The Procurators of Judaea
The following list of the
procurators of Judaea is based on Marquardt (Romische
Staatsverwaltung, I, 409, 412) and Schurer
(Geschichte des judischen Volkes (4), I, 485-585):
Coponius (6 AD to circa 10 AD)
M. Ambibulus (circa 10-13)
Annius Rufus (circa 13-15)
Valerius Gratus (circa 15-26)
Pontius Pilatus (26-35)
Marcellus (probably 35-38)
C. Cuspins Fadus (44-46)
Tiberius Alexander (46-48)
Ventidius Cumanus (48-52)
M. Antonius Felix (52-60 or 61)
NOTE.-Marquardt gives his name as Claudius Felix,
supposing that he was a freedman of Claudius and
therefore took his nomen (Suetonius, Claudius
xxviii; Victor, epitome iv, 8); but there is
stronger evidence in support of the belief that
Felix was a freedman of Antonia, Claudius' mother,
like his brother Pallas (Tacitus, Annals xii.54;
Josephus, Ant, XVI11, vi, 4; XX, vii, 1, 2; XX,
viii, 9; BJ, II, xii, 8), and accordingly had
received the praenomen and nomen of Antonia's father
(Josephus, Ant, XVIII, vi, 6).
Portius Festus (61)
Gessius Florus (65-66)
The Jewish High Priests
from 200 B.C to the Reign of Herod the Great
1. Simon II the Just, 220-190 B.C.
2. Onias III, 190-174 B.C.
3. Jason/Jeshua,175-172 B.C.
4. Menelaus, 172-162 B.C.
5. Alcimus, 162-156 B.C.
6. Jonathan, 153-142 B.C.
7. Simon, 142-135 B.C.
8. John Hyrcanus I, 134-104 B.C.
9. Aristobulus I, 104-103 B.C.
10. Alexander Jannaeus, 103-76 B.C.
11. Hyrcanus II, 76-67 B.C.
12. Aristobulus II, 67-63 B.C.
13. Hyrcanus II, 63-40 B.C.
14. Antigonus, 40-37 B.C.
The Jewish High Priests
from Herod the Great to the Destruction of Jerusalem
15. Ananel, 37-36 B.C. (Appointed by Herod the
16. Aristobulus III, 35 B.C.
17. Jesus, son of Phiabi, ? -22 B.C.
18. Simon, son of Boethus, 22-5 B.C.
19. Matthias, son of Theophilus, 5-4 B.C.
20. Joseph, son of Elam, 5 B.C.
21. Joezer, son of Boethus, 4 B.C.
22. Eleazar, son of Boethus, 4-1 B.C. - (Appointed
by Herod Archelaus)
23. Jesus, son of Sie, 1 - 6 A.D.
24. Annas, 6-15 A.D. (Appointed by Quirinius)
25. Ishmael, son of Phiabi I, 15-16 A.D. (Appointed
by Valerius Gratus)
26. Eleazar, son of Annas, 16-17 A.D.
27. Simon, son of Kamithos, 17-18 A.D.
28. Joseph Caiaphas, 18-37 AD.
29. Jonathan, son of Annas, 37 A.D. (Appointed by
30. Theophilus, son of Annas, 37-41 A.D.
31. Simon Kantheras, son of Boethus, 41-43 A.D.
(Appointed by Herod Agrippa I)
32. Matthias, son of Annas, 43-44 A.D.
33. Elionaius, son of Kantheras, 44-45 A.D.
34. Joseph, son of Kami, 45-47 A.D. (Appointed by
Herod of Chalcis)
35. Ananias, son of Nebedaius, 47-55 A.D.
36. Ishmael, son of Phiabi III, 55-61 A.D.
(Appointed by Herod Agrippa II)
37. Joseph Qabi, son of Simon, 61-62 A.D.
38. Ananus, son of Ananus, 62 A.D.
39. Jesus, son of Damnaius, 62-65 A.D.
40. Joshua, son of Gamal iel, 63-65 A.D.
41. Matthias, son of Theophilus, 65-67 A.D.
42. Phinnias, son of Samuel, 67-70 A.D. (Appointed
by The People)
Some dates cannot be known for certain.
Pilate in Easton's Bible Dictionary
probably connected with the Roman family of the
Pontii, and called "Pilate" from the Latin pileatus,
i.e., "wearing the pileus", which was the "cap or
badge of a manumitted slave," as indicating that he
was a "freedman," or the descendant of one. He was
the sixth in the order of the Roman procurators of
Judea (A.D. 26-36). His headquarters were at
Caesarea, but he frequently went up to Jerusalem.
His reign extended over the period of the ministry
of John the Baptist and of Jesus Christ, in
connection with whose trial his name comes into
prominent notice. Pilate was a "typical Roman, not
of the antique, simple stamp, but of the imperial
period, a man not without some remains of the
ancient Roman justice in his soul, yet
pleasure-loving, imperious, and corrupt. He hated
the Jews whom he ruled, and in times of irritation
freely shed their blood. They returned his hatred
with cordiality, and accused him of every crime,
maladministration, cruelty, and robbery. He visited
Jerusalem as seldom as possible; for, indeed, to one
accustomed to the pleasures of Rome, with its
theatres, baths, games, and gay society, Jerusalem,
with its religiousness and ever-smouldering revolt,
was a dreary residence. When he did visit it he
stayed in the palace of Herod the Great, it being
common for the officers sent by Rome into conquered
countries to occupy the palaces of the displaced
Pilate in Fausset's Bible Dictionary
PILATE, PONTIUS. Connected with the Pontian clan
(gens), first remarkable in the person of Pontius
Telesinus, the great Samnite general. Pilate is
probably from pileus, "the cap of freedom,"which
manumitted slaves received; Pilate being perhaps
descended from a freedman. Sixth Roman procurator of
Judaea, appointed in Tiberius' 12th year (A.D. 25 or
26). The pagan historian Tacitus (Ann. 15:44)
writes: "Christ, while Tiberius was emperor, was
capitally executed by the procurator Pontius
Pilate." The procurator was generally a Roman
knight, acting under the governor of a province as
collector of the revenue, and judge in cases arising
under it. But Pontius Pilate had full military and
judicial authority in Judas, as being a small
province attached to the larger Syria; he was
responsible to the governor of Syria. Archelaus
having been deposed (A.D. 6), Subinus, Coponius,
Ambivius, Rufus, Valerius Gratus, and Pontius Pilate
successively were governors (Josephus, Ant. 18:2,
section 2). Pilate removed his military head
quarters from Caesarea to Jerusalem, and the
soldiers brought their standards with the emperor's
image on them. The Jews crowded to Caesarea and
besought him to remove them He was about to kill the
petitioners after a five days' discussion, giving a
signal to concealed soldiers to surround them; but
their resolve to die rather than cease resisting the
idolatrous innovation caused him to yield (Josephus,
Ant. 18:3, section 1-2; B.J. 2:9, section 2-4). So
far did the Jews' scruples influence the Roman
authorities that no coin is stamped with a god or
emperor before Nero (DeSaulcy, Numism. 8-9); the
"penny" stamped with Caesar's image in Matthew 22:20
was either a coin from Rome or another province, the
shekel alone was received in the temple. Pilate
again almost drove them to rebel (1) by hanging up
in his residence, Herod's palace at Jerusalem, gilt
shields with names of idols inscribed, which were
finally removed by Tiberius' order (Philo, ad Caium.
38, ii. 589)...
Pilate in Hitchcock's Bible Names
armed with a dart
Pilate in Naves Topical Bible
-Roman governor of Judaea during the time of Jesus'
ministry Mt 27:2; Lu 3:1 -Causes the slaughter of
certain Galileans Lu 13:1 -Tries Jesus and orders
his crucifixion Mt 27; Mr 15; Lu 23; Joh 18:28-40;
19; Ac 3:13; 4:27; 13:28; 1Ti 6:13 -Allows Joseph of
Arimathaea to take Jesus' body Mt 27:57,58; Mr
15:43-45; Lu 23:52; Joh 19:38
Pilate in Smiths Bible Dictionary
(armed with a spear), Pontius. Pontius Pilate was
the sixth Roman procurator of Judea, and under him
our Lord worked, suffered and died, as we learn not
only from Scripture, but from Tacitus (Ann. xv. 44).
was appointed A.D. 25-6, in the twelfth year of
Tiberius. His arbitrary administration nearly drove
the Jews to insurrection on two or three occasions.
One of his first acts was to remove the headquarters
of the army from Caesarea to Jerusalem. The soldiers
of course took with them their standards, bearing
the image of the emperor, into the holy city. No
previous governor had ventured on such an outrage.
The people poured down in crowds to Caesarea, where
the procurator was then residing, and besought him
to remove the images. After five days of discussion
he gave the signal to some concealed soldiers to
surround the petitioners and put them to death
unless they ceased to trouble him; but this only
strengthened their determination, and they declared
themselves ready rather to submit to death than
forego their resistance to aa idolatrous innovation.
Pilate then yielded, and the standards were by his
orders brought down to Caesarea. His slaughter of
certain Galileans, Lu 13:1 led to some remarks from
our Lord on the connection between sin and calamity.
It must have occurred at some feast at Jerusalem, in
the outer court of the temple. It was the custom for
the procurators to reside at Jerusalem during the
great feasts, to preserve order, and accordingly, at
the time of our Lord's last Passover, Pilate was
occupying his official residence in Herod's palace.
The history of his condemnation of our Lord is
familiar to all. We learn from Josephus that
Pilate's anxiety to avoid giving offence to Caesar
did not save him from political disaster. The
Samaritans were unquiet and rebellious Pilate led
his troops against them, and defeated them enough.
The Samaritans complained to Vitellius, then
president of Syria, and he sent Pilate to Rome to
answer their accusations before the emperor. When he
reached it he found Tiberius dead and Caius
(Caligula) on the throne A,D, 36. Eusebius adds that
soon afterward "wearied with misfortunes," he killed
himself. As to the scene of his death there are
various traditions. One is that he was banished to
Vienna Allobrogum (Vienne on the Rhone), where a
singular monument--a pyramid on a quadrangular base,
52 feet high--is called Pontius Pilate"s tomb, An
other is that he sought to hide his sorrows on the
mountain by the lake of Lucerne, now called Mount
Pilatus; and there) after spending years in its
recesses, in remorse and despair rather than
penitence, plunged into the dismal lake which
occupies its summit.
Pilate in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE
1. Name and Office: The nomen Pontius indicates the
stock from which Pilate was descended. It was one of
the most famous of Samnite names; it was a Pontius
who inflicted on a Roman army the disgrace of the
Caudine Forks. The name is often met with in Roman
history after the Samnites were conquered and
absorbed. Lucius Pontius Aquila was a friend of
Cicero and one of the assassins of Julius Caesar.
The cognomen Pilatus indicates the familia, or
branch of the gens Pontius, to which Pilate
belonged. It has been derived from pileus, the cap
worn by freedmen; this is improbable, as Pilate was
of equestrian rank. It has also been derived from
pilum, a spear. Probably the name was one that had
descended to Pilate from his ancestors, and had long
lost its meaning. The praenomen is nowhere
mentioned. Pilate was 5th procurator of Judea. The
province of Judea had formerly been the kingdom of
Archclaus, and was formed when he was deposed (6 AD)
Speaking roughly, it took in the southern half of
Israel, including Samaria. Being an imperial
province (i.e. under the direct control of the
emperor), it was governed by a procurator (see
PROCURATOR; PROVINCE). The procurator was the
personal servant of the emperor, directly
responsible to him, and was primarily concerned with
finance. But the powers of procurators varied
according to the appointment of the emperor. Pilate
was a procurator cum porestate, i.e. he possessed
civil, military, and criminal jurisdiction. The
procurator of Judea was in some way subordinate to
the legate of Syria, but the exact character of the
subordination is not known. As a rule a procurator
must be of equestrian rank and a man of certain
military experience. Under his rule, the Jews were
allowed as much self- government as was consistent
with the maintenance of imperial authority. The
Sanhedrin was allowed to exercise judicial
functions, but if they desired to inflict the
penalty of death, the sentence had to be confirmed
by the procurator...
Pontius Pilate in Wikipedia
Pontius Pilate (pronounced /; Latin: Pontius
Pilatus, Greek: Πόντιος Πιλᾶτος) was the fifth
Prefect of the Roman province of Judaea from AD
26–36. Typically referenced as the fifth
Prefect of Judaea, he is best known as the judge at
Jesus' trial and the man who authorized his
crucifixion. Pilate appears in all four canonical
Christian Gospels. In Matthew, Pilate washes his
hands of Jesus and reluctantly sends him to his
death. Mark, depicting Jesus as innocent of
plotting against Rome, portrays Pilate as extremely
reluctant to execute Jesus, blaming the Jewish
priestly hierarchy for his death. In Luke, Pilate
not only agrees that Jesus did not conspire against
Rome, but Herod Antipas, the tetrarch, also finds
nothing treasonable in Jesus' actions. In John,
Jesus' claim to be the Son of Man or the Messiah to
Pilate and the Sanhedrin is not portrayed at
mentioning the name "Pontius Pilate"
John 19:21 - Then said the chief priests
of the Jews to Pilate, Write not, The
King of the Jews; but that he said, I am King of the
John 19:10 - Then saith Pilate
unto him, Speakest thou not unto me? knowest thou
not that I have power to crucify thee, and have
power to release thee?
John 18:37 - Pilate
therefore said unto him, Art thou a king then? Jesus
answered, Thou sayest that I am a king. To this end
was I born, and for this cause came I into the
world, that I should bear witness unto the truth.
Every one that is of the truth heareth my voice.
Luke 3:1 - Now in the fifteenth year of
the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate
being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch
of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of
Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and
Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene,
John 19:22 - Pilate
answered, What I have written I have written.
John 19:15 - But they cried out, Away
with [him], away with [him], crucify him.
Pilate saith unto them, Shall I crucify your
King? The chief priests answered, We have no king
John 19:6 - When the chief priests
therefore and officers saw him, they cried out,
saying, Crucify [him], crucify [him]. Pilate
saith unto them, Take ye him, and crucify [him]: for
I find no fault in him.
John 19:12 - And from thenceforth
Pilate sought to release him: but the Jews
cried out, saying, If thou let this man go, thou art
not Caesar's friend: whosoever maketh himself a king
speaketh against Caesar.
John 19:31 - The Jews therefore, because
it was the preparation, that the bodies should not
remain upon the cross on the sabbath day, (for that
sabbath day was an high day,) besought Pilate
that their legs might be broken, and [that] they
might be taken away.
Mark 15:44 - And Pilate
marvelled if he were already dead: and calling [unto
him] the centurion, he asked him whether he had been
any while dead.
John 18:38 - Pilate saith
unto him, What is truth? And when he had said this,
he went out again unto the Jews, and saith unto
them, I find in him no fault [at all].
Mark 15:2 - And Pilate
asked him, Art thou the King of the Jews? And he
answering said unto him, Thou sayest [it].
Luke 23:3 - And Pilate
asked him, saying, Art thou the King of the Jews?
And he answered him and said, Thou sayest [it].
Mark 15:1 - And straightway in the
morning the chief priests held a consultation with
the elders and scribes and the whole council, and
bound Jesus, and carried [him] away, and delivered
[him] to Pilate.
Acts 4:27 - For of a truth against thy
holy child Jesus, whom thou hast anointed, both
Herod, and Pontius Pilate, with the
Gentiles, and the people of Israel, were gathered
1 Timothy 6:13 - I give thee charge in
the sight of God, who quickeneth all things, and
[before] Christ Jesus, who before Pontius
Pilate witnessed a good confession;
Acts 3:13 - The God of Abraham, and of
Isaac, and of Jacob, the God of our fathers, hath
glorified his Son Jesus; whom ye delivered up, and
denied him in the presence of Pilate,
when he was determined to let [him] go.
Matthew 27:24 - When Pilate
saw that he could prevail nothing, but [that] rather
a tumult was made, he took water, and washed [his]
hands before the multitude, saying, I am innocent of
the blood of this just person: see ye [to it].
Mark 15:43 - Joseph of Arimathaea, an
honourable counsellor, which also waited for the
kingdom of God, came, and went in boldly unto
Pilate, and craved the body of Jesus.
John 19:13 - When Pilate
therefore heard that saying, he brought Jesus forth,
and sat down in the judgment seat in a place that is
called the Pavement, but in the Hebrew, Gabbatha.
John 18:35 - Pilate
answered, Am I a Jew? Thine own nation and the chief
priests have delivered thee unto me: what hast thou
Mark 15:15 - And [so] Pilate,
willing to content the people, released Barabbas
unto them, and delivered Jesus, when he had scourged
[him], to be crucified.
John 18:33 - Then Pilate
entered into the judgment hall again, and called
Jesus, and said unto him, Art thou the King of the
John 19:5 - Then came Jesus forth,
wearing the crown of thorns, and the purple robe.
And [Pilate] saith unto them, Behold
John 19:19 - And Pilate
wrote a title, and put [it] on the cross. And the
writing was, JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS.
Mark 15:4 - And Pilate
asked him again, saying, Answerest thou nothing?
behold how many things they witness against thee.
Luke 13:1 - There were present at that
season some that told him of the Galilaeans, whose
blood Pilate had mingled with their
Matthew 27:17 - Therefore when they were
gathered together, Pilate said unto
them, Whom will ye that I release unto you?
Barabbas, or Jesus which is called Christ?
Luke 23:11 - And Herod with his men of
war set him at nought, and mocked [him], and arrayed
him in a gorgeous robe, and sent him again to
Matthew 27:13 - Then said Pilate
unto him, Hearest thou not how many things they
witness against thee?