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Smiths Bible Dictionary (the habitation of peace), Jerusalem stands in latitude
31 degrees 46' 35" north and longitude 35 degrees 18' 30" east of Greenwich. It
is 32 miles distant from the sea and 18 from the Jordan, 20 from Hebron and 36
from Samaria. "In several respects," says Dean Stanley, "its situation is
singular among the cities of Israel. Its elevation is remarkable; occasioned not
from its being on the summit of one of the numerous hills of Judea, like most of
the towns and villages, but because it is on the edge of one of the highest
table-lands of the country. Hebron indeed is higher still by some hundred feet,
and from the south, accordingly (even from Bethlehem), the approach to Jerusalem
is by a slight descent. But from any other side the ascent is perpetual; and to
the traveller approaching the city from the east or West it must always have
presented the appearance beyond any other capital of the then known world --we
may say beyond any important city that has ever existed on the earth --of a
mountain city; breathing, as compared with the sultry plains of Jordan, a
mountain air; enthroned, as compared with jericho or Damascus, Gaza or Tyre, on
a mountain fastness." --S. & P. 170, 1. Jerusalem, if not actually in the centre
of Israel, was yet virtually so. "It was on the ridge, the broadest and most
strongly-marked ridge of the backbone of the complicated hills which extend
through the whole country from the plain of Esdraelon to the desert." Roads.
--There appear to have been but two main approaches to the city:-- 1. From the
Jordan valley by Jericho and the Mount of Olives. This was the route commonly
taken from the north and east of the country. 2. From the great maritime plain
of Philistia and Sharon. This road led by the two Beth-horons up to the high
ground at Gibeon, whence it turned south, and came to Jerusalem by Ramah and
Gibeah, and over the ridge north of the city. Topography. --To convey an idea of
the position of Jerusalem, we may say, roughly, that the city occupies the
southern termination of the table-land which is cut off from the country round
it on its West, south and east sides by ravines more than usually deep and
precipitous. These ravines leave the level of the table-land, the one on the
West and the other on the northeast of the city, and fall rapidly until they
form a junction below its southeast corner. The eastern one --the valley of the
Kedron, commonly called the valley of Jehoshaphat --runs nearly straight from
north by south. But the western one --the valley of Hinnom-- runs south for a
time, and then takes a sudden bend to the east until it meets the valley of
Jehoshaphat, after which the two rush off as one to the Dead Sea. How sudden is
their descent may be gathered from the fact that the level at the point of
junction -about a mile and a quarter from the starting-point of each-- is more
than 600 feet below that of the upper plateau from which they began their
descent. So steep...
el-Quds. Called Yerusalayim in Amarna Letters; probably same as Salem (Shalem) in Gen. 14:18; Canaanite (Jebusite) city, Josh. 10:1 ff; 15:8, 63; 18:28; Judg. 1:8; taken by David, 2 Sam. 5:6 ff, and became capital of kings of Judah, 2 Sam. 20:3; 1 Kgs. 2:36; 3:1; 9:19; 10:27; 2 Kgs. 14:13; threatened by the Assyrians, 2 Kgs. 18:35; taken and sacked by Babylonians, 2 Kgs. 24:10 ff, 25:l ff; restoration, Ezra 1:2 ff; 7:7, 15; Neh. 2:11 ff; Zech. 2:2 ff. Attacked by Antiochus Epiphanes, 1 Macc. 1:29 ff; cleansed by Maccabees (see 1 Macc. 4:36-60) 1 Macc. 6:7, but Greek citadel remained, 1 Macc. 10:7 ff; Hasmonean capital, 1 Macc. 10:10 ff; City of Herod the Great, Matt. 2:11; and religious centre of Judea in Roman times, Luke 2:41 ff; John 2:13 ff; Matt. 21:1 ff; Acts 1:4 ff; 15:2 ff; Gal. 1:18; 2:1.
See main topic of Jerusalem
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Ezra 6:3 -
In the first year of Cyrus the king [the same] Cyrus the king made a decree
[concerning] the house of God at Jerusalem,
Let the house be builded, the place where they offered sacrifices, and let the
foundations thereof be strongly laid; the height thereof threescore cubits,
[and] the breadth thereof threescore cubits;
1 Kings 12:27 - If this people go up to do sacrifice in the house of the LORD at Jerusalem, then shall the heart of this people turn again unto their lord, [even] unto Rehoboam king of Judah, and they shall kill me, and go again to Rehoboam king of Judah.
Zechariah 3:2 - And the LORD said unto Satan, The LORD rebuke thee, O Satan; even the LORD that hath chosen Jerusalem rebuke thee: [is] not this a brand plucked out of the fire?
2 Kings 12:18 - And Jehoash king of Judah took all the hallowed things that Jehoshaphat, and Jehoram, and Ahaziah, his fathers, kings of Judah, had dedicated, and his own hallowed things, and all the gold [that was] found in the treasures of the house of the LORD, and in the king's house, and sent [it] to Hazael king of Syria: and he went away from Jerusalem.
Jeremiah 44:9 - Have ye forgotten the wickedness of your fathers, and the wickedness of the kings of Judah, and the wickedness of their wives, and your own wickedness, and the wickedness of your wives, which they have committed in the land of Judah, and in the streets of Jerusalem?
Lamentations 2:13 - What thing shall I take to witness for thee? what thing shall I liken to thee, O daughter of Jerusalem? what shall I equal to thee, that I may comfort thee, O virgin daughter of Zion? for thy breach [is] great like the sea: who can heal thee?
2 Kings 19:21 - This [is] the word that the LORD hath spoken concerning him; The virgin the daughter of Zion hath despised thee, [and] laughed thee to scorn; the daughter of Jerusalem hath shaken her head at thee.
Isaiah 37:22 - This [is] the word which the LORD hath spoken concerning him; The virgin, the daughter of Zion, hath despised thee, [and] laughed thee to scorn; the daughter of Jerusalem hath shaken her head at thee.
Jeremiah 24:1 - The LORD shewed me, and, behold, two baskets of figs [were] set before the temple of the LORD, after that Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon had carried away captive Jeconiah the son of Jehoiakim king of Judah, and the princes of Judah, with the carpenters and smiths, fromJerusalem, and had brought them to Babylon.
1 Chronicles 29:27 - And the time that he reigned over Israel [was] forty years; seven years reigned he in Hebron, and thirty and three [years] reigned he in Jerusalem.
Ezra 5:17 - Now therefore, if [it seem] good to the king, let there be search made in the king's treasure house, which [is] there at Babylon, whether it be [so], that a decree was made of Cyrus the king to build this house of God at Jerusalem, and let the king send his pleasure to us concerning this matter.
Zechariah 14:4 - And his feet shall stand in that day upon the mount of Olives, which [is] before Jerusalem on the east, and the mount of Olives shall cleave in the midst thereof toward the east and toward the West, [and there shall be] a very great valley; and half of the mountain shall remove toward the north, and half of it toward the south.
Isaiah 40:9 - O Zion, that bringest good tidings, get thee up into the high mountain; O Jerusalem, that bringest good tidings, lift up thy voice with strength; lift [it] up, be not afraid; say unto the cities of Judah, Behold your God!
Isaiah 66:20 - And they shall bring all your brethren [for] an offering unto the LORD out of all nations upon horses, and in chariots, and in litters, and upon mules, and upon swift beasts, to my holy mountain Jerusalem, saith the LORD, as the children of Israel bring an offering in a clean vessel into the house of the LORD.
1 Kings 10:26 - And Solomon gathered together chariots and horsemen: and he had a thousand and four hundred chariots, and twelve thousand horsemen, whom he bestowed in the cities for chariots, and with the king at Jerusalem.
1 Chronicles 28:1 - And David assembled all the princes of Israel, the princes of the tribes, and the captains of the companies that ministered to the king by course, and the captains over the thousands, and captains over the hundreds, and the stewards over all the substance and possession of the king, and of his sons, with the officers, and with the mighty men, and with all the valiant men, unto Jerusalem.
2 Samuel 5:5 - In Hebron he reigned over Judah seven years and six months: and in Jerusalem he reigned thirty and three years over all Israel and Judah.
Jeremiah 52:13 - And burned the house of the LORD, and the king's house; and all the houses of Jerusalem, and all the houses of the great [men], burned he with fire:
Joshua 15:8 - And the border went up by the valley of the son of Hinnom unto the south side of the Jebusite; the same [is] Jerusalem: and the border went up to the top of the mountain that [lieth] before the valley of Hinnom westward, which [is] at the end of the valley of the giants northward:
2 Kings 25:8 - And in the fifth month, on the seventh [day] of the month, which [is] the nineteenth year of king Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, came Nebuzaradan, captain of the guard, a servant of the king of Babylon, unto Jerusalem:
1 Kings 2:11 - And the days that David reigned over Israel [were] forty years: seven years reigned he in Hebron, and thirty and three years reigned he inJerusalem.
2 Samuel 24:16 - And when the angel stretched out his hand upon Jerusalem to destroy it, the LORD repented him of the evil, and said to the angel that destroyed the people, It is enough: stay now thine hand. And the angel of the LORD was by the threshingplace of Araunah the Jebusite.
Ecclesiastes 1:16 - I communed with mine own heart, saying, Lo, I am come to great estate, and have gotten more wisdom than all [they] that have been before me in Jerusalem: yea, my heart had great experience of wisdom and knowledge.
2 Samuel 10:14 - And when the children of Ammon saw that the Syrians were fled, then fled they also before Abishai, and entered into the city. So Joab returned from the children of Ammon, and came to Jerusalem.
Ezekiel 17:12 - Say now to the rebellious house, Know ye not what these [things mean]? tell [them], Behold, the king of Babylon is come to Jerusalem, and hath taken the king thereof, and the princes thereof, and led them with him to Babylon;
1 Kings 14:21 - And Rehoboam the son of Solomon reigned in Judah. Rehoboam [was] forty and one years old when he began to reign, and he reigned seventeen years in Jerusalem, the city which the LORD did choose out of all the tribes of Israel, to put his name there. And his mother's name [was] Naamah an Ammonitess.
2 Kings 23:5 - And he put down the idolatrous priests, whom the kings of Judah had ordained to burn incense in the high places in the cities of Judah, and in the places round about Jerusalem; them also that burned incense unto Baal, to the sun, and to the moon, and to the planets, and to all the host of heaven.
2 Chronicles 34:3 - For in the eighth year of his reign, while he was yet young, he began to seek after the God of David his father: and in the twelfth year he began to purge Judah and Jerusalem from the high places, and the groves, and the carved images, and the molten images.
Jeremiah 17:26 - And they shall come from the cities of Judah, and from the places about Jerusalem, and from the land of Benjamin, and from the plain, and from the mountains, and from the south, bringing burnt offerings, and sacrifices, and meat offerings, and incense, and bringing sacrifices of praise, unto the house of the LORD.
Nehemiah 13:19 - And it came to pass, that when the gates of Jerusalem began to be dark before the sabbath, I commanded that the gates should be shut, and charged that they should not be opened till after the sabbath: and [some] of my servants set I at the gates, [that] there should no burden be brought in on the sabbath day.
Maps are essential for any serious Bible study, they help students of the Scriptures understand the geographical locations and historical backgrounds of the places mentioned in the Bible.
Map of NT Israel (Click to Enlarge)
Israel in the First Century
Map of Israel (First Century AD)