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Easton's Bible Dictionary

 

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Banquet
        a feast provided for the entertainment of a company of guests
        (Esther 5; 7; 1 Pet. 4:3); such as was provided for our Lord by
        his friends in Bethany (Matt. 26:6; Mark 14:3; comp. John 12:2).
        These meals were in the days of Christ usually called "suppers,"
        after the custom of the Romans, and were partaken of toward the
        close of the day. It was usual to send a second invitation
        (Matt. 22:3; Luke 14:17) to those who had been already invited.
        When the whole company was assembled, the master of the house
        shut the door with his own hands (Luke 13:25; Matt. 25:10).
        The guests were first refreshed with water and fragrant oil
        (Luke 7:38; Mark 7:4). A less frequent custom was that of
        supplying each guest with a robe to be worn during the feast
        (Eccles. 9:8; Rev. 3:4, 5; Matt. 22:11). At private banquets the
        master of the house presided; but on public occasions a
        "governor of the feast" was chosen (John 2:8). The guests were
        placed in order according to seniority (Gen. 43:33), or
        according to the rank they held (Prov. 25:6,7; Matt. 23:6; Luke
        14:7).
        As spoons and knives and forks are a modern invention, and
        were altogether unknown in the East, the hands alone were
        necessarily used, and were dipped in the dish, which was common
        to two of the guests (John 13:26). In the days of our Lord the
        guests reclined at table; but the ancient Israelites sat around
        low tables, cross-legged, like the modern Orientals. Guests were
        specially honoured when extra portions were set before them
        (Gen. 43:34), and when their cup was filled with wine till it
        ran over (Ps. 23:5). The hands of the guests were usually
        cleaned by being rubbed on bread, the crumbs of which fell to
        the ground, and were the portion for dogs (Matt. 15:27; Luke
        16:21).
        At the time of the three annual festivals at Jerusalem family
        banquets were common. To these the "widow, and the fatherless,
        and the stranger" were welcome (Deut. 16:11). Sacrifices also
        included a banquet (Ex. 34:15; Judg. 16:23). Birthday banquets
        are mentioned (Gen. 40:20; Matt. 14:6). They were sometimes
        protracted, and attended with revelry and excess (Gen. 21:8;
        29:22; 1 Sam. 25:2,36; 2 Sam. 13:23). Portions were sometimes
        sent from the table to poorer friends (Neh. 8:10; Esther 9:19,
        22). (See MEALS T0002451.)

Bibliography Information
Easton, Matthew George. M.A., D.D., "Biblical Meaning for 'Banquet' Eastons Bible Dictionary".
bible-history.com - Eastons; 1897.

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