International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Israel

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ISRAEL, HISTORY OF

 

Successors of Jeroboam II-After the death of Jeroboam, the strength of the Northern Kingdom collapsed. His son Zechariah was able to maintain the throne for only 6 months, and his murderer Shallum only one month. The general Menahem, who put him out of the way, maintained himself as king for 10 years, but only by paying a heavy tribute to the Assyrian ruler Pul, i.e. Tiglath-pileser III, who ruled from 745-727 (compare 2 Kings 15:19 f).

 

Pekah. - His son Pekahiah, on the other hand, soon fell by the hands of the murderer Pekah (2 Kings 15:25), who allied himself with Syria against Judah. The latter, however, invited the Assyrians to come into the country; and these, entering in the year 734 BC, put an end to the reign of this usurper, although he was actually put to death as late as 730 BC.

 

Hoshea. - The last king of the Northern Kingdom, Hoshea (730 BC - 722 BC), had the Assyrians to thank for his throne; but he did not keep his fidelity as a vassal very long. As soon as Tiglath-pileser was dead, he tried to throw off the Assyrian yoke. But his successor Shalmaneser IV (727 BC - 723 BC), who already in the first year of his reign had again subdued the rebellious king Elulaios of Syria, soon compelled Hoshea also to submit to his authority. Two years later Hoshea again joined a conspiracy with the Phoenicians against Assyria, in which they even counted on the help of the Egyptian king, who in the Bible is called So or Seve (Egyptian name is Shabaka). Now the Assyrians lost all patience. They at once came with their armies. Hoshea seems to have voluntarily submitted to the power of the Great King, who then made him a captive. The people, however, continued the struggle. Samaria, the capital city, was besieged, but did not fall until the 3 rd year (722 BC) into the hands of the enemy.

 

Shalmaneser, in the meanwhile, had died and Sargon II had become his successor. The city was indeed not destroyed, but a large portion of the inhabitants, especially the leaders, were deported and transplanted to Northern Mesopotamia and to Media. Sargon states that the number of deported Israelites was 27,290. Prominent persons from other cities were also doubtless to be included in those deported. On the other hand, the Assyrian king settled Babylonian and Syrian prisoners of war in Samaria (721 BC), and in the year 715 BC, Arabs also. But the country, to a great extent, continued in a state of desolation, so that Esar-haddon (680 BC - 668 BC) and Ashurbanipal (667 BC - 626 BC) sent new colonists there, the last-mentioned sending them from Babylonia, Persia and Media (compare 2 Kings 17:24 ff). In these verses the Babylonian city of Cuthah is several times mentioned, on account of which city the Jews afterward called the Samaritans Cuthites. This report also makes mention of the religious syncretism, which of necessity resulted from the mixture of the people. But we must be careful not to place at too small figures the number of Israelites who remained in the country. It is a great exaggeration when it is claimed, as it is by Friedrich Delitzsch, that the great bulk of the inhabitants of the country of Samaria, or even of Galilee, was from this time on Babylonian.

 

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These files are public domain

Bibliography Information

Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. "Entry for 'CAPTIVITY'". "International Standard Bible Encyclopedia". 1915.

 

The Destruction of Israel

The Destruction of the Northern Kingdom of Israel with Map

The Destruction of Israel The Destruction of Israel - Introduction The Destruction of Israel - Overview The Destruction of Israel - The Eighth Century B.C. The Destruction of Israel - Tiglath-pilesar III The Destruction of Israel - King Menahem of Israel The Destruction of Israel - Pekah Slays Pekahiah The Destruction of Israel - The Syrian League The Destruction of Israel - King Ahaz of Judah The Destruction of Israel - Assyria Attacks Damascus The Destruction of Israel - Assyria Attacks Israel The Destruction of Israel - Egypt Acts The Destruction of Israel - Sargon II The Destruction of Israel - Israel is Deported The Destruction of Israel - The Ten Lost Tribes of Israel The Destruction of Israel - The Samaritans The Destruction of Israel - Lions The Destruction of Israel - Judah The Destruction of Israel - List of Kings The Destruction of Israel - Maps The Destruction of Israel - Ancient Texts The Destruction of Israel - Scriptures The Destruction of Israel - Dictionaries and Encyclopedias The Destruction of Israel - Introduction

"Therefore the LORD was very angry with Israel, and removed them from His sight; there was none left but the tribe of Judah alone. . And the LORD rejected all the descendants of Israel, afflicted them, and delivered them into the hand of plunderers, until He had cast them from His sight." (The Book of 2 Kings)

 

When Your Enemies Are The Size Of Assyria - A Heart Message

 

sargon-9.jpg  Isa 10:5-7 "Woe to Assyria, the rod of My anger And the staff in whose hand is My indignation. I will send him against an ungodly nation, And against the people of My wrath I will give him charge, To seize the spoil, to take the prey, And to tread them down like the mire of the streets. Yet he does not mean so, Nor does his heart think so; But it is in his heart to destroy, And cut off not a few nations."

 

The Northern Kingdom consisted of 10 of the tribes (excluding Judah and Benjamin). It lasted for about 210 years until it was destroyed by Assyria in 722 BC. Its capital was Samaria. Every king of Israel was evil. In the northern kingdom there were 9 dynasties (family lines of kings) and 19 kings in all. An average of 11 years to a reign. 8 of these kings met death by violence.

 

The epitaph written over every one of its kings was:

 

I King 15:34 "and he did evil in the sight of the LORD, and walked in the way of Jeroboam, and in his sin by which he had made Israel to sin."

 

It was king Ahab who introduced Baal worship to them.

 

I King 16:30-33 "Now Ahab the son of Omri did evil in the sight of the LORD, more than all who were before him. And it came to pass, as though it had been a trivial thing for him to walk in the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, that he took as wife Jezebel the daughter of Ethbaal, king of the Sidonians; and he went and served Baal and worshiped him. Then he set up an altar for Baal in the temple of Baal, which he had built in Samaria. And Ahab made a wooden image. Ahab did more to provoke the LORD God of Israel to anger than all the kings of Israel who were before him."

 

The last king was Hoshea (2 Ki 17). The petty wars of the past, wars with Syria and Edom, Ammon and Philistia, were now to give way to war on an ominous new scale. A world empire was being gathered into the ruthless hands of the Assyrians. The ruthless and cruel Assyrians (under Sargon II) besieged Samaria for 3 years and finally it fell, Israel was doomed. The Assyrians hauled them away into captivity (722 BC).

 

But the Lord always reminded them of why judgment came:

 

II Ki 17:7-23 "For so it was that the children of Israel had sinned against the LORD their God, who had brought them up out of the land of Egypt, from under the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt; and they had feared other gods, and had walked in the statutes of the nations whom the LORD had cast out from before the children of Israel, and of the kings of Israel, which they had made.

 

Also the children of Israel secretly did against the LORD their God things that were not right, and they built for themselves high places in all their cities, from watchtower to fortified city. They set up for themselves sacred pillars and wooden images on every high hill and under every green tree. There they burned incense on all the high places, like the nations whom the LORD had carried away before them; and they did wicked things to provoke the LORD to anger, for they served idols, of which the LORD had said to them, "You shall not do this thing."

 

Yet the LORD testified against Israel and against Judah, by all of His prophets, every seer, saying, "Turn from your evil ways, and keep My commandments and My statutes, according to all the law which I commanded your fathers, and which I sent to you by My servants the prophets." Nevertheless they would not hear, but stiffened their necks, like the necks of their fathers, who did not believe in the LORD their God. And they rejected His statutes and His covenant that He had made with their fathers, and His testimonies which He had testified against them; they followed idols, became idolaters, and went after the nations who were all around them, concerning whom the LORD had charged them that they should not do like them.

 

So they left all the commandments of the LORD their God, made for themselves a molded image and two calves, made a wooden image and worshiped all the host of heaven, and served Baal. And they caused their sons and daughters to pass through the fire, practiced witchcraft and soothsaying, and sold themselves to do evil in the sight of the LORD, to provoke Him to anger.

 

Therefore the LORD was very angry with Israel, and removed them from His sight; there was none left but the tribe of Judah alone. . And the LORD rejected all the descendants of Israel, afflicted them, and delivered them into the hand of plunderers, until He had cast them from His sight. For He tore Israel from the house of David, and they made Jeroboam the son of Nebat king. Then Jeroboam drove Israel from following the LORD, and made them commit a great sin. For the children of Israel walked in all the sins of Jeroboam which he did; they did not depart from them, until the LORD removed Israel out of His sight, as He had said by all His servants the prophets. So Israel was carried away from their own land to Assyria, as it is to this day."

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Introduction

Overview

The Eighth Century BC

The Assyrians

Tiglath Pileser III

King Menahem of Israel

Pekah Slays Pekahiah

The Syrian League

King Ahaz of Judah

Assyria Attacks Damascus

Assyria Attacks Israel

Egypt Acts

Sargon II

Israel is Deported

The 10 Lost Tribes of Israel

The Samaritans

Plague of Lions

Kingdom of Judah

Scriptures

Conclusion

 

Charts and Information

List of Kings

List of the Kings of Assyria

Map of the Assyrian Empire

Map of Assyria in the Ancient Near East

Historical Writings

Dictionaries and Encyclopedias 

Timeline of Events

 

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