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June 28    Scripture

Ancient Rome: Military History
Weapons, Warfare and Wars

"Barbarization" in the Late Roman Army Barbarization" in the Late Roman Army by Hugh Elton . Courtesy of the On- line Reference Book for Medieval Studies. Online Encyclopedia. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.reference-guides.com/collections.html


A Beginner`s Guide to Roman Arms and Armour Museum of Antiquities in Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom A `virtual book` that provides an illustrated introduction to the arms and armour of Roman soldiers. [ancient weapons] [Weapons and Warfare]
http://museums.ncl.ac.uk/archive/arma/welc/beginner/page01.htm


Ammianus Marcellinus (330-395 CE): The Battle of Hadrianopolis, 378 CE From: Ammianus Marcellinus, The Roman History of Ammianus Marcellinus During the Reigns of The Emperors Constantius, Julian, Jovianus, Valentinian, and Valens, trans. C. D. Yonge (London: G. Bell & Sons, 1911), pp. 609-618. Courtsey of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook. [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/378adrianople.html


Ancient History Sourcebook: Polybius (c.200-after 118 BCE): The Third Punic War, 149-146 BCE [The Histories, Book XXXVI-XXXIX] From: Polybius, The Histories of Polybius, 2 Vols., trans. Evelyn S. Shuckburgh (London: Macmillan, 1889), II.499-507, 511-515, 528-530.ourtesy of the Ancient History Sourcebook. [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/polybius-punic3.html


Ancient History Sourcebook: Mithridates & The Roman Conquests in the East, 90-61 BCE From: William Stearns Davis, ed., Readings in Ancient History: Illustrative Extracts from the Sources, 2 Vols. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1912-13), Vol. II: Rome and the West, pp.118-120, 123-127. Courtsey of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook. [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/mithradates1.html


Ancient History Sourcebook:Livy: The Roman Way of Declaring War, c. 650 BCE From: William Stearns Davis, ed., Readings in Ancient History: Illustrative Extracts from the Sources, 2 Vols. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1912-13), Vol. II: Rome and the West, pp. 7-9. Courtsey of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook. [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/650livy1-34.html


Ancient Rome Lesson Links The following are the links from the lessons in the ThemeWorks Ancient Rome Unit: [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.tecknoquest.com/tcm/themeworks/links/challinkv1/arlesslink.htm


Ancient Warfare "Welcome to the Ancient Warfare Homepage. It is our endevor to create a comprehensive webpage focusing primarily on Roman and Greek warfare." [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.fiu.edu/~eltonh/army.html


Ancient Warfare Greek and Roman warfare. Essays. Texts. Pictures [Weapons and Warfare]
http://www.fiu.edu/~eltonh/army.html


ArmaList. "ArmaList is intended to act as a forum to discuss all issues relating to Roman military equipment studies, but it is hoped that it will primarily serve for debate on the form and structure of ARMAMENTARIVM, and it will be the main location for posting new contributions to the Web site as they are added." [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.armatura.connectfree.co.uk/armalist.htm


Armamentarium: The Book of Roman Arms and Armour glossary, search engine, bibliography, and more. [Weapons and Warfare]
http://www.ncl.ac.uk/~nantiq/arma/


Armamentarium:The book of Roman arms and armour. "ARMAMENTARIVM has the ultimate aim of providing a successor to H. Russell Robinson's seminal volume The Armour of Imperial Rome, published in 1975 and long out of print. As such, ARMAMENTARIVM will exploit the latest available technology to function as a dynamic book: it will be updated as and when new material becomes available and so will be as true a reflection as possible of the current state of scholarship on Roman military equipment". [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.ncl.ac.uk/~nantiq/arma/


ARMAMENTARIVM: the Book of Roman Arms and Armor [Weapons and Warfare] [Rome]
http://www.ncl.ac.uk/~nantiq/arma/index.htm


Attila the Hun and the Battle of Chalons by Arthur Ferrill Draft of an article that appeared in a slighty different form in The Quarterly Journal of Military History MHQ. [Rome] [Military History]
http://rm-f.net/~zdv/attila.html


Battles of the ancient world: the Second Punic War Second Punic War (218-201 B.C.)
http://tetrad.stanford.edu/hh/battles.html


Britannia Military History Bibliographical Database Bibliography of Roman Military History in Britain [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.morgue.demon.co.uk/Pages/Biblio/


Britannia: A Roman Military Bibliography glossary, search engine, geography,opponent, weapon, and more. [Weapons and Warfare]
http://www.morgue.demon.co.uk/Pages/Biblio/


Caesar's Campaigns in Gaul (58-50 BC) [Athena Review Image Archive]
http://www.athenapub.com/gaulcamp.htm


Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic and Civil Wars: with the Supplementary Books attributed to Hirtius. From the Electronic Text Center at the University of Virginia. [Rome] [Military History]
http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/cgibin/toccer?id=CaeComm&tag=public&images=images/modeng&data=/lv1/Archive/eng-parsed&part=0


Canadian Forces College, Department of National Defence (Canada) Guide to links on mililitary history in the Ancient World. [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.cfcsc.dnd.ca/links/milhist/anc.html


Casques Italiques The evolution of Roman helmets. In French [Rome] [Military History]
http://perso.wanadoo.fr/samuel/pages/rome.htm


Catapults in Greek and Roman Antiquity. By D. Baatz [Rome] [Military History]
http://home.t-online.de/home/d.baatz/catapult.htm


Cn. Domitius Corbulo and the Parthian War Courtsey of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook. [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.csun.edu/~hcfll004/corbulo.html


Colchester Roman Society. "The Colchester Roman Society was formed in the summer of 1987, initially as the Balkerne Gate Guard. The aim of the society was, and continues to be, research into and the recreation of equipment, training and lifestyles of the Roman military and civilians during the 1st and 2nd Centuries AD. Originally adopting the LEG XIIII GEMINA, in 1997 the society decided to concentrate on auxiliary units and adopted the COH I FIDA VARDULLORUM MILLIARIA EQ CR." [Rome] [Military History]
http://homepage.ntlworld.com/mark.martin/CRS/index.html


Commodus - Emperor A.D 180 - 192 It is unfortunate that the emperor Marcus Aurelius did not choose to adopt a capable man as his son to succeed him on the throne. He chose instead Commodus, the spoiled son of Aurelius and his wife, Faustina the Younger. From The Rulers of the Roman World, from Jay King, The College of Education at San José State University.
http://www.jaysromanhistory.com/romeweb/EMPCONT/e083.htm


Core Values Internet Resource Library Links to ancient weapons. [Weapons and Warfare]
http://tlc.ousd.k12.ca.us/library/rome/rome_military.html


DBM Miniatures Wargame Page useful bibliography and related links [Weapons and Warfare]
http://tetrad.stanford.edu/DBM.html


E-Hawk: Home of the Military History timeline An extensive collection of resources for the study of military history. [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.kcdata.com/~ehawk/


First Punic War (Chronology of Events) First Punic War (264-241 B.C.) Barbara Saylor Rodgers
http://www.uvm.edu/~bsaylor/rome/events.html


Historical Reenactors . " People from across the world have for decades come together to reenact historical military and civilian life at various periods in time. A large number of these are dedicated to the Roman era. The level of historical detail required varies from Legion to Legion, and some engage in mock combat while others display their prowess at period drill and camp life. As part of our efforts to bring ancient Rome back to life, Nova Roma is beginning to sponsor the activities of various Legions across the world." [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.novaroma.org/via_romana/reenactments/index.html


http://www.cfcsc.dnd.ca/links/milhist/punic.html Wars and Military History
http://www.cfcsc.dnd.ca/links/milhist/pelo.html


Imperial Battle Description Index by Hugh Elton Courtesy of the De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors . [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.roman-emperors.org/battle.htm


Imperial Battle Map Index by Hugh Elton, Cartography by Christos Nüssli Courtesy of the De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors . [Rome] [Maps]
http://www.roman-emperors.org/battle.htm


Imperial Battle Map Index by Hugh Elton, Cartography by Christos Nüssli Courtesy of the De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors . [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.roman-emperors.org/battle.htm


Imperial Service quarantees citizenship: Would you like to know more? The homepage of Sander van Dorst with numerous links for the study of the Roman army. [Rome] [Military History]
http://members.tripod.com/~S_van_Dorst/legio.html


Josephus (37- after 93 CE): The Roman Army in the First Century CE From: Flavius Josephus: The Jewish War. III.5-6, trans. William Whiston. Courtsey of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook. [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/josephus-warb.html


Josephus (37- after 93 CE): An Imperial Triumph, 71 CE From: Flavius Josephus: VII. 3-7, trans. William Whiston. Courtsey of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook. [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/josephus-warc.html


Journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies. The Journal (ISSN 09613684) is dedicated to the Study of the Weapons, Armour, and Military Fittings of the Armies and Enemies of Rome and Byzantium. It covers all aspects of the subject and its source material - archaeological, literary, sub-literary, iconographic/representational, and experimental. [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.armatura.connectfree.co.uk/jrmes.htm


Leg VIIII Hspa Pagina Domus "The aims of the somewhat anarchic collective of interested individuals (hereinafter known as 'The Society') are: To recreate all aspects of life in the Roman Legions of the last half of the first century anno domini, including campaign, drill, combat and leisure activities as accurately as possible using the tools of living history and practical archaeology." [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Olympus/3296/index.htm


Legio III Gallica. "LEGIO III GALLICA is a re-enactment group dedicated to presenting living history displays of life in the Roman legions in the latter part of 1st century AD. Our weapons, armor, and accessories are thoroughly researched for historical accuracy and are mostly constructed by our own hands and at our own expense. Our group is based in the NOVUM CENABUM (New Orleans, Louisiana) area and is the first Roman re-enactment group based in the American Gulf South." [Rome] [Military History]
http://members.aol.com/legiiigal/


Legio IX Hispana The Ninth `Spanish` Legion [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.roman-britain.org/military/9hispana.htm


Legio Secunda Augusta. "Legio Secunda Augusta (LEG II AUG) is the title of a society based in Portsmouth, Hampshire that seeks to re-create the "living history" - in both its military and civilian aspects - of Roman Britain during the first two centuries AD." [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.netcomuk.co.uk/~harnold/Index.html


Legio VI Ferrata. "Welcome to the home page of the Legio VI Ferrata! We are establishing a living history group dedicated to re-enacting the glory of Rome, and its military. We are garrisoned here in Tucson, Arizona; a legion in thedesert. We are now recruiting members and hope to be ready to take the field in the spring of MCMXCIX (1999)." [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.geocities.com/leg_vi_f/


Legio VIII Augusta MGV; A living historical society depicting 1st and 2nd century Roman Britain. "We are a group of enthusiasts from Wales and the North of England who aim to authentically depict the society which existed in Roman Britain during the late 1st and early 2nd Century AD." [Rome] [Military History]
http://freespace.virgin.net/robin.brown5/


Legio VIII Augusta. Interessengemeinschaft für experimentelle Archäologie und Geschichtsdarstellung. [Rome] [Military History]
http://home.t-online.de/home/Bernd.Hummel/legiov~1.htm


Legio X Fretensis. "Now LEGIO X FRETENSIS is the military historical club. We make reconstruction weapon, armor, eguipment and life of roman legionaries from reign of Emperor Marcvs Ulpivs Traianvs (98-117 AC)." [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Troy/7280/HOME_E.HTM


Legio X Fretensis. "Now LEGIO X FRETENSIS is the military historical club. We make reconstruction weapon, armor, eguipment and life of roman legionaries from reign of Emperor Marcvs Ulpivs Traianvs (98-117 AC)." [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Troy/7280/HOME_E.HTM


Legio XIII GEM ; A living historical society depicting 1st and 2nd century Roman Britain. " You are now on the Homepage of the Society for Roman History in Austria, an Austrian Roman Military and Civilian reconstruction and reenactment group." [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.fortunecity.com/victorian/updike/196/maineng.html


Legio XV Apollonaris. "Welcolme to the homepage of the Legio XV Apollonaris, the Norwegian group for Roman re-enactment and Roman live role playing. Our aim is to portray a Roman unit of the second half of the 1st century AD, and use it in a live roleplaying- setting. As far as we know we are the only group in Europe combining live roleplaying and re-enactment in this manner. We would love to hear from others." [Rome] [Military History]
http://url.uio.no/legxv/


Looking to the Next War: Laws of War in the Roman Empire 350 TO 380 AD. by Andrew Drummond "Presented to the Mid-America Conference on History, 17-19 September 1992, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. The following material has been made available in electronic form through the courtesy of the author. It may be copied, reproduced, and redistributed freely in its entirety provided full credit is given to the author. Distribution of portions of the text, or inclusion of all or parts in printed and published form should be performed only with the express consent of the author. The electronic distribution of this material does not preclude its later publication in other forms." [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.dalton.org/groups/Rome/RMil.html


Loricae Romanae "This set of pages presents images and information about the construction, decoration and function of Imperial cuirasses of the first two centuries A.D. and the problems in dealing with archaeological and iconographic evidence. Note: Quotes from other sources and Roman words denoted by Italics." [Rome] [Military History]
http://rubens.anu.edu.au/student.projects97/armour/


Lucius Aurelius Commodus (AD 161 - AD 192) Commodus didn't only fail to measure up to the high standards set by his father, he went down in history as a monster., a megalomaniac who thought himself a god, had the months renamed in his honour and delighted in playing the gladiator in the circus. From the Illustrated History of the Roman Empire at roman-empire.net
http://www.roman-empire.net/decline/commodus.html


Marcus Aurelius The study of philosophy and other scholarly pursuits were the things that Marcus Aurelius loved most of all, but it was his lot to spend most of his reign fighting barbarians far from the city of Rome. From The Rulers of the Roman World, from Jay King, The College of Education at San José State University.
http://www.jaysromanhistory.com/romeweb/EMPCONT/e081.htm


Medieval Sourcebook: Jordanes: The Battle of Chalôns, 451 CE From: From: William Stearns Davis, ed., Readings in Ancient History: Illustrative Extracts from the Sources, 2 Vols. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1912-13), Vol. II: Rome and the West, pp. 322-325. Courtsey of the Internet Medieval Source Book. [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/451jordanes38.html


Military affairs in late antiquity Bibliography supplied by Hugh Elton Trinity College [Rome] [Military History]
http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/jod/texts/wola.militarybibliography.html


Military History of the Roman State A listing of works relevant to particular campaigns and battles in Roman History supplied by Hugh Elton Trinity College [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.fiu.edu/~eltonh/warfare/history.html


Military Resources Dedicated links to the study of the ancient Roman military. The Dalton School[Rome] [Military History]
http://www.dalton.org/groups/Rome/RMil.html


Models of the Roman Legion By Gary Brueggeman "The purpose of the models presented here is to help visualize the legion. The models have been built from data from a variety of experts, many of whom do not agree with each other. The hope is that the models themselves may serve as a tool to clarify questions, identify solutions which are more or less likely, and lead to a further refinement of knowledge about the legion." [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/6622/index.html


Northern Britain in the 5th Century AD The eclipse of the Roman Empire in the West (c. 395-500) and the German migrations. Invasions in the early 5th century. ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA. [Rome] [Military History]
http://208.154.71.60/bcom/eb/article/0/0,5716,109200+8+106272,00.html


ORB Online Encyclopedia--Barbarization The term `barbarization` is used to describe the use of soldiers whose origins were outside the Roman Empire in the late Roman army. It has been argued (especially by Ramsay MacMullen) that this caused the army to decline in efficiency, though this is a view that is coming under some revision. There were two types of this `barbarization`. [Warfare] [Rome]
http://www.reference-guides.com/collections.html


ORB Online Encyclopedia--Collapse of the Roman Empire Late Antiquity in the Mediterranean. The Collapse of the Roman Empire--Military Aspects. Hugh Elton. Modern historians explain the collapse of the western Roman empire in the fourth and fifth centuries in one of two ways. One group follows an institutional approach, which finds the reasons in the long-term and looks closely at internal structures. A second group has adopted a political approach and looks at short term causes of collapse. [Warfare] [Rome]
http://www.reference-guides.com/collections.html


ORB Online Encyclopedia--Late Roman Army Late Antiquity in the Mediterranean. The birth of the Late Roman Army is usually taken to be the reforms of Diocletian (284-305) and Constantine (305-337). Their reforms were not completely innovative and forerunners of all their changes can be seen in the institutions and practices of the army of the third century AD. From the early fourth century, the army was a remarkably stable institution with few changes in practice or structure, suggesting that contemporaries were satisfied with its effectiveness. [Warfare] [Rome]
http://www.reference-guides.com/collections.html


Origins of the Second Punic War Punic Wars
http://idcs0100.lib.iup.edu/WestCivI/thepunic.htm


Papyrus: Letters of soldiers [Warfare] [Rome]
http://www.csun.edu/~hcfll004/paplet1.htm


Pelopennesian War (431-404 B.C.) Wars and Military History
http://www.cfcsc.dnd.ca/links/milhist/pelo.html


Petition to the Emperor Philip, On Official Military Extortion, 246 CECE From:Petition of the Araguenians and Rescript of the Emperor Philip [r. 243-249 CE] on Official & Military Extortion, 246 CE. Courtsey of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook. [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/246philip-pet1.html


Pharsalia (aka "The Civil War") By Lucan (Marcus Annaeus Lucanus) A.D. 39 - A.D. 65 "The text of this edition is based on that published as The Pharsalia of Lucan, as translated by Sir Edward Ridley (Longmans, Green, and Co., London, 1896)." Courtsey of the Online Medieval and Classical Library Release #16b. [Rome] [Military History]
http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/OMACL/Pharsalia/


Polybius (c.200-after 118 BCE): The Roman Maniple vs. The Macedonian Phalanx From:Polybius, The Histories of Polybius, 2 Vols., trans. Evelyn S. Shuckburgh (London: Macmillan, 1889), pp. 226-230. Courtsey of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook. [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/polybius-maniple.html


Polybius (c.200-after 118 BCE): Rome at the End of the Punic Wars From:Polybius, The Histories of Polybius,vol. 6. , trans. Oliver J. Thatcher (Milwaukee: University Research Extension Co., 1907.), pp. 166-193 Courtsey of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook. [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/polybius6.html


Polybius (c.200-after 118 BCE): The Battle of Cannae, 216 BC From:Polybius, The Histories of Polybius,vol. I. 264-275., trans. Evelyn S. Shuckburgh (London: Macmillan, 1889), pp. 226-230. Courtsey of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook. [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/polybius-cannae.html


Pontius Pilate The fifth Roman procurator of Judea (ruled 26-36 AD), who issued the official order sentencing Jesus to death by crucifixion. Bible History Online.
http://www.bible-history.com/jesus/jesusuntitled00000472.htm#f174968a


Ralegh and the Punic Wars by Charles G. Salas Journal of the History of Ideas 57.2 (1996) 195-215. Copyright © 1996 The Journal of the History of Ideas, Inc.. All rights reserved. [Rome] [Military History]
http://muse.jhu.edu/demo/jhi/57.2salas.html


Rekonstruktion eines Reiters der Ala II Flavia milliaria "In Aalen war die Ala II Flavia pia fidelis milliaria stationiert, ein 1 000 Mann starke Kavallerieregiment. Diese Reitereinheiten bildeten die Elite der am Limes stationierten Hilfstruppen" The text is in German accompanied by photographs. Courtesy of the Limesmuseum Aalen. [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.uni-tuebingen.de/uni/ymu/sqhm/reiter01.htm


Roman Expansion to 133 BC Roman and Etruscan Kings; Republic of Rome 509-343 BC; Rome`s Conquest of Italy 343-264 BC; Rome at War with Carthage 264-201 BC; Republican Rome`s Imperialism 201-133 BC. [Ethics] [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.san.beck.org/EC24-RomanExpansion.html


Roman Legionary Forces in Sicily During the Second Punic War The Number of Legions Stationed on the Island from 214 to 210 B.C. by E. D. Clark The Ancient History Bulletin , vol 8.4 (1994) 133-140. [Rome] [Military History]
http://ivory.trentu.ca/www/cl/ahb/ahb8/ahb-8-4e.html


Roman Military Diploma from Slavonski Brod Military "The regional museum in Slavonski Brod, Croatia, managed to obtain an extremely valuable antique artefact in 1997. It is a Roman military diploma dating from the first century A.D, which had been discovered by chance, while recovering sand from the Sava river bed." [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.sbonline.net/diploma/diplomae.htm


Roman Military Research Society Welcome to the updated homepage of the award - winning Roman Military Research Society and its display unit, the Vexillatio Legionis XIIII GMV. The RMRS is a research and re-enactment group specialising in recreating the Roman Army and Roman life during the latter part of the first century A.D. In particular, we represent a detachment of the Fourteenth Legion, Gemina Martia Victrix, one of the most famous units of the Roman army in Britain. [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.romanarmy.net/


Roman Military Sites in Britain "A non-specialist's introduction to the fortresses, forts, watchtowers, temporary camps, depots and industrial sites, built by the Roman Army in Britain. Plus background material on the Roman Army and the military history of the province." © Peter Green 1997 [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.morgue.demon.co.uk/


Roman Military Sites in Britain [Warfare] [Rome]
http://www.morgue.demon.co.uk/


Roman Naval Warfare The Quinquereme, The Corvus. Service in the fleet was for 26 years after which sailors received citizenship. Water ways were patrolled to control piracy and keep shipments of supplies and troops free to go where they were needed.
http://www.danshistory.com/rome2.html#navy


Roman Period Living History Groups (100BC - 500AD) "A non-specialist's introduction to the fortresses, forts, watchtowers, temporary camps, depots and industrial sites, built by the Roman Army in Britain. Plus background material on the Roman Army and the military history of the province." © Peter Green 1997 [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.geocities.com/Paris/2570/roman.html#ermine


Roman Print Collection Courtesy of Aero Art International Online. [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.aeroartinc.com/roman/default.htm


Roman Scotland: Outpost of an Empire. Exhibition at the Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow. This exhibition tells the story of the Roman presence in Scotland in the first and second centuries AD, with emphasis on the Antonine Wall frontier and the life lived by the soldiers based in forts along its line. [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.gla.ac.uk/Museum/HuntMus/romans/


Roman Warfare and Army: Bibliography [Weapons and Warfare]
http://www.fiu.edu/~eltonh/army.html


Rome: The Punic Wars Courtesy of World Cultures: An Internet Classroom and Anthology [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/ROME/PUNICWAR.HTM


ROMEC:The Roman Military Equipment Conference. "The first Roman Military Equipment Research Seminar was held in the Department of Ancient History and Classical Archaeology (now, sadly, defunct) at the University of Sheffield (GB) in 1983. It has since grown and now visits various international venues, but still retains the same goals as that first seminar: to further the study of Roman military equipment with contributions from professional or amateur, academic or re-enactor, archaeologist or historian." [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.armatura.connectfree.co.uk/romec.htm


SAMH: The Society for Ancient Military Historians The Society of Ancient Military Historians is an organization dedicated to the promotion of the study of warfare in the Ancient World. Members sponsor and contribute to the publication of our newsletter, Res Militares. Our leadership works with and within the American Philological Association to arrange contact between our members and within the larger academic community. [Rome] [Military History]
http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/rrice/samh.html


Siege Warfare Artillery and Fortifications The Romans brought combat engineering to such an art that it wasn`t matched again until the Second World War. A high level of organization plus a determination to thoroughly address all aspects of battle led the Romans to integrate a wide range of tactics and tools into their fighting.
http://www.danshistory.com/rome2.html#walls


Siege Warfare Artillery and Fortifications Development of the Roman Legion from the late Republic to the height of the Empire. Campaigns and battles. Tactics and weapons of the Roman armies. Siege warfare / fortification. Profiles of the greatest military commanders. [The Glory That Was Rome]
http://www.danshistory.com/rome2.html#walls


Silver Decadrachm (Chariot) ca. 400&endash;375 BC Syracuse 29-126-41 "Racing four-horse chariot with a flying Nike personifying Victory crowning the driver. The space below is filled with captured Punic arms. This spectacular coin may commemorate the victory of Dionysius I over the Carthaginian general Himilcon and the deliverance of Syracuse from its Punic siege in 396 BC The reverse of the coin is signed by Euaenetus, one of the most renowned coin designers of antiquity. Commemorative types became especially popular in the Hellenistic period after Alexander´s death in 323 BC" Dia. 34.0 mm. Photo courtesy Public Information Office, Univ. of Pennsylvania Museum
http://www.bible-history.com/images2/chariot_coin.gif


test test desc
http://www.blah.com


The African Wars By Julius Caesar. Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. From Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Military History]
http://classics.mit.edu/Caesar/african.html


The Alexandrian Wars By Julius Caesar. Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. From Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Military History]
http://classics.mit.edu/Caesar/alexandrian.html


The Antonine Guard Roman Research Society. "The Antonine Guard was formed in 1996. It is a Roman Historical / Re-enactment group concentrating on the period of Roman occupation of Scotland in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. Our prime aim is to promote a greater awareness of Roman Scotland for the general public." [Rome] [Military History]
http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/TRichardson8/homepage.htm


The Armies of The Roman Empire Development of the Roman Legion from the late Republic to the height of the Empire. Campaigns and battles. Tactics and weapons of the Roman armies. Siege warfare / fortification. Profiles of the greatest military commanders. [Warfare] [Rome]
http://www.danshistory.com/rome.html


The Battle of Cannae [Rome] [Military History]
http://idcs0100.lib.iup.edu/WestCivI/thepunic.htm


The Battle of Teutoburg Forest from Gaius Velleus Paterculus (c.19 BCE-after 30 CE) Roman History. Translated by John Selby Watson. (New York: 1881), pp. 511-514. [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.hillsdale.edu/dept/History/Documents/War/Classical/Rome/9-TuetoburgForest.htm


The Battle of Trasimeno by the Borough of Tuoro sul Trasimeno "In the steps of Hannibal at the scene of the battle." [Rome] [Military History]
http://impnet.com/annibale/indexuk.html


The Battle of Trasimeno Hannibal's battle in text, maps, and pictures. [Weapons and Warfare]
http://impnet.com/annibale/indexuk.html


The Civil Wars By Julius Caesar. Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. From Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Military History]
http://classics.mit.edu/Caesar/civil.html


The Civil Wars By Julius Caesar. Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. From Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Military History]
http://classics.mit.edu/Caesar/civil.html


The Collapse of the Roman Empire Late Antiquity in the Mediterranean--Military Aspects by Hugh Elton . Courtesy of the On- line Reference Book for Medieval Studies. Orb Online Encyclopedia. Copyright (C) 1996, Hugh Elton. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.reference-guides.com/collections.html


The Commanders Development of the Roman Legion from the late Republic to the height of the Empire. Campaigns and battles. Tactics and weapons of the Roman armies. Siege warfare / fortification. Profiles of the greatest military commanders.
http://www.danshistory.com/rome.html#command


The Ermine Street Guard. The Ermine Street Guard is a society dedicated to research into the Roman Army and the reconstruction of Roman armour and equipment. The reconstructions are primarily from the latter half of the first century A.D. although equipment from other Roman periods is reproduced for experimental and display purposes. [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.esg.ndirect.co.uk/


The Gladiator Accurate historical data about the ancient Gladiator and his owner (lanista) with references and notes from the Classics Dept at Brooklyn College.
http://depthome.brooklyn.cuny.edu/classics/gladiatr/index.htm


The Imperial Roman Twentieth Legion: Bringing Ancient Rome to Life "The Twentieth Legion was founded in 1991 to recreate the soldiers of the Roman Army for public demonstrations and living history displays" [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.larp.com/legioxx/index.html


The Late Roman Army by Hugh Elton . Late Antiquity in the Mediterranean: Courtesy of the On- line Reference Book for Medieval Studies. Online Encyclopedia. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.reference-guides.com/collections.html


The Legio X Gemina Homepage Home-page of THE GEMINA PROJECT, a Dutch Roman Military reconstruction and reenactment group. [Rome] [Military History]
http://members.tripod.com/Gemina/index.html


The Legio X Gemina Homepage This is the homepage of the Gemina Project, a Dutch reenactment society that portrays Roman soldiers and civilians as they would have appeared in the last quarter of the first century AD when the legio X Gemina was stationed at the castra of Nijmegen. [Warfare] [Rome]
http://members.tripod.com/Gemina/


The Punic Wars Nicely done.
http://idcs0100.lib.iup.edu/WestCivI/thepunic.htm


The Roman Army Nowhere does the Roman talent for organization show itself so clearly as in its army. The story of the Roman army is an extensive one, demonstrated in part by the scale of this chapter. The first part of this chapter considers the history of the Roman army (concentrating on the legions), trying to explain as much background as possible. The later part of the chapter seeks to explain specific points such as various different units, the workings of the army, etc. [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.roman-empire.net/army/army.html


The Roman army
http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Forum/1595/Army.html


The Roman Army The core of the Roman legion consisted of heavily armored infantry. Disciplined and well trained these soldiers fought in closed ranks. At every level the men of a legion fought together toward ultimate victory. In contrast most of the armies Rome faced were warrior based where each man fought for personal glory. This combination of superior organization and disciplined armored infantry gave the Romans a tremendous advantage in battle. Training Formation, Organization, Armor, Arms (Weapons), Tactics.
http://www.danshistory.com/rome.html#legion


The Roman Army - Roman Legions By Gary Brueggeman. The purpose of the models presented here is to help visualize the legion. The models have been built from data from a variety of experts, many of whom do not agree with each other. The hope is that the models themselves may serve as a tool to clarify questions, identify solutions which are more or less likely, and lead to a further refinement of knowledge about the legion. [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/6622/


The Roman Army in the Late Republic and Early Empire "The following information is intended to give a generic picture of military organization, armor, weaponry, etc. during the late Republic and early Empire." Courtesy of Barbara F. McManus, The College of New Rochelle. [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.vroma.org/~bmcmanus/romanarmy.html


The Roman Army, Part II "...information on legionary armor, auxiliary troops, army activities and pay, and punishments and rewards." Courtesy of Barbara F. McManus, The College of New Rochelle. [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.vroma.org/~bmcmanus/romanarmy2.html


The Roman Army: A Bibliography A listing of works relevant to the study of Roman warfare provided by John Paul Adams California State University Northridge [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.csun.edu/~hcfll004/armybibl.html#general


The Roman Navy of the First Punic War 1 - Intro 2 - War Begins 3 - Roman Fleets 4 - Quinqueremes 5 - Tactics 6 - Spring 260 7 - Corvus 8 - Mylae & Duilius 9 - 259-257 10 - Fleet Sizes 11 - Ecnomus 12 - Tactics at Ecnomus 13 - Ecnomus 3 14 - Siege of Lilybaeum 15 - Drepanum 16 - 247 17 - Aegates Islands 18 - Results and Consequences Works Cited. Dan Diffendale. [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.archeologia.com/roman_navy/rn.html


The Second Punic War (218-202 BC). The Second Punic War, fought between Carthage and the Roman Republic from 218-202 BC, marked the end of major Carthaginian military opposition to Rome. The term "punic" comes from the Latin "poeni," which means "Phoenician" and refers to the Carthaginians. [North Park University]
http://campus.northpark.edu/history/WebChron/Mediterranean/2ndPunic.html


The Second Punic War (218-202 BC) Timeline Almost yearly timeline of events leading up to and through the Second Punic War. Also Livy`s analysis of the causes of the Second Punic War | Causes of the Second Punic War | Timeline of the Second Punic War | Alternative scenarios | After the Second Punic War
http://www.barca.fsnet.co.uk/punic2.htm


The Siege of Syracuse :Introduction. Courtesy of Drexel University [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.mcs.drexel.edu/~crorres/Archimedes/Siege/Summary.html


The Siege of Syracuse by Livy from Livy's History of Rome from its Foundation (59 BC-17 AD) . Translated by Aubrey de Selincourt, Penguin Books, New York, 1965 [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.mcs.drexel.edu/~crorres/Archimedes/Siege/Livy.html


The Siege of Syracuse by Polybius. Translated by Ian Scott-Kilvert, Penguin Books, New York, 1979 [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.mcs.drexel.edu/~crorres/Archimedes/Siege/Polybius.html


The Siege of Syracuse from Plutarch's Parallel Lives: Marcellus. Translated by Ian Scott-Kilvert,Penguin Books, New York, 1965 [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.mcs.drexel.edu/~crorres/Archimedes/Siege/Plutarch.html


The Spanish Wars By Julius Caesar. Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. From Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Military History]
http://classics.mit.edu/Caesar/spanish.html


Trajan's Column: A Record of the Dacian Campaign and a Monument to Logistics Courtesy of Lacus Curtius by Bill Thayer [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.ukans.edu/history/index/europe/ancient_rome/E/Gazetteer/Places/Europe/Italy/Lazio/Roma/Rome/Trajans_Column/home.html


Vicesima - Quarta Legion XXIV Media Atlantia "Legion XXIV Media Atlantia was established in 1997 to defend the frontiers of ancient Rome in the Mid Atlantic Region of North America. It is intended as a re-enactment unit to display Roman and other ancient military dress, battle tactics and history at faires, schools or other public functions." [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.legionxxiv.org/


Victori: The Roman Military "This web site is designed to help people interested in Roman history,particularly its military. Explore, and marvel at the wonder of efficiency, precision, and force that was the Roman Army!." Copyright © 1998 ThinkQuest Team 21665. All rights reserved [Rome] [Military History]
http://library.advanced.org/21665/enhanced/index.html


Warfare in Ancient Rome [General Ancient War Links]
http://members.tripod.com/macmel/main/ancientweb/ancient_pages/roman.htm


Warfare in the Ancient World Bibliography supplied by Hugh Elton Trinity College [Rome] [Military History]
http://www.fiu.edu/~eltonh/army.html


Warfare in the Ancient World (Bibliographies) [Weapons and Warfare] [Rome]
http://www.fiu.edu/~eltonh/army.html


Warfare in the Roman World Bibliography; General Works The Army of the Republic Legions, Augustus to Diocletian Auxiliaries, Augustus to Diocletian The Late Roman Army Fleet Guard Troops Recruiting Equipment Pay Logistics Enemies Strategy Collections of Papers Command
http://www.fiu.edu/~eltonh/warfare/rwarfare.html


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