Time Line (Mostly Historical)
BC343 Egypt: Artaxerxes III of Persia recaptures Egypt and founds the 31st dynasty, which lasts to 332. Rome: First Samnite War between Rome and the Samnites and Latins (to 341). 340 Macedonia conquers Thrace. 339 Greece: Fourth Sacred War, between Macedonia and Athens (to 338). 338 Philip of Macedon defeats Athenian and Theban forces at battle of Chaeronea. He unites all Greece under his rule. Rome: tribes and cities of Latin League revolt against Rome. Romans are victorious at Trifanum, and the League is dissolved. Persia: Artaxerxes lil is assassinated; succeeded by Darius lil (336-320). 336 Greece: Philip of Macedon is murdered. He is succeeded by his son, Alexander III, known as "the Great." 334 Alexander the Great begins campaign against Persia and defeats Darius III in Anatolia. 333 Alexander the Great defeats Darius III again at battle of Issus. He takes the city of Tyre after siege. End of Phoenician empire. 332 Alexander invades and conquers Egypt. Work begins on construction of his new city, Alexandria. 331 Alexander renews Persian campaign and defeats Darius III at Arbela. 330 Darius III is assassinated, leaving Alexander in control of Persia. 327 Alexander begins invasion of India. 326 Second Samnite War (to 304). Roman troops are defeated and humiliated. During the war Appius Claudius builds the Appian Way from Rome to Capua, near Naples, to help move Roman troops more easily to the war area. 323 Alexander dies at Babylon, aged 33. His body is buried at Alexandria, Egypt. Alexander the Great's generals argue over division of his empire (to 319). Ptolemy rules in Egypt (to 285). Hellenistic period begins (to 31). 321 India: Chandragupta founds Mauryan dynasty (to 184). 320 Judah: Ptolemy captures Jerusalem. Libya: Egypt takes Libya as a province. Syria: Seleucus, one of Alexander's generals, begins to take control. 310 Italy: The Etruscans join the Samnites in attacking Rome, but are defeated at Lake Vadimo. 307 Greece: Two of Alexander's generals rule the country, both taking the title of king as Antigonus I and Demetrius I. Other governors follow their example. 306 A trade treaty is agreed between Rome and Carthage. 305 Egypt: Ptolemy I takes the title of king. Babylon: Seleucus I becomes king, founding Seleucid dynasty. 304 Italy: Rome makes peace with the Samnites and other enemies and gains land in area around Naples. India: Seleucus gives up his claim on India to Chandragupta in exchange for 500 elephants. 301 Central America: Mayan civilization begins to spread south. Greece: Antigonus I killed in battle of Issus against Seleucus I and his allies. Seleucus rules Syria, and Ptolemy rules Palestine and Egypt. 300 Treaty between Rome and Carthage. 298 Gauls join Samnites and Latins against Rome in the Third Samnite War (to 290). It ends in Roman victory. 287 Rome: Full equality between patricians and plebeians is agreed. Greece: Birth of Archimedes, mathematician (dies 212). 285 Egypt: Reign of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (to 246). 276 Greece: Antigonus II Gonatus rules (to 239) c. 276 Greece: Birth of Euclid, mathematician (dies 194) 273 India: King Asoka rules Mauryan empire (to 232), uniting central and northern India. He becomes a Buddhist. 264 First Punic War between Rome and Carthage (to 241) begins a century of struggle for control of the Mediterranean. 254 Rome takes Panormus in Sicily from Carthage. 250 Judea is part of Ptolemaic empire based in Egypt (to 198). Hebrew scriptures are translated into Greek. Apollonius a Greek mathematician begins work in astronomy (to 220). 246 Egypt: Ptolemy III rules (to 221). 241 Peace between Rome and Carthage. Sicily becomes first Roman province. 238 Carthaginians begin conquest of Spain. 237 Rome: Birth of Scipio Africanus, the general who leads Rome in the Second Punic War (dies 183). 225 Romans defeat Celts at Telamon in Italy. 223 Antiochus III, the Great, succeeds his father and restores power of Seleucid empire (to 187). 221 China: Qin dynasty unites the country for the first time in one empire (to 207). Greece: Philip V rules Macedonia (to 179). Egypt: Ptolemy IV Philopater rules (to 203). 218 Second Punic War (to 202). Hannibal crosses the Alps with elephants. 217 Hannibal defeats Roman army at Lake Trasimene in Italy. 216 Hannibal wins another great victory, at Cannae, inflicting one of the worst defeats the Romar s suffer. 215 Hannibal is defeated by the Roman, Marcellus, at Nola in southern Italy. 214 Rome: Marcellus begins conquest of Sicily, completed in 210. China: Constructionof the Great Wall begins. 212 China: To maintain his position of power the emperor, Shi Huangdi, has all historical documents burned and books are banned. After this time a silk-based material is used for writing on, and Chinese script is standardized. 211 First Macedonian War, in which the Macedonians and the Carthaginians fight Rome (to 205). 206 Rome: Scipio defeats the Carthaginians in Spain. 205 Egypt: Reign of Ptolemy V Epiphanes (to 181). 203-201 Africa: Hannibal is recalled to Carthage to repel a Roman invasion by Scipio. Scipio defeats Hannibal at Zama and ends Second Punic War. Carthage surrenders Spain and Mediterranean lands and Carthaginian fleet is destroyed. 202 China: Reign of the Han dynasty (to A.D. 9), founded by Lui Pang. 200 Second Macedonian War between Greeks and Philip V of Macedon (to 196). With the help of the Romans, the Greeks are victorious, and Philip is forced to surrender Greece. 198 Judea part of Seleucid empire under Antiochus III and IV (to 166). 196 Hannibalis political reforms in Carthage make him unpopular. His enemies force him to flee into exile. 192 Syrian War (to 189). Antiochus III defeated in war with Rome. 190 Greece: Birth of Hipparchus, astronomer (dies 120). c. 185 India: Last Mauryan king overthrown. 184 India: Reign of the Sunga dynasty (to 172), founded in the Ganges Valley, by Pushayanitra. 183 Hannibal commits suicide to avoid being captured by the Romans. 180 Egypt: Ptolemy VI Philometor rules (to 145). 180 Africa: early Meroitic writing appears. 179 Perseus, son of Philip V of Macedonia, continues war with Rome (to 167). 175 Antiochus IV Epiphanes is king of Seleucid empire (to 163). 171 Third Macedonian War (to 167). Macedonians under Perseus attack Rome once again. 170 Egypt: Antiochus IV invades the country and captures Ptolemy VI. The Egyptians proclaim his brother, Ptolemy Vl11 Euergetes, king. Antiochus withdraws, and the two brothers reign jointly. 168 In the battle of Pydna the Romans defeat the Macedonians and capture their leader, Perseus. 167 Judah: Antiochus begins persecution of the Jews. The Jewish Temple in Jerusalem is dedicated to the worship of the Greek god, Zeus. Judah: Jews, under the leadership of Judas Maccabeus, rebel against the persecution of Antiochus IV (to 164, when Jewish worship is restored). 160 Judah: Judas Maccabeus is killed in battle against Syrians. His brother, Jonathan, leads the Jews (to 143). 155 China: Early writings are compiled, including important Taoist manuscripts. 149 Third Punic War (to 146) leads to destruction of Carthage by Romans under Scipio the Younger. 149 Fourth Macedonian War (to 148). Macedon is conquered and becomes a Roman province. 145 Egypt: Ptolemy VII rules under the regency of his mother, Cleopatra II. Ptolemy VIII seizes the throne (to 116). 143 Judea: Simon Maccabeus, Judas's second brother, leads the Jews (to 134). 141 Judea: Jews liberate Jerusalem. Judea proclaimed an independent kingdom. 140 China: Emperor Wu Ti expands the empire (to 87). 135 First Servile War - revolt of Roman slaves in Sicily crushed (to 132). 134 Judea: John Hyrcanus, son of Simon Maccabeus, rules (to 104). 124 China: philosophical teachings of Confucius become official. 116 Egypt: PtolemyVIII dies; Ptolemaic empire is split up; years of strife follow. 111 China: Eastern and southern areas are subjugated (to 110). Africa: War breaks out between Rome and Jugurtha, King of Numidia. 110 India: Munda kings reign in the Deccan, central region (to 225 AD). 108 Wu Ti, emperor of China, conquers Korea. 106 Galus Marius elected Roman consul and sent to Africa. 105 Africa: Marius and Sulla defeat the Numidian Jugurtha. He is taken to Rome and executed. 104 Judea: Aristobulus I is king (to 103). 103 Judea: Alexander Janneus rules (to 76). Second Servile War (to 99) - a revolt by slaves in Rome. 100 China: A general history and standard religious texts are compiled, along with a list of Chinese literature. 91 War between Rome and Italian cities. 90 Judea: Revolt of Pharisees occurs. 89 Rome: Roman army under Sulla regains control of Italy; all Italians are granted Roman citizenship. 88 Anatolia: First Mithradatic War (to 84). Rome fights Mithradates IV of Pontus. 88 Civil war is waged in Rome (to 82). Sulla is victorious. 87 Anatolia: Sulla defeats Mithradates and takes Athens. China: Death of Wu Ti leads to a period of disorder. 83 Anatolia: Second Mithradatic War (to 81). Romans successfully invade Pontus. 82 Sulla becomes dictator of Rome. He launches a vicious attack on all his opponents and many are killed. 78 Rome: Sulla dies. Revolt of Lepidus is defeated by Pompey fhe Great, who rules with Crassus. 78 India: Most of northern India is under the rule of Kanishka l of Kushan dynasty (to 100 AD). 76 Judea: Saiome- 41exandra rules (to 67). 74 Anatolia: Third: Mithradatic War (to 64). Mithradates takes Bithynia, which Rome claims. 73 Anatolia: Lucullus and the Roman army defeat Mithradates and occupy Pontus. Rome: Spartacus leads slave revolt in Third Servile War (to 71); it is crushed by Pompey and Crassus. 70 Rome: Birth of Virgil, poet (dies 19 B.C.). His most famous work is the Aeneid, the story of Aeneas after the fall of Troy. 67 Judea: Hyrcanus II rules. Civil war breaks out between his forces and those of his brother Aristobulus II. 65 Pompey and the Roman army invade Syria and conquer Palestine. Rome: Birth of Horace (dies 8 B.C.), poet and satirist. He wrote Ars Poetica and Odes. 63 Judea: Pompey captures Jerusalem, annexes Syria and Judea. Aristobulus II, King of Judea, dies; Mithradates IV of Syria commits suicide; and Hyrcanus II becomes high priest of Judea. 61 Rome: Julius Caesar wins his first major victories, in Spain. 60 Triumvirate joint rule by three people) of Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus in Rome. 58 Caesar is appointed governor of Gaul, part of present day France. (The Gauls are a branch of the Celts.) 55 Caesar conquers northern Gaul and attempts unsuccessfully to invade Britain. 54 Second invasion of Britain by Caesar. Cassivellaunus, a powerful British leader, agrees to pay tribute to Rome. 53 Crassus is killed at battle of Carrhae against the Parthians. 52 Pompey appointed sole consul in Rome. Gauls rebel under their leader Vercingetorix, but are crushed by the Romans. 51 Caesar completes conquest of Gaul. Egypt: Cleopatra VII and her brother, Ptolemy XIII, become joint rulers of Egypt. 50 Rome: Rivalry between Caesar and Pompey comes to a head. Buddhism spreads along the Silk Road to China from India. 49 Senate orders Caesar to give up control of Gaul. He crosses the Rubicon into Italy to start civil war. Pompey flees to Greece. 48 Caesar defeats Pompey at Pharsalus in Greece. Pompey flees to Egypt. 47 Pompey is assassinated, possibly by order of Cleopatra. Caesar conquers Cleopatra?s enemies. Judea: Antipater becomes procurator of Judea; his son Herod becomes governor of Galilee. 45 Rome: Caesar defeats Pompey's son, Sextus, in Africa and crushes a mutiny in the Tenth Legion. He becomes virtual dictator of Rome. Caesar introduces Julian calendar and adopts his nephew, Octavian, as his heir. 44 Caesar is assassinated by a group of Romans led by Brutus and Cassius. 43 Rome: Second Triumvirate is formed by Octavian, Mark Antony, and Marcus Lepidus. Birth of Ovid, the poet who wrote Metamorphoses (dies 17 AD). Cicero, the orator, is put to death for denouncing Mark Antony. 42 Rome: Triumvirate defeats Brutus and Cassius at the battle of Philippi. 37 Judea: Reign of Herod the Great (to 4 BC). Rome: Triumvirate is renewed for five years. Mark Antony, already married to Octavia (the sister of Octavian), also marries Queen Cleopatra of Egypt. 36 Octavian's fleet defeats that of Pompey's son, Sextus. 32 Octavian declares war on Antony and Cleopatra. 31 Battle of Actium, at which Octavian defeats Antony and Cleopatra. 30 Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide. Octavian declares Egypt a Roman province. 27 Rome: Octavian given supreme power by the Roman Senate, thus effectively ending the Roman Republic. He takes the title Augustus and becomes the first emperor of Rome (to 14 AD). 15 Roman empire extended to the upper Danube. 12 Revolt in Pannonia (part of present-day Slovenia) quelled by Augustus' stepson, Nero. 5 Judea: Probable year of birth of Jesus of Nazareth, at Bethlehem. 4 Judea: Herod the Great dies; his kingdom is split between his three sons. AD 5 Rome acknowledges Cymbeline King of Britain. China: Wang Mang establishes the short Hsin dynasty (to 23). 14 Rome: Augustus dies and is succeeded by Tiberius Caesar. 23 Rome: Birth of Pliny, writer (dies 79). 25 China: Reign of later Han dynasty (to 220). 26 Judea: Pontius Pilate is procurator (to 36). 27 Jesus is baptized by John the Baptist. 30 Crucifixion of Jesus. 31 Martyrdom of St. Stephen. 32 Saul is converted to Christianity and becomes Paul. 37 Rome: Tiberius dies and is succeeded by Caligula (to 41 AD). Judea: Herod Agrippa becomes king of northern Palestine. 41 Rome: Assassination of Caligula. Claudius becomes emperor (to 54 AD), 42 Mauretania (modern Morocco) becomes a province of Rome. 43 Britain: Romans invade under Aulus Plautius. China: Ma Yuan conquers Tonkin and Annam. 45 Paul begins his missionary journeys in the eastern Mediterranean to spread Christianity. China: Birth of Pan Chao, (sister of General Ban Chao), historian, poet, astronomer, mathematician, and educator (dies 115). 54 Rome: Claudius is assassinated; succeeded by Nero (to 68). 58 China: Emperor Ming Ti introduces Buddhism. 61 Britain: Boudicca (Boadicea) of the Iceni leads a revolt against the Romans. It fails and Boudicca dies. 64 Rome: Fire destroys the city of Rome. The Christians are blamed for it and they are subsequently persecuted. St. Peter is executed. 65 St. Mark's Gospel is written. 66 Jewish revolt against the Romans (to 70). 67 Martyrdom of St. Paul. 68 Rebellion in Rome. Nero commits suicide. 69 Rome: "Year of the Four Emperors:" Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian. Vespasian defeats Vjtellius to become emperor of Rome (to 79). Founds Flavian dynasty of emperors. 70 Titus (Vespasian's son) destroys Jerusalem and suppresses Jewish revolt. First Diaspora (expulsion of Jews) takes place. St. Matthew's Gospel is written. 73 Jewish stronghold at Masada falls to the Romans. 74 China: General Ban Chao brings states of Turkestan to submission and opens silk trade to the Roman empire (to 94). 75 St. Luke's Gospel is written. 77 Britain: Agricola governs Britain (to 84). 78 India Second Kushan dynasty (to 96).
The Life of Jesus
"I marvel that whereas the ambitious dreams of myself, Caesar, and Alexander should have vanished into thin air, a Judean peasant - Jesus should be able to stretch his hands across the centuries and control the destinies of men and nations." - Napoleon I Bonaparte (1809)
The Birth of John the Baptist
The History of the Birth of Jesus
NazarethGabriel Announces to Mary (Lk 1:26-38).
BethlehemThe Decree of Augustus Caesar and the Birth of Christ (Lk 2:1-7). The Second Visitors - Magi (Mat 2:1-12).
JerusalemJesus is Circumcised and Presented in the Temple (Lk 2:21-38).
EgyptOut of Egypt (Mat 2:13-23).
Jesus' Early YearsJerusalem
The JordanJesus is Baptized in the Jordan (Mat 3:13-17; Mk 1:9-11; Lk 3:21-23).
The WildernessThe Temptation in the Wilderness (Mat 4:1-11; Mk 1:12, 13; Lk 4:1-13). The Testimony of John (Jn 1:19-34).
The First PassoverJerusalem A House of Merchandise (Jn 2:13-25). Jesus Baptizes (Jn 3:22, with 4:2).
GalileeHe Departed Again to Galilee (Mat 4:12; Mk 1:14; Lk 4:14; Jn 4:1-3).
SamariaThe Woman at the Well (Jn 4:4-42). Physician, Heal Yourself! (Mat 4:13-16; Lk 4:16-31).
Sea of GalileePeter, Andrew, James, and John (Mat 4:18-22; Mk 1:16-20; Lk 5:1-11).
GalileeAnd Jesus Went About All Galilee . . Teaching (Mat 4:23-25; Mk 1:35-39, Lk 4:42-44). Then a Leper Came to Him (Mat 8:2-4; Mk 1:40-45; Lk 5:12- 16).
JerusalemHealing at the Pool of Bethesda on the Sabbath Day (Jn 5:1-47). And in His Name Gentiles Will Trust (Mat 12:15-21; Mk 3:7-12) The Sermon on the Mount (Mat 5-7; Lk 6:20-49). My Yoke is Easy and My Burden is Light (Mat 11:20-30).
CapernaumThe Woman With the Alabaster Flask (Lk 7:36-50). The Blasphemy of the Holy Spirit (Mat 12:22-37; Mk 3: 19-30; Lk 11:14-20). Woe to You, Scribes and Pharisees, Hypocrites (Lk 11:37-54). Parable of the Fig Tree (Lk 13:6-9). Many Such Parables (Mat 13:24-53; Mk 4:26-34).
Sea of GalileeJesus Rebukes the Storm (Mat 8:18-27; Mk 4:35-41; Lk 8:22-25). The Herd of Many Swine (Mat 8:28-33; Mk 5:1-21; Lk 8:26-40).
NazarethHe Came Again to His Own City (Mat 9:1; Mk 5:21 Lk 8:40). Jairus' Daughter and the Woman With the Flow of Blood (Mat 9:18-26; Mk 5:22-43; Lk 8:41-56). A Prophet is Not Without Honor Except in His Own Country (Mat 13:53-58; Mk 6:1-6). Sent His Disciples Out With Power and Authority (Mat 10; Mk 6:6-13, Lk 9:1-6).
MachaerusJohn the Baptist is Beheaded (Mat 14:1, 2, 6-12, Mk 6:14-16, 21-29; Lk 9:7-9).
Near BethsaidaThe Disciples Return, Feeding Five Thousand (Mat 14:13-21; Mk 6:30-44; Lk 9:10-17, Jn 6:1-14).
Sea of GalileeThey Saw Him Walking on the Sea (Mat 14:22-36; Mk 6:45-56; Jn 6:15-21).
Do you also want to go away? (Jn 6:66-71). A Woman of Canaan (Mat 15:21-28; Mk 7:24-30). Feeding Four Thousand (Mat 15:32-39; Mk 8:1-9). And He Was Transfigured (Mat 17:1-13; Mk 9:2-13; Lk 9:28-36). Speaks Again of His Death (Mat 17:22, 23; Mk 9:30-32; Lk 9:43-45).
CapernaumMiracle of the Coin in the Fish's Mouth (Mat 17:24-27). He Who is Not Against Us is On Our Side (Mk 9:38, 39; Lk 9:49, 50).
The Feast of TabernaclesJerusalem The Lord Appointed Seventy Others (Lk 10:1-16). Teaches in the Temple at the Feast of Tabernacles (Jn 7:14-53; 8:1-59). The Report of the Seventy (Lk 10:17-24).
BethanyThe House of Mary and Martha (Lk 10:38-42).
JerusalemI Was Blind, Now I See (Jn 9:1-41). They Picked Up Stones To Stone Him (Jn 10:22-39).
BethabaraBeyond the Jordan (Jn 10:40-42; 11:3-16).
BethanyJesus Raises Lazarus from the Dead (Jn 11:1-46).
EphraimThe Declaration of Caiaphas (Jn 11:47-54).
JudeaThe Woman Who Was Bent Over (Mat 19:1, 2; Mk 10:1; Lk 13:10-35). Count the Cost (Lk 14:25-35). Exposes the Hypocrisy of the Pharisees (Lk 16:14-18). Increase Our Faith (Lk 17:1-10). Marriage and Divorce (Mat 19:3-12; Mk 10:2-12). Rich Young Ruler (Mat 19:16-22; Mk 10:17-22; Lk 18:18-24). Again Foretelling His Death (Mat 20:17-19; Mk 10:32-34; Lk 18:31-34). Zacchaeus who was a Chief Tax Collector (Lk 19:1-10). Jesus Enters the Temple (Mat 21:12, Mk 11:11; Lk 19:45). The Blind and Lame Came to Him (Mat 21:14). The Withered Fig Tree (Mat 21:17-22; Mk 11:12-14, 20-22). The Parable of the Vinedressers (Mat 21:33-46; Mk 12:1-12; Lk 20:9-19); The Parable of the Great Supper (Mat 22:1-14; Lk 14:16-24). Tested By the Sadducees (Mat 22:23-33; Mk 12:18-27; Lk 20:27-40); Beware of the Scribes and the Pharisees (Mat 23; Mk 12:38-40; Lk 20:45-47). The Prophecy of Isaiah About their Blindness (Jn 12:37-50). He Saw the City and Wept Over It (Mat 23:37; Lk 19:41-44). The Sheep and the Goats (Mat 25:31-46).
JerusalemThe Last Passover (Mat 26:17-30; Mk 14:12-25; Lk 22:7-20). The Hand of My Betrayer is With Me (Mat 26:23; Mk 14:18-21; Lk 22:21; Jn 13:18). What You Do . . Do Quickly (Mat 26:21-25; Mk 14:18-21; Lk 22:21-23; Jn 13:21-30). Jesus' Intercession (Jn 17). Betrayed and Taken (Mat 26:47-56; Mk 14:43-54, 66-72; Lk 22:47-53; Jn 18:2-12). He Sent Him to Herod (Lk 23:6-12).
CrucifixionJoseph of Arimathea (Mat 27:57-66; Mk 15:42-47; Lk 23:50-56; Jn 19:31-42).
The ResurrectionHas Appeared to Simon (Lk 24:34; 1Cor 15:5).
Road to EmmausAppears to Two Disciples on the Road to Emmaus (Mk 16:12, 13: Lk 24:13-35).
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