Idumea

B15 on the Map.

Edom in Smiths Bible Dictionary (red). The name Edom was given to Esau, the first-born son of Isaac and twin brother of Jacob, when he sold his birthright to the latter for a meal of lentil pottage. The country which the Lord subsequently gave to Esau was hence called "the country of Edom," Ge 32:3 and his descendants were called Edomites. Edom was called Mount Seir and Idumea also. Edom was wholly a mountainous country. It embraced the narrow mountainous tract (about 100 miles long by 20 broad) extending along the eastern side of the Arabah from the northern end of the Gulf of Elath to near the southern end of the Dead Sea. The ancient capital of Edom was Bozrah (Buseireh). Sela (Petra) appears to have been the principal stronghold in the days of Amaziah (B.C. 838). 2Ki 14:7 Elath and Ezion-geber were the seaports. 2Sa 8:14; 1Ki 9:26 History. --Esau's bitter hatred to his brother Jacob for fraudulently obtaining his blessing appears to have been inherited by his latest posterity. The Edomites peremptorily refused to permit the Israelites to pass through their land. Nu 20:18-21 For a period of 400 years we hear no more of the Edomites. They were then attacked and defeated by Saul, 1Sa 14:47 and some forty years later by David. 2Sa 8:13,14 In the reign of Jehoshaphat (B.c. 914) the Edomites attempted to invade Israel, but failed. 2Ch 20:22 They joined Nebuchadnezzar when that king besieged Jerusalem. For their cruelty at this time they were fearfully denounced by the later prophets. Isa 34:5-8; 63:1-4; Jer 49:17 After this they settled in southern Israel, and for more than four centuries continued to prosper. But during the warlike rule of the Maccabees they were again completely subdued, and even forced to conform to Jewish laws and rites, and submit to the government of Jewish prefects. The Edomites were now incorporated with the Jewish nation. They were idolaters. 2Ch 25:14,15,20 Their habits were singular. The Horites, their predecessors in Mount Seir, were, as their name implies, troglodytes, or dwellers in caves; and the Edomites seem to have adopted their dwellings as well as their country. Everywhere we meet with caves and grottos hewn in the soft sandstone strata.
http://www.bible-history.com/smiths/E/Edom,+Idumaea+or+Idumea/   


Region. Idumea was a Greek word meaning "pertaining to Edom". This term was given by the Greeks and Romans for the country of Edom on the S borders of Judea inhabited by Idumeans (Edomites) (Mark 3:8; Is 34:5-6; Ezek 35:15; 36:5). After the fall of Jerusalem (587 B.C.) the Edomites began to advance northward (Ezek 36:5). By 312 B.C. the Nabataeans, who established themselves in Edom, drove them from Petra. The Edomites were gradually forced into the S half of Judea, including the region around Hebron, an area that the Greeks later called Idumea.

Judas Maccabaeus warred against them and a half century later John Hyrcanus completely subdued them, imposed the rite of circumcision, and invoked the old Jewish law of assembly (Deut 23:7-8). Julius Caesar in 47 B.C. appointed an Idumean, Antipater, procurator of Judea, Samaria, and Galilee. Herod, son of Antipater, was crowned king of the Jews in 37 B.C. When Titus besieged Jerusalem in A.D. 70, the Idumeans joined the Jews in rebellion against Rome. Josephus says that 20,000 Idumeans "defended" the Holy City. Once they actually entered the city, they proceeded to rob and kill, but these traitors received the same fate as the few surviving Jews when Rome took over Jerusalem. Idumea, or Edom, ceased to exist.

Non-Biblical - 1 Macc. 4:61; 5:3;
Biblical - Mark 3:8. (In Isa. 34:5, Ezek. 35:15; 36:5, KJV, 'Idumea' stands for Edom).

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Idumea Scriptures

Isaiah 34:6 - The sword of the LORD is filled with blood, it is made fat with fatness, [and] with the blood of lambs and goats, with the fat of the kidneys of rams: for the LORD hath a sacrifice in Bozrah, and a great slaughter in the land of Idumea. 

Ezekiel 35:15 - As thou didst rejoice at the inheritance of the house of Israel, because it was desolate, so will I do unto thee: thou shalt be desolate, O mount Seir, and all Idumea, [even] all of it: and they shall know that I [am] the LORD. 

Ezekiel 36:5 - Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD; Surely in the fire of my jealousy have I spoken against the residue of the heathen, and against all Idumea, which have appointed my land into their possession with the joy of all [their] heart, with despiteful minds, to cast it out for a prey. 

Isaiah 34:5 - For my sword shall be bathed in heaven: behold, it shall come down upon Idumea, and upon the people of my curse, to judgment.     

Genesis 36:8 - Thus dwelt Esau in mount Seir: Esau [is] Edom.

 

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