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Ancient Rome: Naval
Ancient Ships, Vessels, Boats, and Naval Warfare

A Cache of Vintage Ships By Andrew L. Slayman. Summoned last April to survey a construction site in Pisa, Italian archaeologist Stefano Bruni never imagined what he would find: nine well-preserved Roman ships--the largest group of ancient vessels ever discovered in a single place--and part of Pisa's classical port. Eight months of patient testing had yielded little, and construction of an office building at the San Rossore train station was proceeding. Then, in December, builders sinking a corrugated steel retaining wall to support the sides of the foundation pit realized they had bisected an ancient ship, nearly intact, its wooden frame and planks still held together by copper nails. During the next five months, eight others were found, dating between the second century B.C. and the fifth century A.D., from Pisa's florescence as a Republican naval naval base to the end of the Roman Empire. Bruni's original cores had stopped in what seemed like sterile soil three inches shy of the discovery of a lifetime.
http://www.archaeology.org/9907/etc/pisa.html

A Guide to Greek and Roman Warships? JSTOR article. The Classical Review New Series Vol 51 No. 1 (2001)pp. 103-105.
http://www.jstor.org/pss/3065792

Ancient Roman Navy The Roman Navy (Latin: Classis) operated between the First Punic war and the end of the Western Roman Empire. History and Evolution. The Roman navy was very much inferior, both in prestige and capability, to the Roman army. Before the First Punic War in 264 BC there was no Roman navy to speak of as all previous Roman war had been fought in Italy. But the war in Sicily against Carthage, a great naval power, forced Rome to quickly build a fleet and train sailors. The first few naval battles of the First Punic War were disasters for Rome, and it was not until the invention of the Corvus, a grappling engine which made it easier for Romans to board the Carthaginian vessels, that Rome was able to win the war. This meant that Rome could use her superior army in naval combat, and was a significant shift away from the tactics of all other navies at the time.
http://www.crystalinks.com/romenavy.html

Ancient Roman Navy The Roman Navy was always considered an inferior arm and was strictly under army control. But the, Romans proved itself capable of launching a fleet capable of checking an established naval power such as Carthage. Romans were no sailors though. They had no knowledge of ship building. Their ships were in fact built copying the example of captured Carthaginian vessels, combined with the expertise supplied by the Greek cities of southern Italy.
http://library.thinkquest.org/04oct/01723/R-Navy.htm

Ancient Roman Ships The location of Rome, protected amongst hills on the banks of the river Tiber, not far from its mouth to the Mediterranean sea is a defining element of Rome's naval and commercial strength based on the might of the ancient roman ships. The enormous strategic importance of Rome's local Geography was recognized by men such as Cicero who admitted that Romulus and the gods themselves would have found it difficult to make a better choice of location.
http://www.mariamilani.com/ancient_rome/ancient_roman_ships.htm

Ancient Roman Transportation From earliest times the Romans displayed remarkable skill at building and engineering. They constructed bridges across the river Tiber, aqueducts to supply Rome with water, and sewers to drain the Forum and keep the city healthy.As they expanded their power across Italy, the Romans linked the capital with other communities they had conquered by a network of roads so well designed that many still lie beneath the motorways of modern Italy.After the neglect of the provinces during the civil wars, Augustus was determined to improve the infrastructure to promote economic growth. With Transportation by sea.
http://www.tassoni.it/ita/ancient-rome/ancient-roman-transportation-3.htm

Ancient Roman Warship B.C. 50. Model Roman warships were feared by other war vessels during the Great Roman Empire. The ships were powered by sail and oarsmen. Armed with Roman Legionaries and sophisticated armaments, the ship became a deadly adversary to other warships of the ancient world. The battering ram was one of the key weapons to devastate another sea going vessel.
http://www.tudayshobbymodels.com/prd_roman_warship_250

Barbarians VS Rome Ship Set Roman Seas: Barbarians VS Rome Ship Set Roman Seas: The Barbarian vs Rome Ship Set contains a set of high quality, professionally rendered PDF ancient Roman and Barbarian ship models by renown RPG and mapping artist, Eric Hotz. The Barbarian vs Rome Navy Set models are based on the ships from 68BC - 400AD. Just print out the files onto paper/card-stock from your own computer/printer and then start building. Make as many as you want, when you need them!
http://flamesrising.rpgnow.com/product_info.php?products_id=20411&it=1&filters=0_0_0&manufacturers_id=506

Best Preserved Warship of Ancient Times Roman Warship found near Pisa's tower is "best preserved ship of ancient times" By Peter Popham in Rome. A long-vanished harbour 500 metres from the leaning Tower of Pisa has yielded its most precious treasure to date: an intact ancient Roman warship, 12 metres (40ft) long, "the best-preserved ship of antiquity ever found" according to the project director at the site, Andrea Camilli.
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/roman-warship-found-near-pisas-tower-is-bestpreserved-ship-of-ancient-times-611832.html

Caesar's Galley Model Ship Roman warships were fearsome weapons and a major factor in the expansion of the Roman Empire. The ships were powered by sails and oars, and armed with the spears and swords of the soldiers on board. Protection was provided by many removable shields along the sides of the craft. A unique "proboscus" on the front of the ship was a reinforced ram often used to spear enemy ships. Whent an enemy ship remained skewered to the Roman ship, the soldiers leap aboard and engage in hand-to-hand combat.
http://www.modelshipmaster.com/products/other_types/ceasar.htm

Enneris Rome BC 31
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Enneris_Rome_BC31.jpg

First Century Roman Corbita Photo 1st Century Roman Corbita Photo
http://www.webstockpro.com/Dorling-Kindersley/71558962.1st-century-Roman-corbita-Photo/

Galleys on Roman Coins When people think of the spread of the Roman empire, it is the armies that come to mind. Well organised, well trained, using efficient methods, they drove all before them (with a few exceptions, of course!). But just as important for a Mediterranean empire was sea power. It was the battle of Actium - a sea battle - that sealed the fate of Anthony and Cleopatra. Well built and well armed galleys, swift liburnians, these kept the seas open and kept down the numbers of pirates; and massive cargo ships fed Rome with Afican grain. Naturally, galleys and other types of ship made an appearance on many coins. These two chunky bronze coins are from the Roman republic, an as on the left (169-157 BCE) and a triens on the right (211-206 BCE). The front of a galley in a rather skeletal or diagrammatic form was a standard design on Republican bronzes. These examples are rather worn, which is quite typical.
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/moonmoth/reverse_galley.html

Greek Triremes VS Roman Triremes Warships have ignited the imagination of countless ages and innumerable authors. Few actually know the history of the warship, though. Purpose built warships originated in ancient Greece and Rome, two great Mediterranean powers. They both had invariably different navies, though. The construction of their warships were of different materials and had different needs and qualifications. They both had different methods to get their ships on the move. Finally, their ships performed quite differently in battle. The Roman navy's quinqueremes were far superior ships in many aspects than Greek, mainly Athenian, triremes.
http://www.geocities.com/Area51/Shire/6423/Ships/essay.html

Liburna Rome BC 31
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Liburna_Rome_BC31.jpg

Model of Roman Trireme
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Trireme_1.jpg

Octeris Rome BC 210
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Octeris_Rome_BC210.jpg

Parts of a Roman Warship These were the basic parts of the Roman Quinquireme, an long, slender warship propelled by rowers and on occasion by sail and suited for naval combat on the Mediterranean during Classical times. Corvus, Beak, Towers, Gunwales, Oars, Rudders, Sail and Roman Seamen.
http://www.jaysromanhistory.com/romeweb/romarmy/art20.htm

Quadriremis Rome BC 31
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Quadriremis_Rome_BC31.jpg

Quinquereme and Corvus
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Quinquereme-and-corvus.jpg

Roman Fleet The Roman Navy was always considered an inferior arm and was strictly under army control. But already during the First Punic War, Rome proved itself capable of launching a fleet capable of checking an established naval power such as Carthage. Romans were no sailors though. They had no knowledge of ship building. Their ships were in fact built copying the example of captured Carthaginian vessels, combined with the expertise supplied by the Greek cities of southern Italy. Rather unexpected success in battle was obtained by a logical Roman idea that a warship was little more than a floating platform on which the soldiers could be brought into close contact with the enemy.
http://www.roman-empire.net/army/leg-fleet.html

Roman Galleons Ancient Ships " The Ship of Antiquity " Roman Galleons A typical Roman war ship of the first Century B.C. this Bireme was driven by two rows of oars. Out riggers stabilized the ship and the whales protected the hull from the protruding bows of enemy ships. While fast under oar, this type of vessel capsized easily under too much sail. This ship was built with plank on bulkhead construction.
http://www.artsales.com/ARTistory/Ancient_Ships/12_roman_galleons.html

Roman Merchant Ship Roman Merchant Ship. Small Wooden Merchant Ship With Two White Sails... Jonothan Potter (c) Dorling Kindersley
http://www.dkimages.com/discover/DKIMAGES/Discover/Home/Technology/Transportation/Ships-and-Boats/Early-Ships/Roman/Roman-2.html

Roman Merchantman Boat Model Dating from before the time of Christ and remaining in use for several centuries after, the merchant ships of the Roman Empire represented an important stage in the evolution of the cargo ship. Some of these vessels were very large, like the ones used for carrying grain from the fertile Nile valley to Rome. The could measure 180 feet long.
http://www.modelshipmaster.com/products/ancient/roman%20merchantman.htm

Roman Quinquereme A picture of a Roman Quinquereme. This ship is very similar to the Greek Trireme. See the link below for a good explanation of the differences.
http://persweb.wabash.edu/facstaff/royaltyr/AncientCities/web/bradleyj/Project%201/quinquereme.html

Roman Seas Photo Roman Civil War: 41 B.C. Sextus Pompeius vs Octavian and Agrippa. Pompeius' ships attack a Roman convoy. Ship model photo of re-enactment of the ship battle.
http://www.romanseas.com/roman_photo_1.html

Roman Ship - Picture - MSN Encarta Most Roman ships designed for commerce or war featured distinctive square sails. Long banks of oars propelled the ships swiftly through the water. Warships often had additional protective coverings to shield the crew from fire and missiles.
http://encarta.msn.com/media_461562865/roman_ship.html

Roman Trade Page Trade was vital to Ancient Rome. The Empire cost a huge sum of money to maintain and trade brought in much of that money. The population of the city of Rome was one million and such a vast population required many things that could only be got from distant lands ,So people had to turn to trade to get these items. The Roman Empire was criss-crossed with trade routes. There were sea routes that covered the Mediterranean and Black Seas and numerous land routes using the roads built by the Romans. Trade and moving the Roman Army around were the two principle reasons for building roads. The Romans did what they could to make sea journeys safe - lighthouses were built as were safe harbours and docks. The Roman Navy did what it could to make the Mediterranean Sea safe from pirates.
http://library.thinkquest.org/04oct/01723/R-Trade.htm

Roman Warship This is the sort of warship that was the backbone of the Roman fleet in the time of Julius Caeser. It would also have made up the fleets that engaged each other when Octavius Caeser went after Anthony and Cleopatra.
http://freespace.virgin.net/john.fairhurst/ImagePages/RomeWarship.htm

Roman Warship 31 B.C ... (for Poser). The Roman Navy (Latin: Classis, lit. "fleet") comprised the naval forces of the Roman state. Unlike modern naval forces, it never existed as an autonomous service, but operated as an adjunct to the Roman army. Founded in ca. 311 BC, and massively expanded course of the First Punic War, the Roman navy played a vital role in the early stages of the Roman Republic's ascension to hegemony in the Mediterranean Sea, especially in the wars against Carthage, but was gradually reduced in size and significance, undertaking mainly policing duties, under the Empire. In the 4th century, the bulk of the Roman fleet was moved to the Eastern Roman Empire, and continued to serve as the Byzantine navy. This ship is a Penteconter, a precursor to the later biremes and triremes. The development of the ram in about 800 BC changed the nature of naval warfare, which had until that point involved boarding and hand-to-hand fighting. Now a more maneuverable ship could render a slower ship useless by staving in its sides.
http://www.contentparadise.com/us/user/roman_warship_31_bc_for_poser_product_37164

Roman Warship Liburna Image Bank " Roman Warship Liburna
http://www.sosidea.com/gallery/index.php?pageId=100&id=955&start=0&lightbox_page=&search_mode=search;

Sketch of a Roman Quinquereme
http://www.wildfiregames.com/0ad/pages/pictures/quinq.gif

Sketch of a Roman Warship Sketch of a Roman warship, part of a Roman merchant ship and a vessel with sail set. National Maritime Museum, London. The Romans used galleys, both as merchant ships for trading, and as warships. They made many long sea journeys in these vessels, but stayed quite close to the coast. Their fighting galleys were powered by rowers, sitting in one, two or three lines. The main weapon of the galley was a ram, a pointed piece of wood fixed to the bow of the ship. The ram was crashed into the side of the enemy ship at speed. The ships also carried archers and men with spears. Sometimes the galleys were fitted with a mast and one square sail, but they were taken down during battles.
http://www.portcities.org.uk/london/server/show/conMediaFile.664/Sketch-of-a-Roman-warship-part-of-a-Roman-merchant-ship-and-a-vessel-with-sail-set.html
http://www.portcities.org.uk/london/upload/img_400/PY4153.jpg

The Etruscans and the Sea Maritime Trading. There is no doubt that the Etruscan sea ports, or emporia were important international trading centres, and therefore of great economical and cultural significance for the Etruscans. Judging from the Greek and Phoenician sanctuaries found in Graviscae and Pyrgi respectively they were probably populated by mixed peoples, and attracted merchants and artisans from far afield. We have a historical example of such a trader in Demeratos of Corinth. Livy tells us that he sold Etruscan goods to the Greeks and Greek goods to the Etruscans, and that he brought with him a number of artists from Corinth. The presence of Proto-Corinthian and Corinthian ware in Caere and Tarquinia would appear to be consistent with this account.
http://www.mysteriousetruscans.com/sea.html

The Fleets and Roman Border Policy Through the Battle of Actium in 31 B.C. the destiny of the Roman Empire was decisively influenced by a sea-battle for the final time. Following it Rome dominated the seas; enemies with their own large fleets no longer existed. Despite this, the Roman navy was not disbanded; indeed, it was expanded further. This clearly demonstrates that the fleets did not play an inconsiderable role in Roman imperial policy. As a result, one has to ask oneself what functions the fleets performed.
http://www2.rgzm.de/navis/Themes/Flotte/FleetsAndBorder.htm

Triremis Rome BC 31
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Triremis_Rome_BC31.jpg



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