Ark of the Covenant - Bible History Online
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        a stream. (1.) One of the four rivers of Eden (Gen. 2:13). It
        has been identified with the Nile. Others regard it as the Oxus,
        or the Araxes, or the Ganges. But as, according to the sacred
        narrative, all these rivers of Eden took their origin from the
        head-waters of the Euphrates and the Trigris, it is probable
        that the Gihon is the ancient Araxes, which, under the modern
        name of the Arras, discharges itself into the Caspian Sea. It
        was the Asiatic and not the African "Cush" which the Gihon
        compassed (Gen. 10:7-10). (See EDEN T0001127.)
        (2.) The only natural spring of water in or near Jerusalem is
        the "Fountain of the Virgin" (q.v.), which rises outside the
        city walls on the west bank of the Kidron valley. On the
        occasion of the approach of the Assyrian army under Sennacherib,
        Hezekiah, in order to prevent the besiegers from finding water,
        "stopped the upper water course of Gihon, and brought it
        straight down to the west side of the city of David" (2 Chr.
        32:30; 33:14). This "fountain" or spring is therefore to be
        regarded as the "upper water course of Gihon." From this
        "fountain" a tunnel cut through the ridge which forms the south
        part of the temple hill conveys the water to the Pool of Siloam,
        which lies on the opposite side of this ridge at the head of the
        Tyropoeon ("cheesemakers'") valley, or valley of the son of
        Hinnom, now filled up by rubbish. The length of this tunnel is
        about 1,750 feet. In 1880 an inscription was accidentally
        discovered on the wall of the tunnel about nineteen feet from
        where it opens into the Pool of Siloam. This inscription was
        executed in all probability by Hezekiah's workmen. It briefly
        narrates the history of the excavation. It may, however, be
        possible that this tunnel was executed in the time of Solomon.
        If the "waters of Shiloah that go softly" (Isa. 8:6) refers to
        the gentle stream that still flows through the tunnel into the
        Pool of Siloam, then this excavation must have existed before
        the time of Hezekiah.
        In the upper part of the Tyropoeoan valley there are two pools
        still existing, the first, called Birket el-Mamilla, to the west
        of the Jaffa gate; the second, to the south of the first, called
        Birket es-Sultan. It is the opinion of some that the former was
        the "upper" and the latter the "lower" Pool of Gihon (2 Kings
        18:17; Isa. 7:3; 36:2; 22:9). (See CONDUIT T0000877; SILOAM
Bibliography Information
Easton, Matthew George. M.A., D.D., "Biblical Meaning for 'Gihon' Eastons Bible Dictionary". - Eastons; 1897.

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