HEBREW AND ARAMAIC
In the period between the writing of the Old and New Testaments HEBREW was replaced as the everyday language of the Jews by Aramaic. But the rabbis continued to use Hebrew in their learned deliberations, as we see from the Mishnah, the book of law written in that language. The majority of the Essene sect documents found among the Dead Sea Scrolls were written in Hebrew. When the actual words spoken are quoted in the New Testament they are often Aramaic, not Hebrew.
ARAMAIC is a Semitic language, originally used by the Aramaeans of Syria, which became widespread throughout the Near East as an international language. Because its alphabet was easier to use than the cumbersome cuneiform scripts used by the Assyrians and the Persians, they adopted it for diplomacy and commerce.
IMPERIAL ARAMAIC (700-200 BC) was quite uniform and is found on inscriptions from as far away as Anatolia and Afghanistan. Some passages in the Old Testament books of Ezra and of Daniel are written in this dialect. Other periods and dialects included:
MIDDLE ARAMAIC (200 BC-AD 200). After Alexander the Great had conquered the Near East and Greek had spread widely, various local dialects of Aramaic developed. From this period comes the Aramaic of the New Testament, of some of the Dead Sea Scrolls, of the Bar Cochba texts, of the Nabateans and of the Palmyreneans.
LATE ARAMAIC (AD 200-700). In this era the western branch of Aramaic included Samaritan, and Christian Palestinian Aramaic; the eastern branch included Syriac, Babylonian Talmudic Aramaic and Mandaic. When Jesus cried out on the cross 'My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?' (Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani), He was speaking Aramaic. Many words in the New Testament are transliterations from the Aramaic. Peter's name Cephas is from 'kepha' (rock); Thomas is from 'toma' (twin). 'Bar' the Aramaic word for (son) occurs in such names as Bartholomew, Bar- Jonas, Barabbas and Bartimaeus. (The Hebrew word for son is 'ben' ). Golgotha is from 'golgolta' (skull); and Maranatha comes from 'maran' (our Lord) and 'eta' (come).
Apart from some of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and the Bar-Cochba texts, only one extensive writing in Aramaic survives from Palestine in the New Testament period - the 'Megillat Tacanit' (The Scroll of Fasting). Almost all other Aramaic texts surviving are short inscriptions on the limestone boxes used for the deposit of the bones of the dead (ossuaries) dating from 100 BC to 70 AD. Of the twenty-nine inscribed ossuaries recovered on the Mount of Olives by one archaeologist, eleven were in Aramaic, seven in Hebrew and eleven in Greek.
Some time after the exile of the Jews to Babylon, Aramaic translations and paraphrases of the Hebrew Scriptures, called TARGUMS, were made for those who understood Aramaic better than Hebrew. We have targums for all the Old Testament books except Daniel, Ezra, and Nehemiah. The earliest extant targums are from Qumran on the Dead Sea. An extensive targum on portions of Job came from one cave and dates from 150-100 BC
The major- targum of the first five books of the Old Testament, the Pentateuch, is known as Onkelos. It is quite a literal translation of the Hebrew and seems to have originated in Palestine, but was Later edited in Babylonia between the second and fifth centuries AD. The major targum of the books of the prophets is known as Jonathan. It was modeled on Onkelos, but is a less literal translation.© 1995-1996 The Bible Knowledge Accelerator ( Registered )
An Outline of The Life of Jesus in Harmony
"I marvel that whereas the ambitious dreams of myself, Caesar, and Alexander should have vanished into thin air, a Judean peasant - Jesus should be able to stretch his hands across the centuries and control the destinies of men and nations." - Napoleon I Bonaparte (1809)
The Birth of John the Baptist
Gabriel Announces John's Birth (Lk 1:5-25)
The History of the Birth of Jesus
The Genealogy of Jesus (Mat 1:1-17; Lk 3:23-38).
NazarethGabriel Announces to Mary (Lk 1:26-38).
Mary Visits Elizabeth (Lk 1:39-56).
An Angel Comes to Joseph (Mat 1:18-25)
BethlehemThe Decree of Augustus Caesar and the Birth of Christ (Lk 2:1-7).
The First Visitors - Shepherds (Lk 2:8-20).The Second Visitors - Magi (Mat 2:1-12).
JerusalemJesus is Circumcised and Presented in the Temple (Lk 2:21-38).
EgyptOut of Egypt (Mat 2:13-23).
Jesus' Early YearsJerusalem
The Boy Jesus at the Temple (Lk 2:41-52).The Beginning of His Ministry
The JordanJesus is Baptized in the Jordan (Mat 3:13-17; Mk 1:9-11; Lk 3:21-23).
The WildernessThe Temptation in the Wilderness (Mat 4:1-11; Mk 1:12, 13; Lk 4:1-13).
The Eternal Word (Jn 1:1-18).The Testimony of John (Jn 1:19-34).
The First Disciples (Jn 1:35-51).Cana
Turning Water to Wine (Jn 2:1-12).Jesus Visits Jerusalem
The First PassoverJerusalem
A House of Merchandise (Jn 2:13-25).
Unless One is Born Again (Jn 3:1-21).Jesus Baptizes (Jn 3:22, with 4:2).
GalileeHe Departed Again to Galilee (Mat 4:12; Mk 1:14; Lk 4:14; Jn 4:1-3).
SamariaThe Woman at the Well (Jn 4:4-42).
Jesus' Ministry in GalileeGalilee
He Taught in Their Synagogues (Mt 4:17; Mk 1:14,15; Lk 4:14,15; Jn 4:43-45).Nazareth
A Certain Nobleman (Jn 4:46-54)Physician, Heal Yourself! (Mat 4:13-16; Lk 4:16-31).
Sea of GalileePeter, Andrew, James, and John (Mat 4:18-22; Mk 1:16-20; Lk 5:1-11).
GalileeAnd Jesus Went About All Galilee . . Teaching (Mat 4:23-25; Mk 1:35-39, Lk 4:42-44).
A Man With an Unclean Spirit (Mk 1:21-28; Lk 4:31-37).Capernaum
Simon's Wife's Mother Lay Sick (Mat 8:14-17; Mk 1:29-34; Lk 4:38-41).Then a Leper Came to Him (Mat 8:2-4; Mk 1:40-45; Lk 5:12- 16).
They Brought to Him a Paralytic (Mat 9:2-8; Mk 2:1-12; Lk 5:17-26).Capernaum
Matthew the Tax Collector (Mat 9:9; Mk 2:13, 14; Lk 5:27, 28).The Second Passover
JerusalemHealing at the Pool of Bethesda on the Sabbath Day (Jn 5:1-47).
Healing in the Synagogue on the Sabbath Day (Mat 12:9-14; Mk 3:1-6, Lk 6:6-11).And in His Name Gentiles Will Trust (Mat 12:15-21; Mk 3:7-12)
Then He Appointed Twelve (Mat 10:2-4; Mk 3:13-19; Lk 6: 12-19).The Sermon on the Mount (Mat 5-7; Lk 6:20-49).
A Certain Centurion's Servant (Mat 8:5-13; Lk 7:1-10).Nain
Jesus Raises the Dead Son at Nain (Lk 7:11-17).
Are You the Coming One? (Mat 11:2-19; Lk 7:18-35).My Yoke is Easy and My Burden is Light (Mat 11:20-30).
CapernaumThe Woman With the Alabaster Flask (Lk 7:36-50).
Mary Called Magdalene (Lk 8:1-3).The Blasphemy of the Holy Spirit (Mat 12:22-37; Mk 3: 19-30; Lk 11:14-20).
Teacher, We Want to See a Sign From You (Mat 12:38-45; Lk 11:16-36).Woe to You, Scribes and Pharisees, Hypocrites (Lk 11:37-54).
He Began to Say to His Disciples (Lk 12:1-59).Parable of the Fig Tree (Lk 13:6-9).
Parable of the Sower (Mat 13:1-23; Mk 4:1-25; Lk 8:4-18).Many Such Parables (Mat 13:24-53; Mk 4:26-34).
Sea of GalileeJesus Rebukes the Storm (Mat 8:18-27; Mk 4:35-41; Lk 8:22-25).
The Herd of Many Swine (Mat 8:28-33; Mk 5:1-21; Lk 8:26-40).
NazarethHe Came Again to His Own City (Mat 9:1; Mk 5:21 Lk 8:40).
The Parable of the Wineskins (Mat 9:10-17; Mk 2:15-22; Lk 5:29-39).Jairus' Daughter and the Woman With the Flow of Blood (Mat 9:18-26; Mk 5:22-43; Lk 8:41-56).
The Blind and the Mute (Mat 9:27-34).A Prophet is Not Without Honor Except in His Own Country (Mat 13:53-58; Mk 6:1-6).
He Was Moved With Compassion For Them (Mat 9:35-38)Sent His Disciples Out With Power and Authority (Mat 10; Mk 6:6-13, Lk 9:1-6).
MachaerusJohn the Baptist is Beheaded (Mat 14:1, 2, 6-12, Mk 6:14-16, 21-29; Lk 9:7-9).
Near BethsaidaThe Disciples Return, Feeding Five Thousand (Mat 14:13-21; Mk 6:30-44; Lk 9:10-17, Jn 6:1-14).
Sea of GalileeThey Saw Him Walking on the Sea (Mat 14:22-36; Mk 6:45-56; Jn 6:15-21).
I Am the Bread of Life (Jn 6:22-65).Do you also want to go away? (Jn 6:66-71).
Unwashed Hands (Mat 15:1-20; Mk 7:1-23).A Woman of Canaan (Mat 15:21-28; Mk 7:24-30).
Then Great Multitudes Came to Him (Mat 15:29-31, Mk 7:31-37).Feeding Four Thousand (Mat 15:32-39; Mk 8:1-9).
Seeking From Him a Sign From Heaven (Mat 16:1-4; Mk 8:10-12).
The Leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees (Mat 16:4-12; Mk 8:13-21).Bethsaida
Heals a Blind Man at Bethsaida (Mk 8:22-26).Caesarea Philippi
Jesus Reveals Who He is at Caesarea Philippi (Mat 16:13-20; Mk 8:27-30; Lk 9:18-21).
He Must Go to Jerusalem and Be Killed (Mat 16:21-28; Mk 8:31-38; 9:1; Lk 9:21-27).And He Was Transfigured (Mat 17:1-13; Mk 9:2-13; Lk 9:28-36).
And Jesus Rebuked the Demon (Mat 17:14-21; Mk 9:14-29; Lk 9:37-43).Speaks Again of His Death (Mat 17:22, 23; Mk 9:30-32; Lk 9:43-45).
CapernaumMiracle of the Coin in the Fish's Mouth (Mat 17:24-27).
Which One is the Greatest? (Mat 18:1-35; Mk 9:33-50; Lk 9:46-50).He Who is Not Against Us is On Our Side (Mk 9:38, 39; Lk 9:49, 50).
The Feast of TabernaclesJerusalem
Set His Face to Go to Jerusalem (Lk 9:51-62; Jn 7:2-11).The Lord Appointed Seventy Others (Lk 10:1-16).
The Ten Lepers (Lk 17:11-19).Teaches in the Temple at the Feast of Tabernacles (Jn 7:14-53; 8:1-59).
The Parable of the Good Samaritan (Lk 10:25-37).The Report of the Seventy (Lk 10:17-24).
BethanyThe House of Mary and Martha (Lk 10:38-42).
Jesus Teaches His Disciples to Pray (Lk 11:1-13).The Feast of Dedication
JerusalemI Was Blind, Now I See (Jn 9:1-41).
My Sheep Hear My Voice (Jn 9:39-41; 10:1-21).They Picked Up Stones To Stone Him (Jn 10:22-39).
BethabaraBeyond the Jordan (Jn 10:40-42; 11:3-16).
BethanyJesus Raises Lazarus from the Dead (Jn 11:1-46).
EphraimThe Declaration of Caiaphas (Jn 11:47-54).
JudeaThe Woman Who Was Bent Over (Mat 19:1, 2; Mk 10:1; Lk 13:10-35).
Take the Lowest Seat (Lk 14:1-24).Count the Cost (Lk 14:25-35).
More Parables, Prodigal Son (Lk 15:1-32; 16:1-13).Exposes the Hypocrisy of the Pharisees (Lk 16:14-18).
The Rich Man and Lazarus (Lk 16:19-31).Increase Our Faith (Lk 17:1-10).
Teaches the Pharisees About the Coming of the Kingdom (Lk 17:20-37).
The Pharisee and the Tax Collector (Lk 18:1-14).Marriage and Divorce (Mat 19:3-12; Mk 10:2-12).
Let the Little Children Come to Me (Mat 19:13-15; Mk 10:13-16; Lk 18:15-17).Rich Young Ruler (Mat 19:16-22; Mk 10:17-22; Lk 18:18-24).
The Parable of the Vineyard (Mat 20:1-16).Again Foretelling His Death (Mat 20:17-19; Mk 10:32-34; Lk 18:31-34).
Can I Sit at Your Right Hand? (Mat 20:20-28; Mk 10:35-45).Jericho
Blind Bartimaeus (Mat 20:29-34; Mk 10:46-50; Lk 18:35-43).Zacchaeus who was a Chief Tax Collector (Lk 19:1-10).
The Parable of the Minas (Lk 19:11-28).Bethany
Mary Anoints the Feet of Jesus (Jn 12:1-9).Jerusalem
Triumphal Entry into Jerusalem(Mat 21:1-11; Mk 11:1-11; Lk 19:29-44; Jn 12:12-19). Jesus Enters the Temple (Mat 21:12, Mk 11:11; Lk 19:45).
Drives the Vendors Out of the Temple (Mat 21:12, 13; Lk 19:45, 46).The Blind and Lame Came to Him (Mat 21:14).
He Was Teaching Daily in the Temple (Lk 19:47, 48).The Withered Fig Tree (Mat 21:17-22; Mk 11:12-14, 20-22).
The Parable of the Two Sons (Mat 21:28-31);The Parable of the Vinedressers (Mat 21:33-46; Mk 12:1-12; Lk 20:9-19);
The Parable of the Great Supper (Mat 22:1-14; Lk 14:16-24).
Tested By the Pharisees (Mat 22:15-22; Mk 12:13-17; Lk 20:20-26).Tested By the Sadducees (Mat 22:23-33; Mk 12:18-27; Lk 20:27-40);
Tested By a Lawyer (Mat 22:34-40; Mk 12:28-34).Beware of the Scribes and the Pharisees (Mat 23; Mk 12:38-40; Lk 20:45-47).
A Certain Poor Widow (Mk 12:41-44; Lk 21:1-4).The Prophecy of Isaiah About their Blindness (Jn 12:37-50).
Foretells the Destruction of the Temple and Jerusalem (Mat 24; Mk 13; Lk 21:5-36).He Saw the City and Wept Over It (Mat 23:37; Lk 19:41-44).
The Parables of the Ten Virgins and The Talents (Mat 25:1-30).The Sheep and the Goats (Mat 25:31-46).
Anointed with the Flask of Spikenard (Mat 26:6-13; Mk 14:3-9; Jn 12:1-8).The Last Passover
JerusalemThe Last Passover (Mat 26:17-30; Mk 14:12-25; Lk 22:7-20).
Began to Wash the Disciples' Feet (Jn 13:1-17).The Hand of My Betrayer is With Me (Mat 26:23; Mk 14:18-21; Lk 22:21; Jn 13:18).
What You Do . . Do Quickly (Mat 26:21-25; Mk 14:18-21; Lk 22:21-23; Jn 13:21-30).
Teaches About the Holy Spirit (Jn 14; 15; 16).Jesus' Intercession (Jn 17).
The Prayer in Gethsemane (Mat 26:30, 36-46; Mk 14:26, 32-42; Lk 22:39-46; Jn 18:1).Betrayed and Taken (Mat 26:47-56; Mk 14:43-54, 66-72; Lk 22:47-53; Jn 18:2-12).
The Trial (Mat 26:57, 58, 69-75; Mk 14:53, 54, 66-72; Lk 22:54-62; Jn 18:13-18, 25-27).
Delivered to Pilate (Mat 27:1, 2, 11-14; Mk 15:1-5; Lk 23:1-5; Jn 18:28-38).He Sent Him to Herod (Lk 23:6-12).
Tried Before Pilate (Mat 27:15-26; Mk 15:6-15; Lk 23:13-25; Jn 18:39, 40; 19:1-16).
Mocked by the Soldiers (Mat 27:27-31; Mk 15:16-20).
Led Him Away to be Crucified (Mat 27:31-34; Mk 15:20-23; Lk 23:26-32; Jn 19:16, 17).
Crucified (Mat 27:35-56; Mk 15:24-41; Lk 23:33-49; Jn 19:18-30).Joseph of Arimathea (Mat 27:57-66; Mk 15:42-47; Lk 23:50-56; Jn 19:31-42).
He is Risen (Mat 28:2-15, Mk 16:1-11 Lk 24:1-12; Jn 20:1-18).Has Appeared to Simon (Lk 24:34; 1Cor 15:5).
Road to EmmausAppears to Two Disciples on the Road to Emmaus (Mk 16:12, 13: Lk 24:13-35).
© 1995-1996 The Bible Knowledge Accelerator ( Registered )
The Life of Jesus