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        The common Hebrew word for wine is "yayin", from a root meaning
        "to boil up," "to be in a ferment." Others derive it from a root
        meaning "to tread out," and hence the juice of the grape trodden
        out. The Greek word for wine is "oinos", and the Latin "vinun".
        But besides this common Hebrew word, there are several others
        which are thus rendered.
        (1.) Ashishah (2 Sam. 6:19; 1 Chr. 16:3; Cant. 2:5; Hos. 3:1),
        which, however, rather denotes a solid cake of pressed grapes,
        or, as in the Revised Version, a cake of raisins.
        (2.) 'Asis, "sweet wine," or "new wine," the product of the
        same year (Cant. 8:2; Isa. 49:26; Joel 1:5; 3:18; Amos 9:13),
        from a root meaning "to tread," hence juice trodden out or
        pressed out, thus referring to the method by which the juice is
        obtained. The power of intoxication is ascribed to it.
        (3.) Hometz. See VINEGAR T0003771.
        (4.) Hemer, Deut. 32:14 (rendered "blood of the grape") Isa.
        27:2 ("red wine"), Ezra 6:9; 7:22; Dan. 5:1, 2, 4. This word
        conveys the idea of "foaming," as in the process of
        fermentation, or when poured out. It is derived from the root
        "hamar", meaning "to boil up," and also "to be red," from the
        idea of boiling or becoming inflamed.
        (5.) 'Enabh, a grape (Deut. 32:14). The last clause of this
        verse should be rendered as in the Revised Version, "and of the
        blood of the grape ['enabh] thou drankest wine [hemer]." In Hos.
        3:1 the phrase in Authorized Version, "flagons of wine," is in
        the Revised Version correctly "cakes of raisins." (Compare Gen.
        49:11; Num. 6:3; Deut. 23:24, etc., where this Hebrew word is
        rendered in the plural "grapes.")
        (6.) Mesekh, properly a mixture of wine and water with spices
        that increase its stimulating properties (Isa. 5:22). Ps. 75:8,
        "The wine [yayin] is red; it is full of mixture [mesekh];" Prov.
        23:30, "mixed wine;" Isa. 65:11, "drink offering" (R.V.,
        "mingled wine").
        (7.) Tirosh, properly "must," translated "wine" (Deut. 28:51);
        "new wine" (Prov. 3:10); "sweet wine" (Micah 6:15; R.V.,
        "vintage"). This Hebrew word has been traced to a root meaning
        "to take possession of" and hence it is supposed that tirosh is
        so designated because in intoxicating it takes possession of the
        brain. Among the blessings promised to Esau (Gen. 27:28) mention
        is made of "plenty of corn and tirosh." Israel is called "a
        land of corn and tirosh" (Deut. 33:28; compare Isa. 36:17). See
        also Deut. 28:51; 2 Chr. 32:28; Joel 2:19; Hos. 4:11, ("wine
        [yayin] and new wine [tirosh] take away the heart").
        (8.) Sobhe (root meaning "to drink to excess," "to suck up,"
        "absorb"), found only in Isa. 1:22, Hos. 4:18 ("their drink;"
        Gesen. and marg. of R.V., "their carouse"), and Nah. 1:10
        ("drunken as drunkards;" lit., "soaked according to their
        drink;" R.V., "drenched, as it were, in their drink", i.e.,
        according to their sobhe).
        (9.) Shekar, "strong drink," any intoxicating liquor; from a
        root meaning "to drink deeply," "to be drunken", a generic term
        applied to all fermented liquors, however obtained. Num. 28:7,
        "strong wine" (R.V., "strong drink"). It is sometimes
        distinguished from wine, c.g., Lev. 10:9, "Do not drink wine
        [yayin] nor strong drink [shekar];" Num. 6:3; Judg. 13:4, 7;
        Isa. 28:7 (in all these places rendered "strong drink").
        Translated "strong drink" also in Isa. 5:11; 24:9; 29:9; 56:12;
        Prov. 20:1; 31:6; Micah 2:11.
        (10.) Yekebh (Deut. 16:13, but in R.V. correctly
        "wine-press"), a vat into which the new wine flowed from the
        press. Joel 2:24, "their vats;" 3:13, "the fats;" Prov. 3:10,
        "Thy presses shall burst out with new wine [tirosh];" Hag. 2:16;
        Jer. 48:33, "wine-presses;" 2 Kings 6:27; Job. 24:11.
        (11.) Shemarim (only in plural), "lees" or "dregs" of wine. In
        Isa. 25:6 it is rendered "wines on the lees", i.e., wine that
        has been kept on the lees, and therefore old wine.
        (12.) Mesek, "a mixture," mixed or spiced wine, not diluted
        with water, but mixed with drugs and spices to increase its
        strength, or, as some think, mingled with the lees by being
        shaken (Ps. 75:8; Prov. 23:30).
        In Acts 2:13 the word "gleukos", rendered "new wine," denotes
        properly "sweet wine." It must have been intoxicating.
        In addition to wine the Hebrews also made use of what they
        called "debash", which was obtained by boiling down must to
        one-half or one-third of its original bulk. In Gen. 43:11 this
        word is rendered "honey." It was a kind of syrup, and is called
        by the Arabs at the present day dibs. This word occurs in the
        phrase "a land flowing with milk and honey" (debash), Ex. 3:8,
        17; 13:5; 33:3; Lev. 20:24; Num. 13: 27. (See HONEY T0001809.)
        Our Lord miraculously supplied wine at the marriage feast in
        Cana of Galilee (John 2:1-11). The Rechabites were forbidden the
        use of wine (Jer. 35). The Nazarites also were to abstain from
        its use during the period of their vow (Num. 6:1-4); and those
        who were dedicated as Nazarites from their birth were
        perpetually to abstain from it (Judg. 13:4, 5; Luke 1:15; 7:33).
        The priests, too, were forbidden the use of wine and strong
        drink when engaged in their sacred functions (Lev. 10:1, 9-11).
        "Wine is little used now in the East, from the fact that
        Mohammedans are not allowed to taste it, and very few of other
        creeds touch it. When it is drunk, water is generally mixed with
        it, and this was the custom in the days of Christ also. The
        people indeed are everywhere very sober in hot climates; a
        drunken person, in fact, is never seen", (Geikie's Life of
        Christ). The sin of drunkenness, however, must have been not
        uncommon in the olden times, for it is mentioned either
        metaphorically or literally more than seventy times in the
        A drink-offering of wine was presented with the daily
        sacrifice (Ex. 29:40, 41), and also with the offering of the
        first-fruits (Lev. 23:13), and with various other sacrifices
        (Num. 15:5, 7, 10). Wine was used at the celebration of the
        Passover. And when the Lord's Supper was instituted, the wine
        and the unleavened bread then on the paschal table were by our
        Lord set apart as memorials of his body and blood.
        Several emphatic warnings are given in the New Testament
        against excess in the use of wine (Luke 21:34; Rom. 13:13; Eph.
        5:18; 1 Tim. 3:8; Titus 1:7).
Bibliography Information
Easton, Matthew George. M.A., D.D., "Biblical Meaning for 'Wine' Eastons Bible Dictionary". - Eastons; 1897.

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