western Wall is one of the few surviving sections of the huge Temple Mount enclosure built by King Herod 2,000 years ago. After the destruction of the second temple by the Romans in 70 C.E., the Western Wall gradually became a Jewish holy place "by proxy," and symbolizes not only he mourning for the destroyed Temple , but also the eternal hope of redemption. The western wall is 20 meters high. The seven lower layers, some 7 meters in height, are constructed of huge stones, cut in the special fashion typical of Herod. Additional layers, from later periods , are found on top of those laid by Herod. Further layers from the second temple period are still buried. Extensive excavations have been carried out on this site since the six-day war. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/jerusalem-western-wall-pictures/


Western Wall Tunnel Location Diagram) Legend:
1. New entrance to tunnel;
2. Moslem Quarter;
3. Via Dolorosa;
4. Lions' Gate;
5. Temple Mount;
6. Christian Quarter;
7. Church of the Holy Sepulchre;
8. Path of the tunnel;
9. Jewish Quarter;
10. Western Wall Plaza;
11. Western Wall

The entire western wall of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem has been completely revealed for the first time since 70 C.E. Excavations have uncovered all 490 metres of the wall that once formed the western girder of ancient Jerusalem's great Temple and the entire stonework that formed the basis of the original Temple mount in now exposed. An ancient Hasmonean water tunnel, built about 120 B.C.E. and later blocked by Herod's builders in also visible for the first time and is one of the rare Hasmonean finds uncovered to date in Jerusalem. One of the most unexpected archaeological finds disclosed by the excavation is that Herod did not complete the entire construction of the Temple mount as historians and archaeologists believed to this day. A change in the type of masonry used at the northern end of the western wall is evidence that Herod built all but the last stages of construction of the Temple mount. Instead of the polished stones with characteristic Herodian masonry marks, part of the original stonework is roughly hewn. One of the mysteries uncovered during the excavation is the presence of massive stones that measure some 14 metres in length, 3 metres in height, and are estimated to be 2 metres thick and to weigh over 300 tons. No one can explain how these gigantic rocks were transported to the site. Walking along the tunnel, you can see the rock escarpment of the long lost Antonia fortress at the northern end of the western wall built by the Maccabees. This imposing building complex existed for only a few decades before it was demolished by he Romans followinn the fall of the Temple. The Tunnel is wide enough for one person to pass at a time, leading to a one-way route exiting at the beginning of the Via Dolorosa. We have made special arrangements to visit the tunnel. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/1990_1999/1998/7/The%20Western%20Wall%20Tunnel%20-%20Update


Who was the Pharoah Akhenaten, The Heretic King (1372-1354 BC) By Richard M. Fales, Ph.D. [from the Biblical and American Archaeologist]
http://www.drfalesbaa.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=24&Itemid=31


Yad Vashem--Valley of Destroyed Communities The Valley of the Destroyed Communities is the latest addition (1993) to the Yad Vashem complex, Israel's central memorial to the six million Jews killed in the Holocaust of World War II. It consists of a maze of courtyards (each representing a country or geographical region), on whose walls are inscribed the names of cities and towns where Jewish communities flourished before the advent of the Nazi regime in Germany. Viewed from the air, the structure approximates the shape of the map of Europe. The national institution for research and documentation of the Holocaust, Yad Vashem includes a museum, the Hall of the Names, and the Avenue of Righteous Gentiles. It is dedicated to perpetuating the memory of the Jews who perished in the Nazi Holocaust (1939-1945). [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yad_Vashem


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