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Bust of Titus 

Bust of Titus (Emperor of Rome)
Was this the man who Destroyed Jerusalem in 70 AD?

This painting represents a bust of Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus, located in the Louvre Museum. Titus was the eldest son (born 39 AD) of the Roman Emperor Vespasian, and was commissioned by his father to destroy Jerusalem and the Jewish temple which he accomplished in 70 AD. He became Emperor of Rome in 79 AD when his father Vespasian died and he completed and dedicated the Flavian Amphitheatre (the Colosseum).

The face of the Roman Emperor, Titus.  To Vespasian (a.d. 70) we are indebted for the foundation of the Coliseum, or the Flavian amphitheatre, the noblest ruin in existence. It was dedicated by Titus in 79 AD), 10 years after the taking of Jerusalem, but not finally completed until the reign of his successor, Domitian.

The bust of Titus is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology, it reveals the image of the Roman commander who destroyed Jerusalem in 70 AD. The destruction of Jerusalem was dreadfully foreseen and predicted by Jesus 40 years prior:

"O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the one who kills the prophets and stones those who are sent to her! How often I wanted to gather your children together, as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, but you were not willing! See! Your house is left to you desolate; for I say to you, you shall see Me no more till you say, 'Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord!'" - Matthew 23:37-39

Josephus described the horror:

"As the flames shot up, a cry, as poignant as the tragedy, arose from the Jews, who flock to the rescue," - Josephus

Josephus also added:

"lost to all thought of self-preservation, all husbanding of strength, now that the object of all their past vigilance was vanishing." - Josephus

Title: Marble Bust of Titus
Description: Marble Bust of the Emperor Titus from a Statue
Location / Provenance: The Louvre Paris, France
Date: 79-81 AD (Depicted as a Youth)
Object Type: Ancient Sculptured Bust
Commentary: This bust shows the facial expression of the Destroyer of Jerusalem and Emperor of Rome

Titus in Wikipedia (Latin: Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus;[1] 30 December 39 – 13 September 81), was Roman Emperor from 79 to 81. A member of the Flavian dynasty, Titus succeeded his father Vespasian upon his death, thus becoming the first Roman Emperor to come to the throne after his own father. Prior to becoming Emperor, Titus gained renown as a military commander, serving under his father in Judaea during the First Jewish-Roman War. The campaign came to a brief halt with the death of emperor Nero in 68, launching Vespasian's bid for the imperial power during the Year of the Four Emperors. When Vespasian was declared Emperor on 1 July 69, Titus was left in charge of ending the Jewish rebellion. In 70, he successfully laid siege to and destroyed the city and Temple of Jerusalem. For this achievement Titus was awarded a triumph; the Arch of Titus commemorates his victory to this day. Under the rule of his father, Titus gained notoriety in Rome serving as prefect of the Praetorian Guard, and for carrying on a controversial relationship with the Jewish queen Berenice. Despite concerns over his character, Titus ruled to great acclaim following the death of Vespasian in 79, and was considered a good emperor by Suetonius and other contemporary historians. As emperor, he is best known for completing the Colosseum and for his generosity in relieving the suffering caused by two disasters, the Mount Vesuvius eruption of 79 and a fire in Rome in 80. After barely two years in office, Titus died of a fever on 13 September 81. He was deified by the Roman Senate and succeeded by his younger brother Domitian. [Wikipedia]

Titus ( ad 39-81), Roman emperor 79-81, son of Vespasian; full name Titus Vespasianus Augustus; born Titus Flavius Vespasianus. In 70 he ended a revolt in Judaea with the conquest of Jerusalem. [Oxford Dictionary]


Bust of Titus (Louvre Museum)


Bust of Titus (Palace of Versailles)


Face of Titus (Palace of Versailles)


Marble Bust of Titus (Discovered in 2003 at the Island of Pantelleria, Sicily)


Colossal Head of Titus (Glyptothek Museum in Munich, Germany)


Marble Busts of Vespasian and Titus (British Museum)

Marble Busts of Vespasian and Titus (British Museum)
Vespasian and Titus (Click to Enlarge)

FLAVIUS SABINUS VESPASIANUS TITUS, Roman emperor from A.D . 79-81, son of the emperor Vespasian, was born on the 3oth of December A.D . 40 (or 41). He was educated in the imperial court, and thoroughly accomplished: he could speak Greek fluently and compose verses; he was a proficient in music; he could write shorthand, and imitate handwriting so skilfully that he used to say that he might have been a most successful forger . He was handsome and commanding, and had a vigorous frame, well trained in all the exercises of a soldier. As a young man he served with credit in Germany and in Britain. Soon he had the command of a legion, and joined his father in Syria, where he took an active part in the Jewish War. In 68 he was sent by his father to congratulate the newly proclaimed emperor, Galba; but, hearing of Galba's death and of the general confusion in the Roman world, he returned to Palestine, having in the meantime consulted the oracle of the Paphian Venus and received a favourable answer. In the following year Vespasian, having been proclaimed emperor, returned to Italy, and left Titus to carry on the siege of Jerusalem, which was captured on the 8th of September 70 . On his return to Rome, Titus and his father celebrated a magnificent triumph, which has been immortalized by the so-called Arch of Titus. He was now formally associated with his father in the government, with the title of Caesar, and during the nine remaining years of Vespasian's reign he was in fact emperor . He was anything but popular; he had the character of being profligate and cruel. His connection with Berenice, the sister of the Agrippa of the Acts of the Apostles, also created a scandal; both brother and sister followed Titus to Rome, and were allowed to reside in the imperial palace . Public opinion was outraged, and Titus, though he had promised Berenice marriage, felt obliged to send her back to the East. Vespasian died in 79, leaving his son a safe throne and a well-filled treasury. The forebodings of the people were agreeably disappointed, for Titus put an end to prosecutions for high treason, and the delatores (informers) were scourged and expelled from the city. He assumed the office of pontifex maximus, in order that he might keep his hands free from blood. He forgave his brother Domitian, who more than once plotted against his life, and having let a day pass without bestowing a present, he exclaimed, " I have lost a day." Titus, like his father, spent money in adding to the magnificence of Rome. The Flavian amphitheatre (later called the Colosseum) was completed and dedicated in his reign, with combats of gladiators, shows of wild beasts, and representations of some of the great Greek naval battles . He gave the city splendid baths, which surpassed those of Agrippa and of Nero, and supplied the mob with every kind of luxury . During his reign, in 79, occurred the eruption of Vesuvius which destroyed Herculaneum and Pompeii. The emperor visited the scenes and contributed liberally to the relief of the distressed inhabitants. During his absence a fire raged for three days at Rome, in which the new temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, the library of Augustus, and other public buildings were burnt; then followed a pestilence, and Titus again assisted freely with his purse. Italy and the Roman world were peaceful during his reign . The only fighting was in Britain under Agricola, who in the year 80 arried the Roman arms as far as the Tay. Titus died on the 13th of September 81. The verdict of history is favourable to him, but the general feeling throughout the Roman world was that he had been fortunate in the briefness of his reign . See Suetonius, Titus: Dio Cassius lxvi . 18-26; C . [Ency Britannica 1911]


Titus Statue in Cuirass and Cloak (Naples Museum)


Titus Face, Statue in Naples Museum


Colossal 8 ft. Marble Statue of Titus (Louvre Museum)


Titus Cuirass (Colossal Statue)


Titus Cuirass (Colossal Statue)


Detail of the fringe of Titus from the Augusteum at Herculaneum.


Titus Denarius, Front: Laurel wreath head, Rear: Jewish captive kneeling in front of trophy of arms.


Titus Aurius, Front: Laurel wreath head, Rear: Titus seated holding scepter and branch.


The Colosseum on a Roman coin (bronze sestertius) issued by Titus in AD 80 (British Museum)

Map of the Roman Empire in 68 AD

Key Dates in the Life of Titus

39 AD Titus is born, first born son of Vespasian and Domitilla

51 AD Domitian is born

54 AD Nero becomes Emperor

55 AD Britannicus (childhood friend of Titus) is poisoned+ by Nero

57-59 AD Titus is tribune in Germania

63 AD Titus returns to Rome and marries Arrecina Tertulla

64 AD The great fire of Rome, Christians are blamed

65 AD Tertulla dies, Titus marries Marcia Furnilla

65 AD Nero kicks his wife Poppaea in a rage and kills her

65 AD Titus divorces Marcia never to remarry

67 AD Nero appoints Vespasian to head campaign against Jews

67 AD Paul the Apostle dies in Rome

68 (June 9) Nero is forced to commit suicide (end of Julio-Claudian dynasty).

69 AD Vespasian enters Rome to become sole emperor until 79

70 AD Siege and fall of Jerusalem under military leadership of Vespasian's son, Titus.

70 AD Coliseum begun by Emperor Vespasian (funded by Jewish defeat).

73 AD Masada the final Jewish stronghold  is captured after a long siege.

76 AD Birth of the Emperor Hadrian in Rome.

77 AD Josephus publishes The War of the Jews

79 AD Vespasian dies and Titus succeeds his father as the tenth Roman Emperor.

79 AD Mt. Vesuvius erupts burying the towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Pliny the Elder dies by getting too close.

81 AD on September 13 Titus dies of a fever on his way to the Sabine territories.

Titus (79–81 C.E.) Titus, the eldest son of Vespasian, had been groomed to rule. He had served as an effective general under his father, helping to secure the east and eventually taking over the command of Roman armies in Syria and Iudaea, quelling the significant Jewish revolt going on at the time. He shared the consul for several years with his father and received the best tutelage. Although there was some trepidation when he took office because of his known dealings with some of the less respectable elements of Roman society, he quickly proved his merit, even recalling many exiled by his father as a show of good faith. However, his short reign was marked by disaster: in 79 C.E., Mount Vesuvius erupted in Pompeii, and in 80, a fire destroyed much of Rome. His generosity in rebuilding after these tragedies made him very popular. Titus was very proud of his work on the vast amphitheater begun by his father. He held the opening ceremonies in the still unfinished edifice during the year 80, celebrating with a lavish show that featured 100 gladiators and lasted 100 days. Titus died in 81 C.E., at the age of 41 of what is presumed to be illness; it was rumored that his brother Domitian murdered him in order to become his successor, although these claims have little merit. Whatever the case, he was greatly mourned and missed. [ New World Encyclopedia]

The Death of Titus

History* records Titus as saying these last words at his death: "I have made but one mistake". The exact meaning is not certain, but many believe he was murdered by Domitian and these words were directed at him.

* See Suetonius and Cassius Dio

Jewish Account of the Death of Titus. According to the Babylonian Talmud (Gittin 56b), an insect flew into Titus's nose and picked at his brain for seven years. He noticed that the sound of a blacksmith hammering caused the ensuing pain to abate, so he paid for blacksmiths to hammer nearby him; however, the effect wore off and the insect resumed its gnawing. When he died, they opened his skull and found the insect had grown to the size of a bird. The Talmud gives this as the cause of his death and interprets it as divine retribution for his wicked actions. [Wikipedia]

 

The Arch of Titus

Photo of the Arch of Titus in Rome
The Arch of Titus in 2011

The inscription in Roman square capitals reads:

SENATVS
POPVLVSQVE·ROMANVS
DIVO·TITO·DIVI·VESPASIANI·F(ILIO)
VESPASIANO·AVGVSTO

(Senatus Populusque Romanus divo Tito divi Vespasiani filio Vespasiano Augusto)

which means "The Roman Senate and People (dedicate this) to the divine Titus Vespasianus Augustus, son of the divine Vespasian."

The Arch of Titus Reliefs

Arch of Titus - Temple Menorah and Table Relief
The Roman soldiers carrying  spoils from Jerusalem, the Menorah and The Table

The relief on the south side of the Arch of Titus reveals one of the most troubling scenes in all history, Roman soldiers carrying spoils from the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. The Temple Menorah* and the Table** of the Shewbread shown at an angle, both of solid gold, and the silver trumpets which called the Jews to the festivals. The Romans are in triumphal procession wearing laurel crowns and the ones carrying the Menorah have pillows on their shoulders. The soldiers carry signs commemorating the victories which Titus had won. This group of soldiers is just a few of the hundreds in the actual triumphal procession down Rome's Sacred Way. The whole procession is about to enter the carved arch on the right which reveals the quadriga at the top, Titus on his 4-horsed chariot with soldiers. The Arch of Titus with its Menorah Relief are high on the list of importance in the study of Biblical Archaeology because it stands today as a testimony that the words of Jesus miraculously came true.

* When the temple was plundered by Antiochus Epiphanes, the candlestick was taken away (1 Macc 1:21); after the cleansing, a new one was made by Judas Maccabeus (1 Macc 4:49,50).

* * The 'table' originally provided for the second Temple had been taken away by Antiochus Epiphanes (about 170 BC); but another was supplied by the Maccabees.

Jesus said:

"If you had known, even you, especially in this your day, the things that make for your peace! But now they are hidden from your eyes. For days will come upon you when your enemies will build an embankment around you, surround you and close you in on every side, and level you, and your children within you, to the ground; and they will not leave in you one stone upon another, because you did not know the time of your visitation."  - Luke 19:41-44 

"O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the one who kills the prophets and stones those who are sent to her! How often I wanted to gather your children together, as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, but you were not willing! See! Your house is left to you desolate; for I say to you, you shall see Me no more till you say, 'Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord!'" - Matthew 23:37-39

The second scene on the north side of the Arch of Titus reveals the actual triumphal procession of Roman soldiers who conquered Jerusalem in 70 AD. Titus is in his chariot  with the winged Victory riding beside him who places a wreathe on his head, the goddess Roma or Virtus is leading the horses, along with the semi-nude Genius of the People. Because the reliefs were carved so deeply, some of the heads have broken off. The Arch of Titus with its reliefs are high on the list of importance in the study of Biblical Archaeology because it reveals a scene in history that testifies to the events predicted by Jesus regarding Jerusalem. 


Relief on the Arch of Titus depicting Titus entering the arch on a chariot with the favor of the gods.


TITUS (full name, Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus):

Emperor of Rome from 79 to 81; born in 39 or 41; died Sept. 13, 81; son of Vespasian, the conqueror of Jerusalem. He was educated at the courts of Claudius and Nero. Titus served first in Germany and later in Britain under his father, whom he subsequently assisted greatly in Judea by suppressing the rebellion of the Jews.

In Judea.

While Vespasian was operating in Galilee, the news of the death of Nero (June 9, 68) was received; and Titus, accompanied by Agrippa II., was sent to Rome to swear allegiance to Nero's successor. Galba was murdered in the meantime, however; and Titus hastened back to Judea, where the Egyptian and Syrian troops proclaimed Vespasian emperor, an occurrence which Josephus declares he had predicted in the presence of Titus himself (Josephus, "B. J." iii. 8, § 9; comp. Suidas, s.v. Ἰώσητος; in Dion Cassius, lxvi. 1, Titus is not mentioned). It was Titus, moreover, who, under the leadership of his father, reduced the cities of Jotapata, Taricheæ, and Giscala, where he displayed, on the one hand, great courage and contempt of death, and, on the other, bitter cruelty toward the conquered; when, therefore, Vespasian went to Rome as emperor, Titus was left to prosecute the Jewish war.

Besieges Jerusalem.

With a considerable force he left Cæsarea andreached the walls of Jerusalem a few days before the Passover festival of the year 70. Omitting the details of this memorable war, only those events which concern Titus personally need be mentioned here. Together with 600 horsemen he rode ahead of his main army to reconnoiter the surrounding country, and had ventured so far in advance that only his valor saved him from capture in a Jewish attack ("B. J." v. 2, § 2). He endeavored at first to persuade the Jews to submit by making promises to them (Dion Cassius, lxvi. 4); and Josephus was sent to them several times with messages to that effect. They refused all overtures, however; and batteringrams were then set in action, and the beleaguerment of Jerusalem began. The Jews often destroyed these siege-works, and during one of their sorties Titus himself was so severely wounded in the left shoulder by a stone that his hand remained weak ever afterward (Dion Cassius, l.c. § 5; Josephus in "B. J." v. 6, § 2 relates a similar occurrence, although he does not mention the wounding of Titus). According to Dion Cassius, the Romans refused to attack the Temple on account of their respect for its sanctity; and Titus had to force them to do so. Josephus, on the other hand, differs on this point also, stating instead that Titus first held a council of war with his commanding officers, among them Tiberius Julius Alexander, and that certain generals advised the destruction of the Temple. He himself, however, wished to spare it ("B. J." vi. 4, § 3), and gave orders to extinguish the fire which had begun to consume the cloisters, apparently displaying this mildness either on account of Berenice or to show his friendship for Agrippa. Against this stands the narrative of the monk Sulpicius, who is said to have drawn his information from Tacitus; and, following this authority, Jacob Bernays ("Programm des Jüdisch-Theologischen Seminars in Breslau," 1861, p. 48) charges Josephus with untruthfulness; Grätz, however ("Gesch." iii. 539), is inclined to believe in the veracity of Josephus' statement.


Burning of the Temple.

On the following day (the tenth of Ab, 70) the Jews made a desperate sortie, and one of the Roman soldiers, weary of fighting, threw a burning piece of wood into the Temple. In vain did Titus give orders to extinguish the flames; his voice was drowned in the uproar. Titus himself, impelled by curiosity, entered the Sanctuary, but the smoke forced him to withdraw; and thus the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem became associated with his name. On the ruins of the Sanctuary Titus was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers ("B. J." vi. 6, § 1; Dion Cassius, l.c. § 7; Suetonius, "Titus," v.), although both he and his father refused the epithet "Judaicus," because the word might suggest an inclination toward the Jewish religion (see, however, Joël, "Blicke in die Religionsgeschichte," ii. 46).

Arches of Titus.

Even Josephus was able to point to only scanty traces of mildness in the life of Titus, while, on the other hand, cruelties are recorded which must be attributed to personal hatred on his part, and not to the unavoidable harshness of war. In Cæsarea in Palestine, in Cæsarea Philippi, and in Berytus he forced the captive Jews to fight against wild animals and also against one another; and many thousands more were slain to please the revengeful Syrians and Greeks. It was in Rome, however, that he celebrated his triumphs, together with his father and his brother Domitian; there 700 Jews of splendid physique and the leaders of the Zealots, John of Giscala and Simon bar Giora, helped to grace his procession. Two triumphal arches were erected in his honor. Of these, one no longer exists, and is remembered only on account of the inscription which it bore ("C. I. L." vi. 444), but the other, a beautiful structure, still stands in Rome, and on it may be seen representations of the captured vessels of the Temple. See Titus, Arch of.

Rabbinical Legends.

The Jews hated Titus on account of his share in the destruction of the Temple; and the Rabbis accordingly termed him "Titus the miscreant," thus contrasting sharply with the statements of the classical writers, who regarded him as an ornament of the human race. It may be proved, however, that he was anything but upright while he was crown prince; indeed, he was cruel, licentious, and ambitious, and was even suspected of having sought to poison his father. Only during the latter part of his reign did he display praiseworthy qualities. A significant saying of frequent recurrence in rabbinic sources is to the effect that he was honored in Rome as the conqueror of the barbarians (υικητὴς βαρβάρων; Gen. R. x.; Lev. R. xxii. 3; Lam. R., Introduction, No. 23, etc.), thus showing that the Jews were regarded as an inferior and barbarous nation. All the other accounts of Titus in rabbinical literature are purely legendary, and their utter unreliability is shown by the fact that he is called the nephew instead of the son of Vespasian, a view which was repeatedin medieval chronicles (Neubauer, "M. J. C." i. 50, 70). In the Holy of Holies, moreover, he was said to have pierced the veil of the Ark, to have had intercourse with two courtezans (a reminiscence of his relations with Berenice), and to have defiled the Torah (ib.; Giṭ. 56b); in short, to have blasphemed God. That he packed the sacred vessels in a basket and took them on board his ship was also stated in rabbinical tradition. As he stepped from his bath—so runs a legend—a drink was handed to him, when suddenly a gnat () stung him in the nose, and thus caused his death (Ab. R. N., Recension B, vii.; it is noteworthy that this form of retribution also figures in Arabic legends, which often confuse Titus with Nebuchadnezzar, who likewise destroyed the Temple; "R. E. J." lxix. 212). This has been interpreted as implying that Titus became melancholy and insane in his declining years (Hamburger, "R. B. T." s.v.); but such an explanation seems inadmissible. Despite the Jewish hatred of Titus, many Jews as well as Christians have borne his name (in the New Testament, Titus i. 4; Gal. ii. 3; II Cor. ii. 13, and elsewhere; for the Jews, see Krauss, "Lehnwörter," ii. 262); and in later times four prominent Jewish families of Italy have traced their descent from prisoners taken by him (see Rome).

The medieval Jews invented numerous legends concerning Titus; thus, according to "Yosippon" and Benjamin of Tudela, the Roman consuls (i.e., senators) blamed him for taking three years instead of two to conquer Jerusalem. Benjamin claims also to have seen the supposed palace of Titus at Rome; and, according to Abraham ibn Daud ("Sefer ha-Ḳabbalah)," ed. Prague, 1795, p. 40b), Titus put to death the high priest Ishmael b. Elisha and R. Simeon b. Gamaliel, although only the latter was actually executed. The names of hosts of other patriots and martyrs who lost their lives through Titus are unknown.

[Jewish Encyclopedia]


 


Sketch of Vespasian entering the arch on a chariot with Jewish spoils commemorating Rome's victory over the Jews

Giulio Romano Painting - The Triumph of Titus and Vespasian in the Louvre Museum
Giulio Romano Painting of the Triumph of Titus and Vespasian in the Louvre Museum

Painting of The Triumph of Titus and Vespasian, H. 1,21, — W, 1,70. W. Heads 0,60. Vespasian and his son Titus, conquerors of Judea, crowned with the laurels of Victory, are standing in the same car, drawn by four piebald horses, and are about passing under the triumphal arch, erected in commemoration of this event. Two squires, crowned with laurels, are leading the horses; on the left, a soldier, also crowned, is carrying a precious vase. Before the car, a roman officer holds by the hair a Jewess, personification of conquered Judea ; he is preceded by a soldier, carrying the candlestick with seven branches, of the temple of Jerusalem. In the back ground, the country of Rome, where, a short time afterwards, Vespasian caused the Coliseum to be built by the Jews reduced to slavery. Collection of Louis XIV, [Louvre Guide]

The arch of Titus still spans the ancient Sacra Via at Rome, at the top of the Velian ridge. Its beautiful proportions make it one of the most interesting monuments of the eternal city. Its noble sculptures, unfortunately, have not been well preserved, but still within the vault can be traced the sevenbranched candlestick, the golden table, and the sorrowful train of Jews, as the captives bear the desecrated relics of the destroyed Temple beneath the cruel eyes of their conquerors. So, after eighteen hundred years, the solemn marble commemorates a tragedy than which calamity was never more complete! [The Story of the Jews]

Arch of Titus Soldiers Carrying Jewish Candlestick and Sign
Close up of the Golden 7-branched menorah carried off by the Roman legions in 70 AD,

Luke 19:41-44  "If you had known, even you, especially in this your day, the things that make for your peace! But now they are hidden from your eyes. For days will come upon you when your enemies will build an embankment around you, surround you and close you in on every side, and level you, and your children within you, to the ground; and they will not leave in you one stone upon another, because you did not know the time of your visitation." 

Matthew 23:37-39 "O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the one who kills the prophets and stones those who are sent to her! How often I wanted to gather your children together, as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, but you were not willing! See! Your house is left to you desolate; for I say to you, you shall see Me no more till you say, 'Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord!'"

Heart Message 

The Arch of Titus

Another witness of stone testifies before the jury of history. Proud and tall the Arch of Titus stoically watches over the highest point of the Via Sacra in Rome. It appears quiet, but as one focuses on its majestic beauty, the story begins to raise its voice. The procession carved in marble shows the Roman General Titus returning victorious, having crushed the Jewish state, carrying the spoils of war stolen from the very Temple of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. 

There's the menorah relief, showing a representation of the Golden Candelabra that Moses set in the Holy Place offering light and symbolism for the priests. The same shape that we see in the windows of Jewish homes during Hanukah commemorating a former time of victory for Israel. The Table of the ShewBread is is also carried off by the exulting Romans, the sacred furniture that was restocked with daily bread declaring the sustenance which can only come from God. The silver trumpets are there as well, which were once blown from the Temple and heard over the entire city as the Holy Days and celebration began during a happier time.

One only has to look at this relief and imagine it reversing like a film running backwards to see the dreadful death and destruction that was left behind by the invincible Roman Legion; the thousands that were slaughtered, the glorious city burning and in ruins, and those surviving banished to Europe in chains where their descendants will remain for almost 2,000 years until the miraculous events of 1948 brought Israel back into nationhood once again.

The mighty Arch of Titus tells its story to all who have a moment to listen. 

"This happened!" it declares. "But you must seek out for yourself the reason why."

 


Reproduction of the Arch of Titus Relief


Sketch of the Arch of Titus Relief in 1871



Sketch of the Arch of Titus in 1871

Arch of Titus, erected by the Senate and people in honour of Titus, to commemorate the conquest of Jerusalem, It stands on the Summa Sacra Via, or highest point of the Via Sacra. It is the most elegant of all the triumphal arches, and as a record of Scripture history is, beyond doubt, one of the most interesting ruins in Rome. It consists of a single arch of white marble, with fluted columns of the Composite order on each side. In the time of Pius VII. it was falling into ruin, and would have perished but for the judicious restorations then made. It is easy to distinguish these modern additions, which are in travertine, from the ancient portion. The front towards the Forum has suffered more than that on the side of the Coliseum, and has preserved only a portion of the basement, and about half of the columns, with the mutilated figures of Victories over the arch. On the latter side the columns are more perfect, and nearly all the cornice and the attic are in tolerable preservation. The sculptures of the frieze represent a procession of warriors leading oxen to the sacrifice; on the keystone is the figure of a Roman warrior, nearly entire. On the attic is the original inscription, finely cut, showing by the introduction of the word " divo" that it was erected after the death of Titus, and without doubt by his successor Domitian: SENATVS . POPVLVSQVE . ROMANVS DIVO . TITO . DIVI . VESPASIANI . F VESPASIANO . AVGVSTO. The bas-reliefs on the piers under the arch are highly interesting. On one side is a representation of a procession bearing the spoils from the Temple of Jerusalem, among which may still be recognised the golden table, the silver trumpets, and the seven-branched candlestick of massive gold, which were said to have been thrown into the Tiber from the Milvian bridge during the flight of Maxentius, after his defeat by Constantine on the Via Flaminia. The size of this candelabrum, as here represented, appears to be nearly a man's height: so that both in size and form these bas-reliefs perfectly correspond with the description of Josephus, and are the only authentic representations of these sacred objects. On the other pier the emperor is represented crowned by Victory in his triumphal car, drawn by four horses, and surrounded by Romans carrying the fasces. The vault of the arch is richly ornamented with sunk panels and roses; in the centre is a bas-relief representing the divinization of Titus. The rising ground on which the Arch of Titus stands formed in ancient times that part of the Velia which connected the Palatine with the Carinae and the Esquiline about the Tordei Conti; near it topographers place the House of Numa, and the Porta Mugionis of the walls of Romulus. [Arches of Rome]


 Stones from Jerusalem thrown onto the street by Roman soldiers on Av 9, 70



Painting of the Destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans in 70 AD by Ercole de Roberti

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Titus in Wikipedia (Latin: Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus;[1] 30 December 39 – 13 September 81), was Roman Emperor from 79 to 81. A member of the Flavian dynasty, Titus succeeded his father Vespasian upon his death, thus becoming the first Roman Emperor to come to the throne after his own father. Prior to becoming Emperor, Titus gained renown as a military commander, serving under his father in Judaea during the First Jewish-Roman War. The campaign came to a brief halt with the death of emperor Nero in 68, launching Vespasian's bid for the imperial power during the Year of the Four Emperors. When Vespasian was declared Emperor on 1 July 69, Titus was left in charge of ending the Jewish rebellion. In 70, he successfully laid siege to and destroyed the city and Temple of Jerusalem. For this achievement Titus was awarded a triumph; the Arch of Titus commemorates his victory to this day. Under the rule of his father, Titus gained notoriety in Rome serving as prefect of the Praetorian Guard, and for carrying on a controversial relationship with the Jewish queen Berenice. Despite concerns over his character, Titus ruled to great acclaim following the death of Vespasian in 79, and was considered a good emperor by Suetonius and other contemporary historians. As emperor, he is best known for completing the Colosseum and for his generosity in relieving the suffering caused by two disasters, the Mount Vesuvius eruption of 79 and a fire in Rome in 80. After barely two years in office, Titus died of a fever on 13 September 81. He was deified by the Roman Senate and succeeded by his younger brother Domitian. [Wikipedia]

TITUS FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS, the eldest son of the emperor Vespasian, was born on the 29th of December, a.d. 40, and was educated at the court of Nero, along with Britannicus, and contracted a great friendship with that unfortunate prince, who was poisoned by Nero in a.d. 55. He distinguished himself at an early age as tribunus militum in Britain and Germany. He became afterwards quaestor; and in a.d. 67, he commanded one of the legions, under his father, in Palestine, where he showed much military skill and personal courage in the siege and capture of the towns of Taricheae and Gamala. After the murder of Nero, (a.d. 69,) he was sent by his father to Rome, in order to gain the favour of Galba, the new emperor. He had proceeded as far as Corinth, when he was informed that Galba had been murdered. He thereupon returned to Judaea. On the termination of the short reign of Vitellius, Vespasian was, by the support of Mucianus, the pro-consul of Syria, Tiberius Alexander, and Titus, proclaimed emperor by the army in the East, while his brother Flavius Sabinus occupied for him the Capitol in Rome, and compelled Vitellius to lay down the imperial diadem. Vespasian left Judaea for Rome ; and the command of the army of Judaea, and the continuation of the war, devolved upon Titus. As soon as Vespasian had taken possession of the imperial authority, he declared Titus his colleague in the consulate, a.d. 70. In the mean time that prince was carrying on the arduous siege of Jerusalem, which city, after suffering the most horrible calamities, was taken on the 2nd September, in that year, with the destruction of the Temple, which Titus in vain attempted to save. The cruelties of that memorable siege, in which Jews fought against Jews with more ferocity than against the common enemy, are scarcely paralleled in history. After the reduction of Jerusalem he went to Alexandria, where he assisted at the consecration of the ox Apis. But finding that his delays occasioned some sinister rumours, he hastened back to Rome, where his father and himself were honoured with a magnificent triumph for their victories over the Jews, in commemoration of which a triumphal arch was erected, which is still one of the finest monuments of antiquity at Rome.

Vespasian now took Titus for his colleague in the empire; and he exercised a large share of the imperial power in perfect concert with his father. If Suetonius, however, is to be credited, his conduct during this part of his life was very far from being unblemished. During the Jewish war he had contracted a violent passion for Berenice, daughter of Agrippa I. king of the Jews, and widow of Herod, king of Chalcis, who followed him to Rome ; and the Roman people were much displeased by this attachment to a foreign queen of a doubtful reputation. But he sent, invitus invitam, Berenice back to Judaea, and by this proved that his passion for her did not prevent him from doing his duty. He gave soon after still more decisive proofs of the excellence of his character. Vespasian died a.d. 79, and Titus immediately succeeded to the whole sovereign power ; and the accounts transmitted to us of his short reign present little more than a series of deeds of princely beneficence. One of his first acts was the confirmation of all the grants and donations which had been made by his predecessors, and which it had formerly been customary to regard as annulled at the demise of each sovereign till they were renewed by the successor. His example in this point became a rule to all succeeding emperors. When he took possession of the office of chief pontiff, he made a declaration that he received it as a solemn engagement never to imbrue his hands in the blood of a citizen. A more extensive benefit was his abrogation of the law of majesty, or high-treason, 254 with respect to all accusations for words or writings against the person or dignity of the emperor — a fertile source in many preceding reigns of disquiet and ruin to exalted individuals. The principal public events of this reign were, the great eruption of Mount Vesuvius, in which Herculaneum, Stabiae, Pompeii, and other towns, were buried, (August, a.d. 79 ;) and a dreadful conflagration in Rome, followed by a fatal epidemic disorder (a. d. 80). These calamities called forth the bounty of Titus to relieve the sufferers in property, and his humanity and compassion, in alleviating other distresses. In this reign, also, Agricola restored tranquillity to Britain, and penetrated as far as the Frith of Tay, (a.d. 80 ;) and in the following year he constructed the wall between the Frith of Clyde and the Frith of Forth, in order to protect Britain from the incursions of the Caledonians. Still the object of the warm affection of his subjects, and unstained by a single act of injustice or oppression, Titus was seized with a fever on a visit to the country of the Sabines, which soon exhibited dangerous symptoms. It is said, that, opening his litter as he travelled, and looking towards heaven, he complained of his early doom, adding, " for I have nothing with which to reproach myself in my life, except a single action." What this was he did not explain, and it can be only a matter of conjecture. He died on the 13th September, a.d. 81, at a villa near Reate, the same family-seat at which his father expired, in the 41st year of his age, and after a reign of two years and less than three months, leaving no male offspring. His death was deplored at Rome as a general calamity. He was succeeded by his brother Domitian.  [Biographical Dictionary]
 

Arch of Titus in Wikipedia The Arch of Titus is a 1st-century honorific arch located on the Via Sacra, Rome, just to the south-east of the Roman Forum. It was constructed in c.82 AD by the Roman Emperor Domitian shortly after the death of his older brother Titus to commemorate Titus' victories, including the Siege of Jerusalem in 70 AD... Significance. The Arch provides one of the few contemporary depictions of Temple period artifacts. The seven-branched menorah and trumpets are clearly depicted. It became a symbol of the Jewish diaspora. In a later era, Pope Paul IV made it the place of a yearly oath of submission. Roman Jews refused to walk under it. The menorah depicted on the Arch served as the model for the menorah used on the emblem of the state of Israel...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arch_of_Titus

THE ARCH OF TITUS. It was erected in commemoration of the capture and destruction of Jerusalem, and in honour of the successful general, by the Senate and Roman people. Crowning the highest point of the Sacred Way, the Summa Sacra Via, not only is it the most elegant of all the triumphal arches, but also, as from its connection with Scripture history it has been justly styled, " one of the most interesting ruins in Rome." It consists of a single arch of white marble, flanked by a fluted Composke column. During the pontificate of Pius VII it was rescued from impending ruin by extensive and judicious restorations; which, however, unlike the ancient portions, were executed in travertine. The sculptures with which it is embellished are of a very elaborate character. Those of the frieze represent a procession of warriors conducting white bulls or oxen to the sacrificial altar ; the keystone of the arch is adorned with a spirited figure of a Roman warrior. On the attic, he who runs may read the original inscription ; which, it is evident, from the use of the word divo ("divine"), was recorded after the death of Titus, the "delight of the human race," and, probably, by his successor Domitian. It runs thus:

SENATVS . POPVLVSQVE . ROMANVS . DIVO . TITO . DIVI . VESPASIANI . F . VESPASIANO . AVGVSTO.

The piers, under the arch, are covered with bas-reliefs of remarkable interest. On the one side may be seen a body of Roman soldiers bearing the precious spoils from the Temple of Jerusalem ; among which conspicuously shine the golden table, the silver trumpets, and the seven- ranched candlestick of massive gold, which afterwards fell into the Tiber from the Milvian Bridge, during the flight of the Emperor Maxentius before the victorious arms of Constantine." The size of this candlestick, as here represented, appears to be nearly a man's height : so that both in size and form these bas- reliefs perfectly correspond with the description of Josephus, and are the only authentic representations of these sacred objects." On the other side we see the Imperator himself, crowned by the goddess Victory, seated in his triumphal quadriga, or chariot drawn by four horses, with the lictors bearing their laurel-wreathed fasces before him, and around him soldiers and citizens, cheering tumultuously, and waving boughs of laurel. The vaulted roof of the arch is richly ornamented with sunk panels and roses, while a central bas- relief is devoted to the apotheosis of Titus. The length of the arch is 49 feet; its breadth, 16 feet 6 inches ; its height is equal to its length. The width of its passage, or opening, is 19 feet. Above the entablature rises an attic, 12 feet in height. The arch is semicircular, and springs from a horizontal moulding, called the impost which crosses the front of the building at about 22 feet from the ground. The height of the Composite marble columns on either side of the opening is 22,065 feet, and they stand upon pedestals 9 feet high. [Roman Architecture]

The Arch of Titus. The arch of Titus is the most celebrated as well as the oldest now standing and the smallest of the so-called triumphal arches in Rome. It was erected in summa Sacra via by Domitian, in honor of the deified Titus and in commemoration of his siege of Jerusalem. It suffered serious damage in the middle ages, especially during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, when it formed part of the city stronghold of the Frangipani family. In 1822 it was taken down and rebuilt. The central portion alone, of Pentelic marble, is original, the two ends being restorations in travertine. The archway is 8.30 metres high and 5.35 metres wide. Above it is a simple entablature, and an attic 4.40 metres in height, on which is the inscription. On each side is an engaged and fluted Corinthian column, standing on a square pedestal. The capital of these columns are the earliest examples of Composite style. On the inner jambs of the arch are the two famous reliefs, that on the south representing the spoils from the temple at Jerusalem, the table of shewbread, the seven-branched candlestick, and the silver trumpets, which are being carried in triumph into the city ; and that on the north representing Titus standing in a quadriga, the horses of which are led by Eoma, while Victory crowns the emperor with laurel as he passes through a triumphal arch. In the centre of the ceiling of the archway, which is finished in soffits (lacunaria), is a relief of the apotheosis of Titus, representing him as being carried up to heaven by an eagle. The frieze is ornamented with small figures representing sacrificial scenes, and in the spandrels are the usual winged Victories. On the keystones are figures of Roma and the Genius Populi Romani (or Fortuna) with a cornucopia. Since the foundations of the arch rest upon the pavement of the clivus Palatinus (cf. p. 312), it has been supposed by some that the arch stood originally farther north and was moved when the temple of Venus and Roma was built, a rather doubtful hypothesis. [Topography of Ancient Rome]

The Arch of Titus. The Arch of Titus, the most ancient, and perhaps the most faultless, of the Triumphal Arches was the work of an age when the arts, which, in the reign of Domitian, had degenerated from their ancient simplicity into a style of false and meretricious ornament, had revived in their fullest purity and vigour, beneath the patronage of Trajan. But we now see it to great disadvantage. The hand of time has robbed it of much of its ancient beauty ; his "effacing fingers" have obliterated much of the expression and grace, and even outline of the bas reliefs, the design and composition of which we can yet admire. It consists of a single arch; of eight marble columns that once adorned it, four have entirely disappeared, and two only are entire. The interior of the arch is decorated with two fine bas reliefs, representing, on one side, Titus in his car of triumph, conducted by the Genius of Eome, and crowned by the hand of Victory; on the other, the spoils of the Temple of Jerusalem, the seven branched candlesticks, the trumpets, the golden table with the shew-bread, and the captive Jews. On the roof is the apotheosis of Titus ; for this arch of his triumph was not erected till the victor was cold in the grave. But this beautiful monument, raised by the taste and generosity of one emperor to the virtues and glory of another, now totters to its fall; and no distant generation may perhaps see even its ruins only in description. Yet, mutilated and mouldered as it is, it affords the earliest, and perhaps the most faultless, specimen of the composite order which ancient taste has bequeathed to modern times. [Triumphal Arches - 1852]

The Arch of Titus. THE ARCH OF TITUS. It was erected in commemoration of the capture and destruction of Jerusalem, and in honour of the successful general, by the Senate and Roman people. Crowning the highest point of the Sacred Way, the Summa Sacra Via, not only is it the most elegant of all the triumphal arches, but also, as from its connection with Scripture history it has been justly styled, "one of the most interesting ruins in Rome." It consists of a single arch of white marble, flanked by a fluted Composite column. During the pontificate of Pius VII, it was rescued from impending ruin by extensive and judicious restorations ; which, however, unlike the ancient portions, were executed in travertine. The sculptures with which it is embellished are of a very elaborate character. Those of the frieze represent a procession of warriors conducting white bulls or oxen to the sacrificial altar; the keystone of the arch is adorned with a spirited figure of a Roman warrior. On the attic, he who runs may read the original inscription; which, it is evident, from the use of the word divo ("divine"), was recorded after the death of Titus, the "delight of the human race," and, probably, by his successor Domitian. It runs thus:

SENATVS POPVLVSQVE ROMANVS DIVO TITO DIVI VESPASIANI F VESPASIANO AVGVSTO.

The piers, under the arch, are covered with bas-reliefs of remarkable interest. On the one side may be seen a body of Roman soldiers bearing the precious spoils from the Temple of Jerusalem; among which conspicuously shine the golden table, the silver trumpets, and the seven-branched candlestick of massive gold, which afterwards fell into the Tiber from the Milvian Bridge, during the flight of the Emperor Maxentius before the victorious arms of Constantine." The size of this candlestick, as here represented, appears to be nearly a man's height: so that both in size and form these bas- reliefs perfectly correspond with the description of Josephus, and are the only authentic representations of these sacred objects." On the other side we see the Imperator himself, crowned by the goddess Victory, seated in his triumphal quadriga, or chariot drawn by four horses, with the lictors bearing their laurel-wreathed fasces before him, and around him soldiers and citizens, cheering tumultuously, and waving boughs of laurel. The vaulted roof of the arch is richly ornamented with sunk panels and roses, while a central bas-relief is devoted to the apotheosis of Titus. The length of the arch is 49 feet; its breadth, 16 feet 6 inches ; its height is equal to its length. The width of its passage, or opening, is 19 feet. Above the entablature rises an attic, 12 feet in height. The arch is semicircular, and springs from a horizontal moulding, called the impost which crosses the front of the building at about 22 feet from the ground. The height of the Composite marble columns on either side of the opening is 22,065 feet, and they stand upon pedestals 9 feet high. [The Summa Sacra Via, 1871]

The Arch of Titus. The arch of Titus is the most celebrated as well as the oldest now standing and the smallest of the so-called triumphal arches in Rome. It was erected in summa Sacra via by Domitian, in honor of the deified Titus and in commemoration of his siege of Jerusalem. It suffered serious damage in the middle ages, especially during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, when it formed part of the city stronghold of the Frangipani family. In 1822 it was taken down and rebuilt. The central portion alone, of Pentelic marble, is original, the two ends being restorations in travertine. The archway is 8.30 metres high and 5.35 metres wide.1 Above it is a simple entablature, and an attic 4.40 metres in height, on which is the inscription. 2 On each side is an engaged and fluted Corinthian column, standing on a square pedestal. The capital of these columns are the earliest examples of Composite style. On the inner jambs of the arch are the two famous reliefs, 1 that on the south representing the spoils from the temple at Jerusalem, the table of shewbread, the seven-branched candlestick, and the silver trumpets, which are being carried in triumph into the city ; and that on the north representing Titus standing in a quadriga, the horses of which are led by Eoma, while Victory crowns the emperor with laurel as he passes through a triumphal arch. In the centre of the ceiling of the archway, which is finished in soffits (lacunaria), is a relief of the apotheosis of Titus, representing him as being carried up to heaven by an eagle. The frieze is ornamented with small figures representing sacrificial scenes, and in the spandrels are the usual winged Victories. On the keystones are figures of Roma and the Genius Populi Romani (or Fortuna) with a cornucopia. [Monuments of Ancient Rome 1911]

The Arch of Titus. It is also reported that the 74 THE SACK OF THE VANDALS IN 455 75 trophies of the Jewish war, represented in the basreliefs of the arch of Titus and deposited by him in the temple of Peace, fell into the hands of the barbarians. [THE SACK OF THE VANDALS IN 455]

THE SACRA VIA AND THE VELIA. The Sacra via, the oldest and most famous street in Rome, began at the sacellum Streniae a shrine mentioned only in this connection, and undoubtedly near the lucus Streniae in the Colosseum valley, and ran northwest to the summit of the Velia, which it crossed near the arch of Titus. This was the summa Sacra via, and from here the street curved toward the north and entered the Forum at the fornix Fabianus. Its course from this point to the Capitol has been described . Originally the name Sacra via was given only to that part of the street which was between the Velia and the Forum, but it was soon made to include the whole extent from the Colosseum to the Forum, and in modern times even the part within the Forum. The part from the Forum to the Velia was also called the Sacer clivus. [Topography of Ancient Rome 1911]

Vespasian (69 a. d.) was made emperor by his army in Judea. An old-fashioned Roman, he sought to revive the ancient virtues of honesty and frugality. His son Titus, after capturing Jerusalem (pp. 85, 284), shared the throne with his father, and finally succeeded to the empire. His generosity and kindness won him the name of the Delight of Mankind. He refused to sign a death-warrant, and pronounced any day lost in which he had not done some one a favor. During this happy period, Agricola conquered nearly all Britain, making it a Roman province; the famous Colosseum at Rome was finished ; but Pompeii and Herculaneum were destroyed by an eruption of Mount Vesuvius. [Political History of Rome]

TITUS Vespasian, son of Vespasian and Flavia Domitilla, became known by his valor in the Roman armies, particularly at the siege of Jerusalem. In the 79th year of the Christian era, he was invested with the imperial purple, and the Roman people had every reason to expect in him the barbarities of a Tiberius, and the debaucheries of a Nero. When raised to the throne, he thought himself bound to be the father of his people, the guardian of virtue, and the patron of liberty ; and Titus is, perhaps, the only monarch who, when invested with uncontrollable power, bade adieu to those vices, those luxuries, and indulgences, which, as a private man, he never ceased to gratify. All informers were banished from his presence, and even severely punished. A reform was made in the judicial proceedings, and trials were no longer permitted to be postponed for years. To do good to his subjects was the ambition of Titus ; and it was at the recollection that he had done no service, or granted no favor one day, that he exclaimed in the memorable words of, "My friends, I have lost a day" Two of the senators conspired against his life, but the emperor disregarded their attempts. He made them his friends by kindness, and, like another Nerva, presented them with a sword to destroy him. During his reign, Rome was three days on fire ; the towns of Campania were destroyed by an eruption of Vesuvius ; and the empire was visited by a pestilence, which carried off an infinite number of inhabitants. In this time of public calamity, the emperor's benevolence and philanthrophy were conspicuous. The Romans, however, had not long to enjoy the favors of this magnificent prince. Titus was taken ill; and as he retired into the country of the Sabines, to his father's house, his indisposition was increased by a burning fever. He died the 13th of September, A.D. 81, in the 41st year of his age, after a reign of two years, two months, and twenty days. [Historical and Biographical]

Vespasian (a.d. 69-79). A short troublous period followed the reign of Nero and then the imperial purple was assumed by Flavius Vespasian, the old and beloved commander of the legions in Palestine. One of the most memorable events of Vespasian's reign was the capture and destruction of Jerusalem. After one of the most harassing sieges recorded in history, the city was taken by Titus, son of Vespasian. A vast multitude of Jews who had crowded into the city—it was the season of the Passover — perished. In imitation of Nebuchadnezzar, Titus robbed the temple of its sacred utensils and bore them away as trophies. Upon the triumphal arch at Rome that bears his name may be seen at the present day the sculptured representation of the seven-branched golden candlestick, which was one of the memorials of the war. After a most prosperous reign of ten years Vespasian died a.d. 79, the first Emperor after Augustus who had not met with a violent death. [From Tiberius to the Accession of Diocletian]

VESPASIANUS, (Titus Flavius,) an obscure native of Reate, in the country of the Sabines, was born a.d. 9. In a.d. 39, in the third year of Caligula, he was made praetor. By his merits and virtues he rose to consequence in the Roman armies, and headed the expedition against Jerusalem. On the death of Vitellius a.d. 69, he was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers; and the wisdom, moderation, and firmness of his reign showed the propriety of the choice. This virtuous monarch, the liberal patron of learning, and the friend of morality and order, died a.d. 79, in the seventieth year of his age. [Biographical Dictionary]

Vespasian. The Flavians and the Antonines. Vespasian is the first of the good emperors. He restored the discipline of the army and of the Praetorian guards, abolished the treason courts, improved the administration of justice, and filled the state treasury by economy and sagacity. He built the temple of peace, and the Colosseum, whose ruins still excite the admiration of the traveler, brought back the Batavians of the lower Rhine to the obedience, and enlarged the borders of the i empire, by the conquests of Judea and of Britain. The oppressions of the Roman officers who governed Judea, especially the cruelty and greed of Gessius Florus, drove the people finally to rebellion. They fought with the courage of desparation, but were conquered by the Roman legions and forced into Jerusalem, which was besieged at first by Vespasian, and then afterward by his son Titus. The crowded city was so wasted by pestilence and starvation, that thousands plunged into the grave. Titus offered pardon in vain; rage and fanaticism urged the Jews to a desperate struggle. They defended their temple, until the magnificent building broke into flames, and death in every form raged among the vanquished. The victory of Titus was followed by the complete destruction of Jerusalem. Among the prisoners that followed the victorious chariot of the Roman, was the Jewish historian Josephus. The triumphal arch of Titus still standing in Rome, shows pictures of the Jewish sacred vessels, that were carried to the city. The Jews who were left at home, suffered terribly from Roman rule. But sixty years after the destruction of Jerusalem, Hadrian established a pagan colony on its sacred soil, which was called Alia Capitoltna : and erected on the heights, where the temple of Jehovah had been built by Solomon, a temple to Jupiter. The exasperated Jews, led by the fanatical Simon, " son of the star," took arms again to prevent this insult. In a murderous war of three years, in which half a million inhabitants were slaughtered, they were conquered by tlie Romans. The survivors wandered out in throngs. The laud resembled a desert, and the Jewish commonwealth came to an end. Since then the Jews live scattered over the whole earth, faithful to their customs, their religion, and their superstition ; but wholly separate from other peoples. Subsequently, the exiles were allowed, once a year, on payment of a certain sum, to weep over the ruins of their sacred city. During the reign of Vespasian, Agricola, the father-in-law of Tacitus, conquered Britain as far as the Scotch highlands, and introduced Roman institutions, customs, and speech. Britain remained subject to the Romans 400 years. The religion of the Druids yielded gradually to Roman paganism, and the foreign civilization struck root in the land. But the warlike strength of the people was weakened by' this contact with the Romans, so that the Britains were unable to resist the rough Picts and Scots, from whom the wall, erected by Hadrian, was not sufficient to protect them. The plain but powerful Vespasian was succeeded by his son Titus. The faults and sins of his youth were laid aside by the new emperor, and he earned for himself the splendid name " Love and Delight of the Human Race." During his reign Herculaneum and Pompeii were destroyed by the eruption of Vesuvius. Pliny, the elder, lost his life in this eruption, as we learn from a letter of his nephew to the historian Tacitus. The excavations made at these buried cities, especially at Pompeii, have been of immense importance to our knowledge of antiquity, and to the art of our own times. [Ancient World]


Portrait of Vespasian (Capitoline Museum)

REIGN OF T. FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS, A.D. 69-79.--Vespasian, the founder of the first Flavian family of emperors, was a soldier of fortune, who had risen from a low station to high command in the army. He was brave, active, free from vice, and, although fond of money, was never charged with extortion or rapacity. Toward the close of the summer, A.D. 70, he arrived in Rome, and received the imperium from the Senate. He began at once to restore discipline in the army, and raised to the rank of Senators and Equites illustrious men from the provinces, as well as from Italy and Rome, thus giving to the provincials a certain share in the government. The courts of justice were purified, the _Delatores_, or spies, were discountenanced, and trials for treason ceased. To increase his revenues, Vespasian renewed the taxes in several provinces which had been exempted by Nero, and he introduced economy and good order into the administration of the finances. Yet he expended large sums in rebuilding the Capitoline Temple, and also in completing the Colosseum, whose immense ruins form one of the most remarkable features in the modern scenery of Rome. He built, too, the Temple of Peace and a public library. He appointed lecturers upon rhetoric, with a salary of 100 sesterces, but was possessed himself of little mental cultivation. He is even said to have disliked literary men, and, in the year A.D. 74, expelled the Stoic and Cynic philosophers from Rome. In A.D. 70, September 2, his son Titus took the city of Jerusalem, after a brave defense by the Jews, who were finally betrayed by their own factions. The city was totally destroyed, and nearly half a million of the Jews perished in the siege. Those who survived, being forbidden to rebuild their city, were scattered over the empire, and each Jew was compelled to pay a yearly tax of two drachmae, which was appropriated to rebuilding the Capitoline Temple. The Arch of Titus, which still exists at Rome, was erected in commemoration of the fall of Jerusalem. Vespasian's generals repressed an insurrection of the Germans, and in A.D. 71 C. Julius Agricola, father-in-law of the historian Tacitus, entered Britain as legate to Petilius Cerialis. He was made governor of the province in A.D. 77, and led his victorious armies as far north as the Highlands of Scotland. This excellent character, by his justice and moderation, reconciled the Britons to the Roman yoke. By his first wife, Flavia Domatilla, Vespasian had three children--Titus, Domitian, and Domatilla. When she died he formed an inferior kind of marriage with Coenis, a woman of low station, who, however, seems to have deserved his esteem. He died 23d of June, A.D. 79, at the age of seventy. Although never a refined or cultivated man, Vespasian, by his hardy virtues, restored the vigor of the Roman government, and gave peace and prosperity to his subjects; while he who founded a library and established schools of rhetoric can not have been so wholly illiterate as some writers have imagined. [SM History of Rome]
 


Face of Titus (Palace of Versailles)

Titus (a.d. 79-81 ). In a short reign of two years Titus won the title of "the Friend and the Delight of Mankind." He was unwearied in acts of benevolence and in bestowal of favors. His reign was signalized by two great disasters. The first was a conflagration at Rome, which was almost as calamitous as the Great Fire in the reign of Nero. The second was the destruction, by an eruption of Vesuvius, of the Campanian cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. The cities were buried beneath showers of cinders, ashes, and streams of volcanic mud. Pliny the Elder, the great naturalist, venturing too near the mountain to investigate the phenomenon, lost his life. [From Tiberius to the Accession of Diocletian]

REIGN OF TITUS, A.D. 79-81. Titus was one of the most accomplished and benevolent of men. Eloquent, warlike, moderate in his desires, he was called _Amor et deliciae humani generis_, "The love and the delight of the human race." In early life he had been thought inclined to severity, and his treatment of the Jews, at the fall of their city, does not seem in accordance with his character for humanity. But no sooner had he ascended the throne than he won a general affection. Such was the mildness of his government that no one was punished at Rome for political offenses. Those who conspired against him he not only pardoned, but took into his familiarity. He was so generous that he could refuse no request for aid. He was resolved, he said, that no one should leave his presence sorrowful; and he thought that day lost in which he had done no good deed. Titus wrote poems and tragedies in Greek, and was familiar with his native literature. During his reign, A.D. 79, occurred a violent eruption of Vesuvius, together with an earthquake, by which Herculaneum, Stabiae, and Pompeii, three towns on the Bay of Naples, were destroyed. The emperor was so touched by the sufferings of the inhabitants that he expended nearly his whole private fortune in relieving their wants. Pompeii and Herculaneum, which were covered by lava or ashes, were thus preserved from farther decay, and, having been partially excavated and restored, enable us to form a truthful conception of the domestic life of the Roman cities in the age of Titus. We here enter the villas of the rich or the humble homes of the poor, and find every where traces of comfort, elegance, and taste. The next year after the destruction of these cities, a fire broke out in Rome, which raged for three days, desolating the finest regions of the city. The Capitoline Temple was again destroyed, together with many buildings in the Campus Martius. A pestilence followed soon after, which ravaged Rome and all Italy. In A.D. 81 Titus dedicated the Colosseum, which was now completed, and also his famous baths, the ruins of which may still be visited at Rome. Splendid games and spectacles were exhibited in honor of these events. Few military events occurred during this reign, the empire being perfectly quiet, except where the active Agricola was subduing the wandering tribes of Scotland. At length Titus, having gone to the Sabine villa where his father Vespasian died, was himself suddenly arrested by death. It was believed that his brother Domitian was the cause of this unhappy event, and all the people lamented their emperor as if they had lost a father or a friend. Titus died September 13, A.D. [SM History of Rome]

The Destruction of Jerusalem. Vespasian committed the care of the war against the Jews to his son Titus ; for after the ascension of our Saviour, the Jews, in addition to their wickedness against him, were now incessantly plotting mischief against his apostles. First they slew Stephen by stoning him, next James, who first obtained the episcopal seat at Jerusalem, after the ascension of our Saviour. . . . But the rest of the apostles they harassed in many ways with a view to destroying them, and they drove them from the land of Judea. These apostles accordingly went to preach the gospel to all nations, relying upon the aid of Christ, when he said, " Go and teach all nations in my name." The whole body of the church at Jerusalem, however,— when commanded by a divine revelation given to men of approved piety there before the war, — removed from the city, and dwelt at a certain town called Pella beyond the Jordan. The Jews formed their line close under their walls, whence if successful they might venture to advance, and where if repulsed they had a refuge at hand. . . . The Romans then began to prepare for an assault. It seemed beneath them to await the result of famine. . . . But the commanding situation of the city the Jews had strengthened by enormous works which would have  been a thorough defense even for level ground. Two hills of great height they fenced in with walls skillfully bent inward in such a manner that the flank of an assailant was exposed to missiles. The work ended in a precipice ; the towers they had raised to a height of sixty feet where the hill lent its aid to the fortification ; where the ground fell, they were a hundred and twenty feet high. These towers presented a marvelous appearance, and to a distant spectator seemed to be of uniform height. There had been prodigies, which this nation, prone to superstition but hating all religious rites, did not deem it lawful to expiate by offerings and sacrifice. They had seen hosts joining battle in the skies, the fiery gleam of arms, the temple illuminated by a sudden radiance from the clouds. The doors of the inner shrine suddenly opened, and a voice of more than mortal tone was heard to cry that the Gods were going away. At the same instant there was a mighty stir as of departure. A few put a fearful meaning on these events, but in most people was a firm persuasion that the ancient records of their priests  contained a prediction that at this very time the East was to grow powerful, and rulers from Judea were to acquire universal empire. These mysterious prophecies had pointed to Vespasian and Titus ; but the common people, with the usual blindness of ambition, had interpreted these mighty omens in their own favor, and could not be brought even by disasters to believe the truth. In computing the whole number of the slain, the historian says, that eleven hundred thousand perished by famine, and that the rest, including factions and robbers, mutually informing against each other after the capture, were put to death. Of the young men the tallest and those distinguished for beauty were kept for the triumph. Of the remaining multitude all above seventeen were sent as prisoners to labor in the mines of Egypt. Great numbers, however, were distributed among the provinces, to be destroyed by the sword or by wild beasts in the theatres. Those under seventeen were carried away to be sold as slaves. In the last named class alone were as many as ninety thousand. Vespasian died on the eighth of the calends of July at the age of sixty-nine years. [Story of Rome]

The First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called The Great Revolt (Hebrew: המרד הגדול‎, ha-Mered Ha-Gadol), was the first of three major rebellions by the Jews of Judaea Province (Iudaea), against the Roman Empire. The second was the Kitos War in 115–117 CE; the third was Bar Kokhba's revolt of 132–135 CE). The Great Revolt began in the year 66 CE, initially due to Greek and Jewish religious tensions, but later escalated due to anti-taxation protests and attacks upon Roman citizens.[2] The Roman military garrison of Judaea was quickly overrun by rebels and the pro-Roman king Agrippa II fled Jerusalem, together with Roman officials to Galilee. Cestius Gallus, the legate of Syria, brought the Syrian army, based on XII Fulminata, reinforced by auxiliary troops, to restore order and quell the revolt. The legion, however, was ambushed and defeated by Jewish rebels at the Battle of Beth Horon, a result that shocked the Roman leadership. The Roman command of the revolt's suppression was then handed to general Vespasian and his son Titus, who assembled four legions and began cleansing the country, starting with Galilee, in the year 67 CE. The revolt ended when legions under Titus besieged and destroyed the center of rebel resistance in Jerusalem in the year 70 CE, and defeated the remaining Jewish strongholds later on. [Wikipedia]

The Fall of Jerusalem. The siege of Jerusalem, the capital city, had begun early in the war, but had turned into a stalemate. Unable to breach the city's defences, the Roman armies established a permanent camp just outside the city, digging a trench around the circumference of its walls and building a wall as high as the city walls themselves around Jerusalem. Anyone caught in the trench attempting to flee the city would be captured, crucified, and placed in lines on top of the dirt wall facing into Jerusalem. The two Zealot leaders, John of Gischala and Simon Bar Giora, only ceased hostilities and joined forces to defend the city when the Romans began to construct ramparts for the siege. Those attempting to escape the city were crucified, with as many as five hundred crucifixions occurring in a day. Titus Flavius, Vespasian's son, led the final assault and siege of Jerusalem. During the infighting inside the city walls, a stockpiled supply of dry food was intentionally burned by Sicarii to induce the defenders to fight against the siege instead of negotiating peace; as a result many city dwellers and soldiers died of starvation during the siege. Zealots under Eleazar ben Simon held the Temple, Sicarii led by Simon Bar Giora held the upper city. Titus eventually wiped out the last remnants of Jewish resistance. By the summer of 70, the Romans had breached the walls of Jerusalem, ransacking and burning nearly the entire city. The Romans began by attacking the weakest spot: the third wall. It was built shortly before the siege so it did not have as much time invested in its protection. They succeeded towards the end of May and shortly afterwards broke through the more important second wall. The Second Temple (the renovated Herod's Temple) was destroyed on Tisha B'Av (29 or 30 July 70). Tacitus, a historian of the time, notes that those who were besieged in Jerusalem amounted to no fewer than six hundred thousand, that men and women alike and every age engaged in armed resistance, everyone who could pick up a weapon did, both sexes showed equal determination, preferring death to a life that involved expulsion from their country. All three walls were destroyed and in turn so was the Temple, some of whose overturned stones and their place of impact can still be seen. John of Giscala surrendered at Agrippa II's fortress of Jotapata and was sentenced to life imprisonment. The famous Arch of Titus still stands in Rome: it depicts Roman legionaries carrying the Temple of Jerusalem's treasuries, including the Menorah, during Titus's triumphal procession in Rome... The defeat of the Jewish revolt altered the Jewish diaspora, as many of the Jewish rebels were scattered or sold into slavery. Josephus claims that 1,100,000 people were killed during the siege, a sizeable portion of these were at Jewish hands and due to illnesses brought about by hunger. "A pestilential destruction upon them, and soon afterward such a famine, as destroyed them more suddenly." 97,000 were captured and enslaved and many others fled to areas around the Mediterranean. The Jewish Encyclopedia article on the Hebrew Alphabet states: "Not until the revolts against Nero and against Hadrian did the Jews return to the use of the old Hebrew script on their coins, which they did from motives similar to those which had governed them two or three centuries previously; both times, it is true, only for a brief period." Titus reportedly refused to accept a wreath of victory, claiming that he had "lent his arms to God". [Wikipedia]

Josephus Describes the Siege. "Now as soon as the army had no more people to slay or to plunder, because there remained none to be the objects of their fury (for they would not have spared any, had there remained any other work to be done), [Titus] Caesar gave orders that they should now demolish the entire city and Temple, but should leave as many of the towers standing as they were of the greatest eminence; that is, Phasaelus, and Hippicus, and Mariamne; and so much of the wall enclosed the city on the west side. This wall was spared, in order to afford a camp for such as were to lie in garrison [in the Upper City], as were the towers [the three forts] also spared, in order to demonstrate to posterity what kind of city it was, and how well fortified, which the Roman valor had subdued; but for all the rest of the wall [surrounding Jerusalem], it was so thoroughly laid even with the ground by those that dug it up to the foundation, that there was left nothing to make those that came thither believe it [Jerusalem] had ever been inhabited. This was the end which Jerusalem came to by the madness of those that were for innovations; a city otherwise of great magnificence, and of mighty fame among all mankind... And truly, the very view itself was a melancholy thing; for those places which were adorned with trees and pleasant gardens, were now become desolate country every way, and its trees were all cut down. Nor could any foreigner that had formerly seen Judaea and the most beautiful suburbs of the city, and now saw it as a desert, but lament and mourn sadly at so great a change. For the war had laid all signs of beauty quite waste. Nor had anyone who had known the place before, had come on a sudden to it now, would he have known it again. But though he [a foreigner] were at the city itself, yet would he have inquired for it... The slaughter within was even more dreadful than the spectacle from without. Men and women, old and young, insurgents and priests, those who fought and those who entreated mercy, were hewn down in indiscriminate carnage. The number of the slain exceeded that of the slayers. The legionaries had to clamber over heaps of dead to carry on the work of extermination." [Josephus]


Vespasian coin with 'Judea Capta' on the back, IVDEA CAPTA, "Judaea conquered". The coin was Issued
in 71 AD to celebrate the victory of the Romans in the Jewish Revolt.

Judaea Capta coins were originally issued by the Roman Emperor Vespasian to commemorate the capture of Judaea and the destruction of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem by his son Titus in 70 AD during the First Jewish Revolt.

Josephus. The main account of the revolt comes from Josephus, the former Jewish commander of Galilee who, after capture by the Romans after the Siege of Yodfat, attempted to end the rebellion by negotiating with the Judeans on Titus's behalf. Josephus and Titus became close friends, and later Josephus was granted Roman citizenship and a pension. He never returned to his homeland after the fall of Jerusalem, living in Rome as a historian under the patronage of Vespasian and Titus. He wrote two works, The Jewish War (c. 75) and Jewish Antiquities (c. 94) which, on occasion, are contradictory. These are the only surviving source materials containing information on specific events occurring during the fighting. But the material has been questioned because of claims that cannot be verified by secondary sources and because of Josephus' potential bias as a client of the Romans and defender of the Roman cause. Only since the discovery of the Dead Sea scrolls has some solid confirmation been given to the events he describes. [Wikipedia]


Painting of the horrors of the Destruction of the Jerusalem Temple on the ninth of Av in 70 AD.

 


The Word "Caesar" is Mentioned many Times in the Bible
(Note: It was not always Tiberius because he died in 37 A.D.)

Luke 3:1 - Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene.

Matthew 22:21 - They say unto him, Caesar's. Then saith he unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's; and unto God the things that are God's.

Luke 3:1 - Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene,

John 19:15 - But they cried out, Away with [him], away with [him], crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Shall I crucify your King? The chief priests answered, We have no king but Caesar.

John 19:12 - And from thenceforth Pilate sought to release him: but the Jews cried out, saying, If thou let this man go, thou art not Caesar's friend: whosoever maketh himself a king speaketh against Caesar.

Luke 20:25 - And he said unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things which be Caesar's, and unto God the things which be God's.

Mark 12:14 - And when they were come, they say unto him, Master, we know that thou art true, and carest for no man: for thou regardest not the person of men, but teachest the way of God in truth: Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar, or not?

Mark 12:17 - And Jesus answering said unto them, Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's. And they marvelled at him.

Acts 27:24 - Saying, Fear not, Paul; thou must be brought before Caesar: and, lo, God hath given thee all them that sail with thee.

Luke 23:2 - And they began to accuse him, saying, We found this [fellow] perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, saying that he himself is Christ a King.

Acts 11:28 - And there stood up one of them named Agabus, and signified by the Spirit that there should be great dearth throughout all the world: which came to pass in the days of Claudius Caesar.

Acts 25:11 - For if I be an offender, or have committed any thing worthy of death, I refuse not to die: but if there be none of these things whereof these accuse me, no man may deliver me unto them. I appeal unto Caesar.

Acts 25:21 - But when Paul had appealed to be reserved unto the hearing of Augustus, I commanded him to be kept till I might send him to Caesar.

Acts 17:7 - Whom Jason hath received: and these all do contrary to the decrees of Caesar, saying that there is another king, [one] Jesus.

Luke 2:1 - And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed.

Acts 28:19 - But when the Jews spake against [it], I was constrained to appeal unto Caesar; not that I had ought to accuse my nation of.

Matthew 22:17 - Tell us therefore, What thinkest thou? Is it lawful to give tribute unto Caesar, or not?

Acts 25:8 - While he answered for himself, Neither against the law of the Jews, neither against the temple, nor yet against Caesar, have I offended any thing at all.

Acts 26:32 - Then said Agrippa unto Festus, This man might have been set at liberty, if he had not appealed unto Caesar.

Luke 20:22 - Is it lawful for us to give tribute unto Caesar, or no?

Acts 25:12 - Then Festus, when he had conferred with the council, answered, Hast thou appealed unto Caesar? unto Caesar shalt thou go.

 

Some Scriptures mentioning the word "Rome"

 

Acts 23:11 - And the night following the Lord stood by him, and said, Be of good cheer, Paul: for as thou hast testified of me in Jerusalem, so must thou bear witness also at Rome.

2 Timothy 4:22 - The Lord Jesus Christ [be] with thy spirit. Grace [be] with you. Amen. <[The second [epistle] unto Timotheus, ordained the first bishop of the church of the Ephesians, was written from Rome, when Paul was brought before Nero the second time.]>

Acts 18:2 - And found a certain Jew named Aquila, born in Pontus, lately come from Italy, with his wife Priscilla; (because that Claudius had commanded all Jews to depart from Rome:) and came unto them.

Colossians 4:18 - The salutation by the hand of me Paul. Remember my bonds. Grace [be] with you. Amen. <[Written from Rome to Colossians by Tychicus and Onesimus.]>

Ephesians 6:24 - Grace [be] with all them that love our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity. Amen. <[To [the] Ephesians written from Rome, by Tychicus.]>

Philemon 1:25 - The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ [be] with your spirit. Amen. <[Written from Rome to Philemon, by Onesimus a servant.]>

Acts 2:10 - Phrygia, and Pamphylia, in Egypt, and in the parts of Libya about Cyrene, and strangers of Rome, Jews and proselytes,

Acts 19:21 - After these things were ended, Paul purposed in the spirit, when he had passed through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to Jerusalem, saying, After I have been there, I must also see Rome.

Acts 28:16 - And when we came to Rome, the centurion delivered the prisoners to the captain of the guard: but Paul was suffered to dwell by himself with a soldier that kept him.

Romans 1:7 - To all that be in Rome, beloved of God, called [to be] saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.

Galatians 6:18 - Brethren, the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ [be] with your spirit. Amen. <[To [the] Galatians written from Rome.]>

Philippians 4:23 - The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ [be] with you all. Amen. <[To [the] Philippians written from Rome, by Epaphroditus.]>

Acts 28:14 - Where we found brethren, and were desired to tarry with them seven days: and so we went toward Rome.

Romans 1:15 - So, as much as in me is, I am ready to preach the gospel to you that are at Rome also.

2 Timothy 1:17 - But, when he was in Rome, he sought me out very diligently, and found [me].

 

Daniel 2:40 - "And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron: forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces and subdueth all [things]: and as iron that breaketh all these, shall it break in pieces and bruise."

Acts 23:11 - And the night following the Lord stood by him, and said, Be of good cheer, Paul: for as thou hast testified of me in Jerusalem, so must thou bear witness also at Rome.

 


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Vespasian: People - Ancient Rome - Bible History Links - People - Ancient Rome: Vespasian Born Titus Flavius Vespasianus, he was Roman Emperor ruling from 69 to 79. Vespasi?nus, Titus Flavius Sab?nus in ...
http://www.bible-history.com/links.php?cat=47&sub=4613&cat_name=People+-+Ancient+Rome&subcat_name=Vespasian

Tacitus - HISTORIES - Titus Vespasian had been sent from Judaea by his father while Galba still lived, and alleged as a reason for his journey the homage due to the Emperor, and his ...
http://www. bible-history.com/texts/tacitus/the_histories_book2.html

And she..."shall sit on the ground" - ... over the knee, and some with the hands tied behind the back, with a Roman soldier standing in front of her. (see coins of Titus, Vespasian, and Domitian ). ...
http://www.bible-history.com/backd2/sit_on_the_ground.html

Tacitus - HISTORIES - These mysterious prophecies had pointed to Vespasian and Titus, but the common people, with the usual blindness of ambition, had interpreted these mighty ...
http://w ww.bible-history.com/texts/tacitus/the_histories_book5.html

The Antonia Fortress - Overview - Titus Vespasian attacked the city of Jerusalem from the north side in 70 A.D. and overcame it. The legions of Rome slaughtered over a million Jews and 9500 0 ...
http://www.bible-history.com/antonia-fortress/antoniafortress_the_antonia_fortress.html

Antonia Fortress - Location - (It is important to note that Titus Vespasian attacked the city of Jerusalem from the north in 70 A.D.) The Antonia Fortress was located on the northwest corner of ...
http://www.bible-history.com/antonia-fortress/antoniafortress_location.html

Timeline - 69 Vespasian is sole emperor until 79. 70 Siege and fall of Jerusalem under military leadership of Vespasian's son, Titus. 70 Coliseum begun by Emperor ...
http://www.bible-history.com/ nero/NEROTimeline.htm

Vespasian: People - Ancient Rome - Bible History Links - People - Ancient Rome: Vespasian Born Titus Flavius Vespasianus, he was Roman Emperor ruling from 69 to 79. Vespasi?nus, Titus Flavius Sab?nus in ...
http://www.bible-history.com/links.php?cat=47&sub=4613&cat_name=People+-+Ancient+Rome&subcat_name=Vespasian

Tacitus - HISTORIES - Titus Vespasian had been sent from Judaea by his father while Galba still lived, and alleged as a reason for his journey the homage due to the Emperor, and his ...
http://www. bible-history.com/texts/tacitus/the_histories_book2.html

And she..."shall sit on the ground" - ... over the knee, and some with the hands tied behind the back, with a Roman soldier standing in front of her. (see coins of Titus, Vespasian, and Domitian ). ...
http://www.bible-history.com/backd2/sit_on_the_ground.html

Tacitus - HISTORIES - These mysterious prophecies had pointed to Vespasian and Titus, but the common people, with the usual blindness of ambition, had interpreted these mighty ...
http://w ww.bible-history.com/texts/tacitus/the_histories_book5.html

The Antonia Fortress - Overview - Titus Vespasian attacked the city of Jerusalem from the north side in 70 A.D. and overcame it. The legions of Rome slaughtered over a million Jews and 9500 0 ...
http://www.bible-history.com/antonia-fortress/antoniafortress_the_antonia_fortress.html

Antonia Fortress - Location - (It is important to note that Titus Vespasian attacked the city of Jerusalem from the north in 70 A.D.) The Antonia Fortress was located on the northwest corner of ...< /b>
http://www.bible-history.com/antonia-fortress/antoniafortress_location.html

Timeline - 69 Vespasian is sole emperor until 79. 70 Siege and fall of Jerusalem under military leadership of Vespasian's son, Titus. 70 Coliseum begun by Emperor ...
http://www.bible-history.com/ nero/NEROTimeline.htm

Bible History Online - The Arch of Titus (Biblical Archaeology) - The Arch of Titus is one of Rome's most famous monuments. It was built to commemorate the victories of Titus and Vespasi an in the war against the Jews and ...
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/1-arch-of-titus-bb.html

Tacitus - HISTORIES - Titus Vespasian had been sent from Judaea by his father while Galba still lived, and alleged as a reason for his journey the homage due to the Emperor, and his ...
http://www. bible-history.com/texts/tacitus/the_histories_book2.html

And she..."shall sit on the ground" - ... over the knee, and some with the hands tied behind the back, with a Roman soldier standing in front of her. (see coins of Titus, Vespasian, and Domitian ). ...
http://www.bible-history.com/backd2/sit_on_the_ground.html

Tacitus - HISTORIES - These mysterious prophecies had pointed to Vespasian and Titus, but the common people, with the usual blindness of ambition, had interpreted these mighty ...
http://w ww.bible-history.com/texts/tacitus/the_histories_book5.html

The Antonia Fortress - Overview - Titus Vespasian attacked the city of Jerusalem from the north side in 70 A.D. and overcame it. The legions of Rome slaughtered over a million Jews and 9500 0 ...
http://www.bible-history.com/antonia-fortress/antoniafortress_the_antonia_fortress.html

Antonia Fortress - Location - (It is important to note that Titus Vespasian attacked the city of Jerusalem from the north in 70 A.D.) The Antonia Fortress was located on the northwest corner of ...< /b>
http://www.bible-history.com/antonia-fortress/antoniafortress_location.html

Timeline - 69 Vespasian is sole emperor until 79. 70 Siege and fall of Jerusalem under military leadership of Vespasian's son, Titus. 70 Coliseum begun by Emperor ...
http://www.bible-history.com/ nero/NEROTimeline.htm

Bible History Online - The Arch of Titus (Biblical Archaeology) - The Arch of Titus is one of Rome's most famous monuments. It was built to commemorate the victories of Titus and Vespasi an in the war against the Jews and ...
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/1-arch-of-titus-bb.html

Domitian: People - Ancient Rome - Bible History Links - Domiti?nus, Titus Flavius in Harpers Dictionary The second son of Vespasian, born at Ro me A.D. 51. Vespasian, well aware of his natural disposition, reposed ...
http://www.bible-history.com/links.php?cat=47&sub=4614&cat_name=People+-+Ancient+Rome&subcat_name=Domitian


Bible History Online - Bust of Vespasian (Biblical Archaeology) - The face of the Roman Emperor, Vespasian. The bust of Vespasian is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology, it reveals the i mage of the Roman general ...
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/vespasian-bust.html

Bible History Online - Vespasian Coin - Vespasian Coin Vespasian Coin. Coin showing the image of the Emperor Vespasian. Return to Ancient Sketches ╖ Return to Bible History Online.
http://www.bible-history.com/sketches/rome/caesar-vespasian-coin.html

Suetonius story about Vespasian - One day the emperor Vespasian approached the foremost comedian of his day and said "why do you never tell jokes about me?" to which the wag shot back "I ...
http://www.b ible-history.com/lostl6.htm

Bible History Online - Vespasian Statue - Vespasian Statue Vespasian Statue. Statue of the Emperor Vespasian. Return to Ancient Sketches ╖ Return to Bible History Online.
http://www.bibl e-history.com/sketches/rome/vespasian-statue.html

Vespasian - Ancient Roman People - Images and Illustrations - Ancient Roman People. Vespasian. The Emperor Vespasian. From a bronze bust in the Louvre. Illustra ted Bible History ╖ Background Bible Study. If you notice a ...
http://www.bible-history.com/sublinks.php?cat=208&subcatid=1666&subcatname=Vespasian

Bible History Online - Bust of Vespasian (Biblical Archaeology) - The face of the Roman Emperor, Vespasian. The bust of Vespasian is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology, it reveals the i mage of the Roman general ...
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/vespasian-bust.html

Bible History Online - Vespasian Coin - Vespasian Coin Vespasian Coin. Coin showing the image of the Emperor Vespasian. Return to Ancient Sketches ╖ Return to Bible History Online.
http://www.bible-history.com/sketches/rome/caesar-vespasian-coin.html

Suetonius story about Vespasian - One day the emperor Vespasian approached the foremost comedian of his day and said "why do you never tell jokes about me?" to which the wag shot back "I ...
http://www.bible-history.com/lostl6.htm

Bible History Online - Vespasian Statue - Vespasian Statue Vespasian Statue. Statue of the Emperor Vespasian. Return to Ancient Sketches ╖ Return to Bible History Online.
http://www.bibl e-history.com/sketches/rome/vespasian-statue.html

Vespasian - Ancient Roman People - Images - Ancient Roman People. Vespasian. The Emperor Vespasian. From a bronze bust in the Louvre. Illustrate d Bible History ╖ Background Bible Study. If you notice a ...
http://www.bible-history.com/sublinks.php?cat=208&subcatid=1666&subcatname=Vespasian

Vespasian - Ancient Roman People - Images - Syrian Walls and Gates ╖ Weapons and Warfare ╖ back. Ancient Roman People - Vespasian. The Emperor Vespasian. From a bronze bust in the Louvre.
http://www.bible-history.com/ibh/Roman+People/Vespasian/

Bible History Online - Vespasian Coin - Vespasian Coin Vespasian Coin. Coin showing the image of the Emperor Vespasian. Return to Ancient Sketches ╖ Return to Bible History Online.
http://www.bible-history.com/sketches/rome/caesar-vespasian-coin.html

Suetonius story about Vespasian - One day the emperor Vespasian approached the foremost comedian of his day and said "why do you never tell jokes about me?" to which the wag shot back "I ...
http://www.b ible-history.com/lostl6.htm

Bible History Online - Vespasian Statue - Vespasian Statue Vespasian Statue. Statue of the Emperor Vespasian. Return to Ancient Sketches ╖ Return to Bible History Online.
http://www.bibl e-history.com/sketches/rome/vespasian-statue.html

The Jewish Revolt - Titus Vespasian was a very skilled military strategist and planned his attack starting ... Nero had committed suicide on June 9th, 68 A.D. and Titus Vespasian was ...
ht tp://www.bible-history.com/nero/NEROThe_Jewish_Revolt.htm

Timeline - 67 Nero appoints Vespasian to head campaign against Jews. 68 After ... 69 Year of the four emperors: Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian. 69 Vespasian is ...
http://www.bible-histo ry.com/nero/NEROTimeline.htm

Vespasian - Ancient Roman People - Images- Ancient Roman People. Vespasian. The Emperor Vespasian. From a bronze bust in the Louvre. Illustrate d Bible History ╖ Background Bible Study. If you notice a ...
http://www.bible-history.com/sublinks.php?cat=208&subcatid=1666&subcatname=Vespasian

Vespasian - Ancient Roman People - Images - Syrian Walls and Gates ╖ Weapons and Warfare ╖ back. Ancient Roman People - Vespasian. The Emperor Vespasian. From a bronze bust in the Louvre.
http://www.bible-history.com/ibh/Roman+People/Vespasian/

Domitian: People - Ancient Rome- Vespasian, well aware of his natural disposition, reposed no confidence in him during ... Upon the death of Vespasian he endeavoured to foment troubles in the ...
http://www.bible-history.com/links.php?cat=47&sub=4614&cat_name=People+-+Ancient+Rome&subcat_name=Domitian

 



The History of Rome - Part One 743 - 136 B.C.

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