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November 19    Scripture

Bible History: Ancient Texts


Apocrypha The word means hidden and conveys the idea that the contents of such books is secret or hidden and only for an elite group. Thus this word have come to be indicate writings as false or non-canonical having no inspired authority. The Jewish Rabbi's called such writings the outside books. While this generally refers to the thirteen books between the Old Testament and New Testament known as the Old Testament Apocrypha there are other groups of Apocrypha writings known as The Apocrypha Old Testament and Modern Apocrypha writings. Electronic Christian Media
http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/history5.htm


CCAT Biblical texts - Apostolic Fathers Epistle of Barnabas Lightfoot 1 Clement Lightfoot 2 Clement Lightfoot Didache [Hoole] or, alternatively, the Lightfoot translation Epistle of Mathetes to Diognetus Lightfoot another translation The Shepherd of Hermas Lightfoot Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians Lightfoot Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians Lightfoot Epistle of Ignatius to the Philadelphians Lightfoot Epistle of Ignatius to Polycarp Lightfoot Epistle of Ignatius to the Romans Lightfoot Epistle of Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans Lightfoot Epistle of Ignatius to the Trallians Lightfoot Fragments of Papias Epistle of Polycarp (to the Philippians) Lightfoot Martyrdom of Polycarp LightfootCenter for Computer Analysis of Texts (CCAT), Biblical texts. Including morphologically tagged MT & LXX, and parallel aligned MT//LXX [Online Text Archives] [Study Tools] [Collections]
http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/~humm/Resources/Texts/apFat.html


Census Edict for Roman Egypt This document shows a census ordered by Gaius Vibius Maximus, the Rmoan Prefectus of Egypt. GREEK TEXT (from Hunt & Edgar 1934:108), TRANSLATION by K. C. Hanson (Adapted from Hunt & Edgar). Language: Greek; Medium: papyrus; Length: 21 lines of writing; Genre: Official Edict; Date: 104 CE; Place of Discovery: Egypt Date of Discovery: ? Current Location: British Museum, London.
http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/greek/census.html


Die Bibel, Martin Luther Translation Full texts of the Old and New Testaments.
http://www.hti.umich.edu/relig/luther/browse.html


Divorce Agreement from Egypt This Greek document shows a Marriage Contract From Egypt written in 13 BC. It mentions Caesar Augustus and a Roman Drachma.
http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/greek/divorce.html


Great Isaiah Scroll Complete Manuscript Image An index to images of the entire Great Isaiah Scroll (1QIsaa=Qa), dated to the second century B.C. [Bible manuscripts]
http://www.ao.net/~fmoeller/qumdir.htm


Harmony of the Gospels This chart organizes events from the life of Christ. The events are in approximate chronological order. When an event appears in more than one gospel, the parallel accounts are grouped together.
http://www.lifeofchrist.com/life/harmony.html


Ishtar Gate Inscription Dedicatory Inscription on the Ishtar Gate, Babylon; TRANSLATION (Adapted from Marzahn 1995:29-30)Language: Akkadian Medium: glazed brick Size: c. 15 meters high c. 10 meters wide Length: 60 lines of writing Genre: Dedication Inscription Dedicator: Nebuchadnezzar King of Babylonia (reigned 605"”562 BCE) Approximate Date: 600 BCE Place of Discovery: Babylon (near modern Baghdad, Iraq) Date of Excavation: 1899"”1914 Current Location: Pergamon Museen (Berlin, Germany)
http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/meso/ishtarins.html


Josephus on early 1st Century Roman Palestine Selected texts from Josephus on early 1st Century Roman Israel by Dr. James D. Tabor. ARCHELAUS'S ETHNARCHY IS REDUCED INTO A [ROMAN] PROVINCE. THE SEDITION OF JUDAS OF GALILEE. THE THREE SECTS. THE DEATH OF SALOME. THE CITIES WHICH HEROD AND PHILIP BUILT. PILATE OCCASIONS DISTURBANCES. TIBERIUS PUTS AGRIPPA INTO BONDS BUT CAIUS FREES HIM FROM THEM, AND MAKES HIM KING. HEROD ANTIPAS IS BANISHED. CAIUS COMMANDS THAT HIS STATUE SHOULD BE SET UP IN THE TEMPLE ITSELF; AND WHAT PETRONIUS DID THEREUPON.
http://www.uncc.edu/jdtabor/palestine.html


Josephus on John the Baptizer Selected texts from Josephus on early 1st Century Roman Israel by Dr. James D. Tabor. Antiquities of the Jews XVIII Chapter 5. HEROD THE TETRARCH MAKES WAR WITH ARETAS, THE KING OF ARABIA, AND IS BEATEN BY HIM AS ALSO CONCERNING THE DEATH OF JOHN THE BAPTIST. HOW VITELLIUS WENT UP TO JERUSALEM; TOGETHER WITH SOME ACCOUNT OF AGRIPPA AND OF THE POSTERITY OF HEROD THE GREAT.
http://www.uncc.edu/jdtabor/john.html


Josephus on the Death of James Selected texts from Josephus on the Death of James, brother of Jesus, in 62 C.E. by Dr. James D. Tabor. Josephus, Antiquities Book 20: chapter 9 CONCERNING ALBINUS UNDER WHOSE PROCURATORSHIP JAMES WAS SLAIN; AS ALSO WHAT EDIFICES WERE BUILT BY AGRIPPA.
http://www.uncc.edu/jdtabor/james.html


Josephus' References to Crucifixion "Josephus (b. 37 C.E.) is our best literary source for the practice of crucifixion in Israel during the Greco-Roman period. As a general in command of the Jewish forces of Galilee in the Great Revolt against Rome (66-73 C.E.), he reports his attempts to save the lives of three crucified captives by appealing directly to the Roman general Titus. One survived the cross under a physician's care, the other two could not be saved." by Dr. James D. Tabor
http://www.uncc.edu/jdtabor/cruc-josephus.html


Lion's Gate Photo Known in Hebrew as the Lion's Gate. Legend has it that the lions engraved on both sides of the gate were placed there by the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, because he had dreamed that he would be devoured by lions unless he built a wall around the Holy City for the defense of the citizens. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.1000pictures.com/view.htm?cpaz/jerusalem+f34-bar-123.jpg+x1024+y768


Manumission and Bridewealth Document Manumission and Bridewealth Document (14th cent. BCE?)TRANSLATION by K. C. Hanson (Adapted from Finkelstein 1969:546). Language: Akkadian; Medium: Clay tablet; Size: 43 centimeters long 5 centimeters wide; Length: 25 lines of writing Genre: Manumission & Marriage Contract Approximate Date: 14th cent. BCE? Place of Discovery: Ugarit acropolis, Ras Shamra, Syria Date of Discovery: 1936 Current Location: Musée National d'Alep Aleppo, Syria.
http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/meso/manumission.html


Marriage Contract From Egypt This Greek document shows a Marriage Contract From Egypt written in 13 BC. It mentions Caesar Augustus and a Roman Drachma. (Thermion & Apollonius)
http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/greek/marriage.html


Sennacherib's Account The same account as the Bible event was recorded for the library at Nineveh and the clay tablet of the record is now in the British Museum. [Archaeology]
http://www.biblelight.org/arch11.htm


The Complete King James Version The Complete King James Version: Old and New Testaments and Apocrypha
http://www.hti.umich.edu/relig/kjv/browse.html


The Complete King James Version Old and New Testaments and Apocrypha.
http://www.hti.umich.edu/relig/kjv/browse.html


The Complete Revised Standard Version Old and New Testaments and Apocrypha.
http://www.hti.umich.edu/relig/rsv/browse.html


The Flood Narrative From the Gilgamesh Epic Translation by E.A. Speiser, in Ancient Near Eastern Texts (Princeton, 1950)
http://www.pseudepigrapha.com/pseudepigrapha/gilgamesh.html


The Hammurabi Stele Text THE HAMMURABI STELE. Partially Retold in English, by Stan Rummel, Director of The Humanities Program, Texas Wesleyan University, Fort Worth, Texas. "In the following selections, I have frequently changed the grammar and sequence of words from that of the original text, and I have omitted sections of material, so that what is given will read comprehensibly in English. I have grouped regulations by topical categories for discussion, rather than simply following their numerical sequence." Also includes an image: Detail of the top of the Hammurabi Stele, picturing King Hammurabi coming before the god Shamash.
http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/hammurabi.html


The Online Greek Bible Greek Bible study resources: Greek New Testament. Ancient Greek (biblical / classical) material including: Online texts (accented Greek New Testament), Shopping for printed materials, and Resources for learning and studying Ancient Greek. [Online Text Archives] [Study Tools] [Collections]
http://www.greekbible.com/


The Pilate Inscription The Pilate Inscription [text & interpretation] Language: Latin; Medium: limestone; Size: 82 centimeters high 65 centimeters wide; Length: 4 lines of writing; Genre: Building Dedication Dedicator: Pontius Pilate (praefect of Judea) Approximate Date: 26-37 CE; Place of Discovery: Caesarea, Israel; Date of Discovery: 1961; Current Location: Israel Museum(Jerusalem)
http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/latin/pilate.html


The Temple of Herod The Temple of Herod was a massive structure located in Jerusalem. It was built at the order of King Herod during the second period of King Herod's reign (25-13 BCE ). During this time, the king initiated a major building and rebuilding program, and this was by far the most famous of all projects. Autumn Veazey [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]
http://www.biblestudy.org/biblepic/picture-of-second-temple-in-jerusalem.html


Widow's Petition Ostracon This pottery was discovered with 8 lines of Hebrew text. Legal Petition written around the 9th"”7th centuries BC.
http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/westsem/petition.html


Write Like a Babylonian see your monogram in cuneiform, the way an ancient Babylonian might have written it. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
http://www.upennmuseum.com/cuneiform.cgi


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