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Judea was part of the Hill Country though it contained four other regions, The coastal plain, the Shephelah (lowlands near the coast), the Negev (southland), and the wilderness. The hill country was a rough stony land with deep ravines rising 2500 feet to the open plateau where Jerusalem sat.
The wilderness was a bleak barren region where the Judean mountains on the east side slope down 4000 feet to the earth's lowest land trench, the Dead Sea region, which was about 1300 feet below sea-level. In New Testament times the Dead Sea Region was the area where, at Qumran, the Essene scribes had gathered or written the Dead Sea Scrolls and established a devout and separated community.
In New Testament times the population
of Judea was exclusively Jewish. Adorning the rocky plateau was the
city of Jerusalem with the beautiful Temple of Herod (not yet
completed) on Mount Zion. The rabbi's used to boldly say, "He who
has not seen Jerusalem in its beauty has not seen a beautiful great
city in his whole life, and he who has not seen the Second Temple
has not seen a handsome building in his life.
On the west side of the Temple Mount stood the palace of Herod, and north of that was the fortress of Antonia with its garrison of Roman auxiliary troops. It was there at the Antonia fortress that Pontius Pilate, the Roman governor had his residence.
The Bible Mentions a lot Concerning "Judaea"
Luke 3:1 - Now in the
fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being
governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of
Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the
region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene,
Luke 2:4 - And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judaea, unto the city of David, which is called Bethlehem; (because he was of the house and lineage of David:)
2 Corinthians 1:16 - And to pass by you into Macedonia, and to come again out of Macedonia unto you, and of you to be brought on my way toward Judaea.
Acts 28:21 - And they said unto him, We neither received letters out of Judaea concerning thee, neither any of the brethren that came shewed or spake any harm of thee.
Matthew 2:22 - But when he heard that Archelaus did reign in Judaea in the room of his father Herod, he was afraid to go thither: notwithstanding, being warned of God in a dream, he turned aside into the parts of Galilee:
Luke 6:17 - And he came down with them, and stood in the plain, and the company of his disciples, and a great multitude of people out of all Judaea and Jerusalem, and from the sea coast of Tyre and Sidon, which came to hear him, and to be healed of their diseases;
Acts 8:1 - And Saul was consenting unto his death. And at that time there was a great persecution against the church which was at Jerusalem; and they were all scattered abroad throughout the regions of Judaea and Samaria, except the apostles.
Luke 5:17 - And it came to pass on a certain day, as he was teaching, that there were Pharisees and doctors of the law sitting by, which were come out of every town of Galilee, and Judaea, and Jerusalem: and the power of the Lord was [present] to heal them.
Acts 9:31 - Then had the churches rest throughout all Judaea and Galilee and Samaria, and were edified; and walking in the fear of the Lord, and in the comfort of the Holy Ghost, were multiplied.
Luke 1:5 - There was in the days of Herod, the king of Judaea, a certain priest named Zacharias, of the course of Abia: and his wife [was] of the daughters of Aaron, and her name [was] Elisabeth.
Matthew 2:1 - Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaea in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem,
Mark 10:1 - And he arose from thence, and cometh into the coasts of Judaea by the farther side of Jordan: and the people resort unto him again; and, as he was wont, he taught them again.
Mark 13:14 - But when ye shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing where it ought not, (let him that readeth understand,) then let them that be in Judaea flee to the mountains:
Acts 1:8 - But ye shall receive power, after that the Holy Ghost is come upon you: and ye shall be witnesses unto me both in Jerusalem, and in all Judaea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth.
Acts 26:20 - But shewed first unto them of Damascus, and at Jerusalem, and throughout all the coasts of Judaea, and [then] to the Gentiles, that they should repent and turn to God, and do works meet for repentance.
Acts 2:14 - But Peter, standing up with the eleven, lifted up his voice, and said unto them, Ye men of Judaea, and all [ye] that dwell at Jerusalem, be this known unto you, and hearken to my words:
Acts 12:19 - And when Herod had sought for him, and found him not, he examined the keepers, and commanded that [they] should be put to death. And he went down from Judaea to Caesarea, and [there] abode.
1 Thessalonians 2:14 - For ye, brethren, became followers of the churches of God which in Judaea are in Christ Jesus: for ye also have suffered like things of your own countrymen, even as they [have] of the Jews:
Matthew 19:1 - And it came to pass, [that] when Jesus had finished these sayings, he departed from Galilee, and came into the coasts of Judaea beyond Jordan;
Luke 1:65 - And fear came on all that dwelt round about them: and all these sayings were noised abroad throughout all the hill country of Judaea.
Acts 2:9 - Parthians, and Medes, and Elamites, and the dwellers in Mesopotamia, and in Judaea, and Cappadocia, in Pontus, and Asia,
Matthew 4:25 - And there followed him great multitudes of people from Galilee, and [from] Decapolis, and [from] Jerusalem, and [from] Judaea, and [from] beyond Jordan.
Mark 1:5 - And there went out unto him all the land of Judaea, and they of Jerusalem, and were all baptized of him in the river of Jordan, confessing their sins.
Luke 21:21 - Then let them which are in Judaea flee to the mountains; and let them which are in the midst of it depart out; and let not them that are in the countries enter thereinto.
John 4:47 - When he heard that Jesus was come out of Judaea into Galilee, he went unto him, and besought him that he would come down, and heal his son: for he was at the point of death.
Acts 10:37 - That word, [I say], ye know, which was published throughout all Judaea, and began from Galilee, after the baptism which John preached;
Acts 11:29 - Then the disciples, every man according to his ability, determined to send relief unto the brethren which dwelt in Judaea:
Mark 3:7 - But Jesus withdrew himself with his disciples to the sea: and a great multitude from Galilee followed him, and from Judaea,
John 3:22 - After these things came Jesus and his disciples into the land of Judaea; and there he tarried with them, and baptized.
John 7:3 - His brethren therefore said unto him, Depart hence, and go into Judaea, that thy disciples also may see the works that thou doest.
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