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Tyre in Easton's
Bible Dictionary a rock, now es-Sur; an ancient Phoenician city, about 23 miles,
in a direct line, north of Acre, and 20 south of Sidon. Sidon was the oldest
Phoenician city, but Tyre had a longer and more illustrious history. The
commerce of the whole world was gathered into the warehouses of Tyre. "Tyrian
merchants were the first who ventured to navigate the Mediterranean waters; and
they founded their colonies on the coasts and neighbouring islands of the AEgean
Sea, in Greece, on the northern coast of Africa, at Carthage and other places,
in Sicily and Corsica, in Spain at Tartessus, and even beyond the pillars of
Hercules at Gadeira (Cadiz)" (Driver's Isaiah). In the time of David a friendly
alliance was entered into between the Hebrews and the Tyrians, who were long
ruled over by their native kings (2 Sam. 5:11; 1 Kings 5:1; 2 Chr. 2:3). Tyre
consisted of two distinct parts, a rocky fortress on the mainland, called "Old
Tyre," and the city, built on a small, rocky island about half-a-mile distant
from the shore. It was a place of great strength. It was besieged by Shalmaneser,
who was assisted by the Phoenicians of the mainland, for five years, and by
Nebuchadnezzar (B.C. 586-573) for thirteen years, apparently without success. It
afterwards fell under the power of Alexander the Great, after a siege of seven
months, but continued to maintain much of its commercial importance till the
Christian era. It is referred to in Matt. 11:21 and Acts 12:20. In A.D. 1291 it
was taken by the Saracens, and has remained a desolate ruin ever since. "The
purple dye of Tyre had a worldwide celebrity on account of the durability of its
beautiful tints, and its manufacture proved a source of abundant wealth to the
inhabitants of that city." Both Tyre and Sidon "were crowded with glass-shops,
dyeing and weaving establishments; and among their cunning workmen not the least
important class were those who were celebrated for the engraving of precious
stones." (2 Chr. 2:7,14). The wickedness and idolatry of this city are
frequently denounced by the prophets, and its final destruction predicted (Isa.
23:1; Jer. 25:22; Ezek. 26; 28:1-19; Amos 1:9, 10; Zech. 9:2-4). Here a church
was founded soon after the death of Stephen, and Paul, on his return from his
third missionary journey spent a week in intercourse with the disciples there
(Acts 21:4). Here the scene at Miletus was repeated on his leaving them. They
all, with their wives and children, accompanied him to the sea-shore. The
sea-voyage of the apostle terminated at Ptolemais, about 38 miles from Tyre.
Thence he proceeded to Caesarea (Acts 21:5-8). "It is noticed on monuments as
early as B.C. 1500, and claiming, according to Herodotus, to have been founded
about B.C. 2700. It had two ports still existing, and was of commercial
importance in all ages, with colonies at Carthage (about B.C. 850) and all over
the Mediterranean. It was often attacked by Egypt and Assyria, and taken by
Alexander the Great after a terrible siege in B.C. 332. It is now a town of
3,000 inhabitants, with ancient tombs and a ruined cathedral. A short Phoenician
text of the fourth century B.C. is the only monument yet recovered."
Sur. The Greeks called it "Tyros" and the ancient Assyrians called it "Zara." . Tyre was an ancient Phoenician city on an island close to the coast. Its wealth depended on trade. There was almost no place in the known world which Tyre did not have relations with. Taken by the Babylonians in 573 BC and by Alexander in 332 BC, who joined it to its mainland by building a man-made bridge, in fulfillment of prophecy. The rise of Alexandria is really the main cause of the decline of Tyre. It was under the yoke of the ptolemies in 273 BC and the freed by the Seleucids in 198 BC. Pompey proclaimed its autonomy in 126 BC after he conquered the city. It became again an important commercial city throughout the Roman period. Jesus visited Tyre (Mk 7:2 ff.). When Paul was journeying to Jerusalem he passed through Tyre where he there was already established a Christian community in the city (Acts 21:3-7). There was an early Roman catholic bishopric established there.
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1 Kings 9:11 -
([Now] Hiram the king of Tyre had
furnished Solomon with cedar trees and fir trees, and with gold, according to
all his desire,) that then king Solomon gave Hiram twenty cities in the land of
2 Chronicles 2:14 - The son of a woman of the daughters of Dan, and his father [was] a man of Tyre, skilful to work in gold, and in silver, in brass, in iron, in stone, and in timber, in purple, in blue, and in fine linen, and in crimson; also to grave any manner of graving, and to find out every device which shall be put to him, with thy cunning men, and with the cunning men of my lord David thy father.
Joshua 19:29 - And [then] the coast turneth to Ramah, and to the strong city Tyre; and the coast turneth to Hosah; and the outgoings thereof are at the sea from the coast to Achzib:
1 Kings 7:14 - He [was] a widow's son of the tribe of Naphtali, and his father [was] a man of Tyre, a worker in brass: and he was filled with wisdom, and understanding, and cunning to work all works in brass. And he came to king Solomon, and wrought all his work.
Acts 12:20 - And Herod was highly displeased with them of Tyre and Sidon: but they came with one accord to him, and, having made Blastus the king's chamberlain their friend, desired peace; because their country was nourished by the king's [country].
2 Chronicles 2:3 - And Solomon sent to Huram the king of Tyre, saying, As thou didst deal with David my father, and didst send him cedars to build him an house to dwell therein, [even so deal with me].
2 Chronicles 2:11 - Then Huram the king of Tyre answered in writing, which he sent to Solomon, Because the LORD hath loved his people, he hath made thee king over them.
1 Kings 5:1 - And Hiram king of Tyre sent his servants unto Solomon; for he had heard that they had anointed him king in the room of his father: for Hiram was ever a lover of David.
Isaiah 23:5 - As at the report concerning Egypt, [so] shall they be sorely pained at the report of Tyre.
Luke 10:13 - Woe unto thee, Chorazin! woe unto thee, Bethsaida! for if the mighty works had been done in Tyre and Sidon, which have been done in you, they had a great while ago repented, sitting in sackcloth and ashes.
2 Samuel 5:11 - And Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David, and cedar trees, and carpenters, and masons: and they built David an house.
Joel 3:4 - Yea, and what have ye to do with me, O Tyre, and Zidon, and all the coasts of Palestine? will ye render me a recompence? and if ye recompense me, swiftly [and] speedily will I return your recompence upon your own head;
Matthew 11:21 - Woe unto thee, Chorazin! woe unto thee, Bethsaida! for if the mighty works, which were done in you, had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes.
Acts 21:3 - Now when we had discovered Cyprus, we left it on the left hand, and sailed into Syria, and landed at Tyre: for there the ship was to unlade her burden.
Ezra 3:7 - They gave money also unto the masons, and to the carpenters; and meat, and drink, and oil, unto them of Zidon, and to them of Tyre, to bring cedar trees from Lebanon to the sea of Joppa, according to the grant that they had of Cyrus king of Persia.
Mark 3:8 - And from Jerusalem, and from Idumaea, and [from] beyond Jordan; and they about Tyre and Sidon, a great multitude, when they had heard what great things he did, came unto him.
Mark 7:31 - And again, departing from the coasts of Tyre and Sidon, he came unto the sea of Galilee, through the midst of the coasts of Decapolis.
1 Chronicles 22:4 - Also cedar trees in abundance: for the Zidonians and they of Tyre brought much cedar wood to David.
Luke 6:17 - And he came down with them, and stood in the plain, and the company of his disciples, and a great multitude of people out of all Judaea and Jerusalem, and from the sea coast of Tyre and Sidon, which came to hear him, and to be healed of their diseases;
Isaiah 23:17 - And it shall come to pass after the end of seventy years, that the LORD will visit Tyre, and she shall turn to her hire, and shall commit fornication with all the kingdoms of the world upon the face of the earth.
Isaiah 23:1 - The burden of Tyre. Howl, ye ships of Tarshish; for it is laid waste, so that there is no house, no entering in: from the land of Chittim it is revealed to them.
1 Chronicles 14:1 - Now Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David, and timber of cedars, with masons and carpenters, to build him an house.
Nehemiah 13:16 - There dwelt men of Tyre also therein, which brought fish, and all manner of ware, and sold on the sabbath unto the children of Judah, and in Jerusalem.
Isaiah 23:8 - Who hath taken this counsel against Tyre, the crowning [city], whose merchants [are] princes, whose traffickers [are] the honourable of the earth?
2 Samuel 24:7 - And came to the strong hold of Tyre, and to all the cities of the Hivites, and of the Canaanites: and they went out to the south of Judah, [even] to Beersheba.
Psalms 87:4 - I will make mention of Rahab and Babylon to them that know me: behold Philistia, and Tyre, with Ethiopia; this [man] was born there.
Psalms 45:12 - And the daughter of Tyre [shall be there] with a gift; [even] the rich among the people shall intreat thy favour.
Psalms 83:7 - Gebal, and Ammon, and Amalek; the Philistines with the inhabitants of Tyre;
Mark 7:24 - And from thence he arose, and went into the borders of Tyre and Sidon, and entered into an house, and would have no man know [it]: but he could not be hid.
Acts 21:7 - And when we had finished [our] course from Tyre, we came to Ptolemais, and saluted the brethren, and abode with them one day.
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