Ancient Babylonia - Robert Koldewey
German architect and archaeologist who revealed the semilegendary Babylon of the Bible as a geographic and historical reality. Koldewey's activities as a field archaeologist began with visits to ancient Assus (Assos) in western Turkey (1882) and the nearby island of Lesbos (1885). Subsequent expeditions took him to Iraq (1887) and Zincirli Höyük, Turkey, site of the Hittite city of Samal (1888-92), where he prepared surveys, maps, drawings, and site reconstructions. He also participated in an extensive study of the Greek temples of southern Italy and Sicily and during 1887-97 taught architecture at Görlitz, Ger. In 1897 he chose the site of Babylon in southern Iraq for a major excavation under the auspices of the German Orient Society. He began digging on March 26, 1899, and continued to work there with little interruption for the next 18 years. One of Koldewey's most dramatic discoveries was the foundation of the temple of Marduk, a ziggurat, or terraced structure surmounted by an astronomical observatory. He believed he had found the remains of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, when he uncovered an arched structure with a remarkably engineered well nearby. He also uncovered the great fortress wall of the city, evidence of the famed Ishtar Gate, and the processional avenue to the temple of Marduk. Results of the excavation were published in segments over a period of years; an English translation of one part, The Excavations at Babylon, appeared in 1914.