Face of Julius Caesar 

Bust of Julius Caesar
Was Julius Caesar a Friend of the Jews?

This painted sketch reveals the face of Gaius Julius Caesar from a bust at the Vatican Museum in Rome. Julius Caesar began a dynasty that ruled the Roman Empire for a hundred years.

The face of the Roman dictator, Julius Caesar.  When Julius Caesar served as proconsul of Gaul (ancient France), he conquered countless Celtic and Belgic armies in the hundreds of thousands. He invaded Britain twice before it became a province in 43 A.D. under the Emperor Claudius. Later Pompey persuaded the Senate to force Caesar to retire as proconsul of Gaul when his term was up. Caesar immediately rebelled against them and crossed the Rubicon River in 49 B.C., and started a civil war. Though Pompey had a much larger army he was easily defeated by Julius Caesar on the plains of Pharsalus in northern Greece. Pompey fled to the great port of Alexandria, Egypt but he was murdered as he landed. Julius Caesar arrived a short time later and met Queen Cleopatra, the last of the Ptolemaic rulers in Egypt, whom he became infatuated with. He actually met with great opposition in Alexandria and defeated them with the help of the Jews.

Hyrcanus and his advisor Antipater the Idumean (Herod the Great's father) acted shrewdly once they knew that Pompey was defeated and Julius Caesar had the victory, they went over to Caesar's side and gave him vital support when he was besieged in Alexandria by Ptolemy XII, King of Egypt. Once he had defeated Ptolemy's army, Julius Caesar made an effort to set the affairs in Judea in order, Hyrcanus was confirmed as the High Priest and Ethnarch, the walls of Jerusalem that Pompey destroyed were rebuilt, and the port of Joffa was given back to Judea. Julius Caesar ruled Judea from 45-44 B.C. and he was sympathetic to all Jews throughout the empire, and he even regarded them as allies.

Caesar had great plans for Rome, and many reforms in mind. He revised the calendar, the same calendar we use today (Julian), he planned to rebuild Corinth, and much more. But because he was arrogant enough to take the powers of dictator, some of his closest friends, including Brutus, plotted to assassinate him in 44 B.C., on the Ides of March, the 15th. Soon after Mark Antony heralded the famous cry "friends, Romans, countrymen" and rallied up the mob against the assassins, who had fled the country. But strangely enough Mark Antony discovered that he himself was not named in Julius Caesar's will, but his young nephew Octavian (Augustus) to become his successor. This led to another war, this time between Antony and Octavian. But first they needed to deal with Caesar's murderers, and together they formed the Second Triumvirate in 43 B.C. along with Lepidus. They immediately condemned Cicero for his speeches attacking Mark Antony, and then they fought Brutus and Cassius and Philippi in Macedonia in 42 B.C. Once they knew they were defeated Brutus and Cassius committed suicide.

Octavian and Antony divided the empire between themselves, Octavian took the West, and Mark Antony took the East. This is when Antony met Cleopatra, and fell in love with her, even though he was married to Octavian's sister, Octavia. He soon divorced her and made Caesarion, Cleopatra's son, the legal heir of Julius Caesar. Octavian and Antony went to war in 31 B.C. outside the bay of Actium, in northwest Greece, and Mark Antony was defeated, mainly because of Octavian's brilliant Admiral, Agrippa. Mark Antony and Cleopatra both fled and returning to Egypt they both committed suicide, and were buried together in Alexandria.

The bust of Julius Caesar is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology. It reveals the image and reality of a person who was the first real dictator of Rome and the one who befriended the Jews, giving them favor in the growing Roman Empire, which helped in the spreading of the gospel. The Roman authorities treated Christians as a Jewish sect and allowed Christians to meet just as the Jews were allowed their synagogues. It was only when the Emperor Nero blamed the Christians for the great fire which devastated much of Rome, that the Christians were accused of starting an entirely new religion and persecuted throughout the empire.

Daniel 2:40 - "And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron: forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces and subdueth all [things]: and as iron that breaketh all these, shall it break in pieces and bruise."

Acts 23:11 - And the night following the Lord stood by him, and said, Be of good cheer, Paul: for as thou hast testified of me in Jerusalem, so must thou bear witness also at Rome.

"He was skillful with sword and horse, and had amazing powers of physical endurance. He always was at the head of his army more often walking than riding, and went bareheaded both in sun and rain. When he encountered rivers too deep for wading, he would either swim or propel himself across on an inflated skin."  SEUTONIUS

Julius Caesar Bust Vatican Museum
                  Julius Caesar Bust Vatican Museum

Born July 13 100 B.C.E. , Rome

Accession October, 49 B.C.E.

Died March 15 44 B.C.E., Rome

Predecessor none

Successor Augustus Caesar (as Roman Emperor)

Spouse(s)

1) Cornelia Cinnilla 84 B.C.E. – 68 B.C.E.
2) Pompeia Sulla 68 B.C.E. – 63 B.C.E.
3) Calpurnia Pisonis 59 B.C.E. to 44 B.C.E.

Issue Julia Caesaris

Father Gaius Julius Caesar the Elder

Mother Aurelia Cotta

Dynasty Julio-Claudian Dynasty

Julius Caesar in Wikipedia Gaius Julius Caesar[2] (13 July 100 BC[3] – 15 March 44 BC)[4] was a Roman general and statesman. He played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. During the late 60s and into the 50s BC, Caesar entered into a political alliance with Crassus and Pompey that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power for themselves through populist tactics were opposed within the Roman Senate by a conservative elite, among them Cato the Younger, with the sometime support of Cicero. Caesar's conquest of Gaul extended the Roman world to the North Sea, and in 55 BC he conducted the first Roman invasion of Britain. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse Pompey's. The balance of power was further upset by the death of Crassus. Political realignments in Rome finally led to a stand-off between Caesar and Pompey, the latter having taken up the cause of the Senate. With the order that sent his legions across the Rubicon, Caesar began a civil war in 49 BC from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of the Roman world. After assuming control of government, he began extensive reforms of Roman society and government. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity". A group of senators, led by Marcus Junius Brutus, assassinated the dictator on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC, hoping to restore the constitutional government of the Republic. However, the result was a series of civil wars, which ultimately led to the establishment of the permanent Roman Empire by Caesar's adopted heir Octavius (later known as Augustus). Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julius_Caesar


Events in Julius Caesar's Life

- Julius Caesar, after defeating the Gaul's and eliminating his political enemies, returned to Rome where he received the greatest triumphal celebration any Roman general had ever known.

- He received almost every power than an obedient Senate could confer on him.

- In 46 BC, he was made dictator for ten years, given command of all the armies, sole control of all money, and authority to draw up lists of senators.

- He was immune from the veto of tribunes and could ignore the assembly because his power came from his control of the army and his personal wealth.


Civil Reform

- Late in 46 BC, he devoted himself to civil reform.

- Army veterans were given land in Italy, new buildings were constructed, a new forum was planned, and the course of the Tiber River was altered.

- As pontifex maximus, supreme high priest, he reformed the Roman calendar to bring it into line with the solar year.

- The Julian calendar based on studies of Egyptian astronomers was used until the sixth century when it was replaced with the Gregorian calendar.

- By 45 BC, he had been granted the right to wear the purple toga of Roman kings, to use the laurel crown, and to sit in a gold chair. His image was set up in all temples in Italy and his likeness appeared on coins.

- Early in 44 BC, the Senate declared him "dictator for life." His next step would be to assume the title of king and found a dynasty.


The Plot to Murder Caesar

- The plot to murder Caesar was conceived by men who feared his assumption of arbitrary powers and his appropriation of senatorial responsibilities.

- These men also resented Caesar's popularity with the masses of people and with his soldiers.

- Altogether, sixty men were involved in the plot to kill Caesar.

- Caesar heard rumors about the plot to murder him but dismissed them.

- On March 15, the Ides of March, he went to a meeting with the Senate on the porch of the theater of Pompey.

- At 11 o'clock in the morning Caesar was asked by one of the plotters to recall his brother from exile.

- Caesar refused to listen to him, the conspirator insisted, and as he did so, the other conspirators gathered round, completely surrounding Caesar.

- Stabbed twenty-three times, Caesar fell at the foot of Pompey's statue.

- Caesar's death brought on another civil war which ended the Republic and ushered in the new era of the Empire.


Julius Caesar (Time Chart)

102-100 BC Roman records show birth. He claimed descent from the gods.

79 BC Elected to the college of priests.

60 BC Elected consul and chooses the provinces he wants to govern.

59-49 BC Conquers vast new territories for the Roman state.

58 BC. Takes on parts of northern Italy, Gaul, Germany, and Britain.

49 B.C. Crosses the Rubicon River and takes Rome.

48 B.C. Defeats Pompey at Pharsalus, Greece.

44 B.C. Murdered by Roman senators who thought he wanted to be king.

 

Julius Caesar Coin
      Julius Caesar Coin

Julius Caesar may not be technically referred to as the first "Emperor" of Rome, but he began a dynasty that would rule the Roman Empire for a hundred years. In 44 B.C. the Senate bestowed upon him the title of "Imperator" which is where the word "emperor" originates. Though he was acting as dictator, he would not allow himself to be referred to publicly as king or emperor but "Caesar" instead. He was assassinated in 44 B.C. by some of his close friends, including Brutus on the Ides of March, the 15th.  romanemperors.com

Julius Caesar, Gaius. (100–44 bc), Roman general and statesman. He established the First Triumvirate with Pompey and Crassus (60), and became consul in 59. Between 58 and 51 he fought the Gallic Wars, invaded Britain (55-54), and acquired immense power. After civil war with Pompey, which ended in Pompey’s defeat at Pharsalus (48), Caesar became dictator of the Roman Empire; he was murdered on the Ides (15th) of March in a conspiracy led by Brutus and Cassius [Oxford Dictionary]

Gaius Julius Caesar (July 13, 100 B.C.E. – March 15, 44 B.C.E.) was a Roman military and political leader whose role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire changed the course of Western civilization. His conquest of Gaul extended the Roman world all the way to the Atlantic Ocean, and he was also responsible for the first Roman invasion of Britannia (Great Britain), in 55 B.C.E. Caesar is widely considered to be one of the foremost military geniuses of all time, as well as a brilliant politician and orator. Caesar fought in a civil war that left him undisputed master of the Roman world, and after assuming control of the government began extensive reforms of Roman society and government. He extended Roman citizenship to all within the Empire, introduced measures that protected marriage and the institution of the family, reduced the national debt, and showed genuine concern for the welfare of ordinary Romans. Caesar was proclaimed dictator for life, and he heavily centralized the bureaucracy of the Republic. Ironically, this forced the hand of a friend of Caesar, Marcus Junius Brutus, who then conspired with others to murder the great dictator and restore the Republic. This dramatic assassination on the Ides of March (March 15) in 44 B.C.E. sparked a new civil war in Rome, leading to the ascension of Caesar Augustus, further consolidation of political power based on recent precedent, and the formal founding of the Roman Empire. Caesar's military campaigns are known in detail from his own written Commentaries (Commentarii), and many details of his life are recorded by later historians, such as Appian, Suetonius, Plutarch, Cassius Dio, and Strabo. Other information can be gleaned from other contemporary sources, such as the letters and speeches of Caesar's political rival Cicero, the poetry of Catullus, and the writings of the historian Sallust. [New World Ency]

Gaius Julius Caesar - Roman dictator, consul, and conqueror; born July 12, 100 B.C. (according to Mommsen, 102 B.C.); assassinated March 15, 44 B.C. Cæsar's attitude toward the Jews is manifest from the many enactments issued in their favor by him and by the senate. The first decree, dated probably July, 47 B.C., registered in both Greek and Latin on a table of brass and preserved in the public records, concerns Hyrcanus, the son of Alexander, high priest and ethnarch of the Jews. Julius Cæsar, with the approbation of the senate, recognizes the services rendered by Hyrcanus to the empire, both in peace and in war. He mentions the aid given by Hyrcanus with his 1,500 soldiers in the Alexandrian war, and speaks of the personal valor of Hyrcanus. In recognition of these services he grants Hyrcanus and the Jews certain privileges (Josephus, "Ant." xiv. 10, § 2). In another decree of probably the same date, Cæsar determines "That the Jews shall possess Jerusalem, and may encompass that city with walls; and that Hyrcanus, the son of Alexander, the high priest and ethnarch of the Jews, retain it in the manner he himself pleases; and that the Jews be allowed to deduct out of their tribute, every second year the land is let [in the Sabbatical period], a corus of that tribute; and that the tribute they pay be not let to farm, nor that they pay always the same tribute" (ib. xiv. 10, § 5). - [Jewish Encyclopedia]

Julius Caesar
Bust in the British Museum.
 

Caius Julius Caesar
Illustration of Caius Julius Caesar.


Bust of Julius Caesar
Bust of Julius Caesar, Altes Museum.
 

Modified Head of Julius Caesar
Modified version of Julius Caesar's head, 1st century A.D.

 


 

Some Scriptures mentioning the word "Rome"

 

Acts 23:11 - And the night following the Lord stood by him, and said, Be of good cheer, Paul: for as thou hast testified of me in Jerusalem, so must thou bear witness also at Rome.

2 Timothy 4:22 - The Lord Jesus Christ [be] with thy spirit. Grace [be] with you. Amen. <[The second [epistle] unto Timotheus, ordained the first bishop of the church of the Ephesians, was written from Rome, when Paul was brought before Nero the second time.]>

Acts 18:2 - And found a certain Jew named Aquila, born in Pontus, lately come from Italy, with his wife Priscilla; (because that Claudius had commanded all Jews to depart from Rome:) and came unto them.

Colossians 4:18 - The salutation by the hand of me Paul. Remember my bonds. Grace [be] with you. Amen. <[Written from Rome to Colossians by Tychicus and Onesimus.]>

Ephesians 6:24 - Grace [be] with all them that love our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity. Amen. <[To [the] Ephesians written from Rome, by Tychicus.]>

Philemon 1:25 - The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ [be] with your spirit. Amen. <[Written from Rome to Philemon, by Onesimus a servant.]>

Acts 2:10 - Phrygia, and Pamphylia, in Egypt, and in the parts of Libya about Cyrene, and strangers of Rome, Jews and proselytes,

Acts 19:21 - After these things were ended, Paul purposed in the spirit, when he had passed through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to Jerusalem, saying, After I have been there, I must also see Rome.

Acts 28:16 - And when we came to Rome, the centurion delivered the prisoners to the captain of the guard: but Paul was suffered to dwell by himself with a soldier that kept him.

Romans 1:7 - To all that be in Rome, beloved of God, called [to be] saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.

Galatians 6:18 - Brethren, the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ [be] with your spirit. Amen. <[To [the] Galatians written from Rome.]>

Philippians 4:23 - The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ [be] with you all. Amen. <[To [the] Philippians written from Rome, by Epaphroditus.]>

Acts 28:14 - Where we found brethren, and were desired to tarry with them seven days: and so we went toward Rome.

Romans 1:15 - So, as much as in me is, I am ready to preach the gospel to you that are at Rome also.

2 Timothy 1:17 - But, when he was in Rome, he sought me out very diligently, and found [me].

 


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Caesar, Iulius in Harpers Dictionary , or, as the name is written in English, Julius Caesar, was born on the 12th of July, in B.C. 102 or 100. The latter date rests upon the statement of several ancient authorities, but Mommsen has shown that the earlier date is more probably correct. The Caesar family was of patrician stock. It belonged to the proud gens of the Iulii, who traced their ancestry back to the very beginning of Roman history. In the century between B.C. 160 and 60, several Caesars held public offices, at least four being honoured with the consulship. Of the youth and education of Iulius Caesar little is known excepting that he was under the instruction of the distinguished teacher of grammar and rhetoric, M. Antonius Gnipho , who for a time taught in his home. Though allied by descent with the aristocracy, he was brought into relation with the popular party through the marriage of his aunt Iulia with the great leader Marius. In B.C. 83, he himself married Cornelia, the daughter of Marius's most ardent supporter, Cinna. This vexed Sulla , who, regaining the ascendency at Rome the following year, ordered Caesar to divorce her. Unlike Pompey and Piso, who put away their wives at Sulla 's bidding, Caesar boldly refused...

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Fallen Empires - Archaeology and the Bible

Archaeology Discoveries and the Ancient Biblical World 

The Black Obelisk. In the 1840's a British man named Austen Henry Layard had a desire to travel to the Middle East and dig around some of the strange looking mounds near the City of Mosul. He had heard many tales about things being found in these mounds. He was looking for any trace of evidence that would lead him to the lost city of Nineveh, the capital of the ancient Assyrian Empire. Little did he know that one of his discoveries would turn Europe upside down with excitement. He discovered a black limestone monument which is known today as The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III. This discovery brought a new authenticity and historicity to some of the stories in the Bible. It also gained him the support of the British Museum, and all the finances he needed to continue his excavations, and become known as "The Father of Assyriology."

The Pilate Inscription. It wasn't long ago when many scholars were questioning the actual existence of a Roman Governor with the name of Pontius Pilate, the procurator who ordered Jesus' crucifixion. In June 1961 Italian archaeologists led by Dr. Frova were excavating an ancient Roman amphitheatre near Caesarea-on-the-Sea (Maritima) and uncovered this interesting limestone block. On the worn face is a monumental inscription which is part of a larger dedication to Tiberius Caesar which clearly says that it was from "Pontius Pilate, Prefect of Judea."

The Megiddo Seal Bearing King Jeroboam's Name. It is very interesting that the Jasper Seal, found at Tel Megiddo bearing the name of King Jeroboam who ruled in the Northern Kingdom of Israel, would contain the symbol for their rival, the Southern Kingdom of Judah. But in examining all of the circumstances involved and seeing what the Bible says it is no wonder that the prosperous and victorious Northern Kingdom of Israel would boast with a symbol of their enemy.

The Tomb of Cyrus the Great. An inscription on the tomb of the great Persian monarch read: "O man, whoever you are and wherever you come from, for I know that you will come--I am Cyrus, son of Cambyses, who founded the Empire of the Persians and was king of the East. Do not grudge me this spot of earth which covers my body." - Cyrus". Is it true that Isaiah the Hebrew prophet mention Cyrus by name almost 200 years before he was born?

Sennacherib's Hexagonal Prism. This amazing discovery excavated in Nineveh in the 1830 records the Assyrian king Sennacherib's 8th campaign, which includes his siege of Jerusalem during the reign of "Hezekiah the Judahite" in 701 BC. There are 500 lines of writing in the Akkadian language on this magnificent clay prism. Is the story true that it was purchased by an American from an antiquities dealer in Baghdad?

Coming Soon The Ishtar Gate of Babylon. During the last days of the southern kingdom of Judah the Jews were taken captive to a distant land called Babylon at the latter part of the 6th century BC. They passed through a beautiful entrance gate made of mud brick masonry and glazed skin which stood 47 feet tall, commonly referred to as the Ishtar Gate since its discovery at the turn of the 20th century near modern Baghdad, Iraq. The tall gate was dedicated to the gods by Nebuchadnezzar King of Babylonia who reigned from 605—562 BC). Is it true that Hitler had it transported to Berlin? Where is the Ishtar Gate now?

[Next] The Remains of Solomon's Temple

Biblical Archaeology

The Bible mentions many things about people, places and events that happened in history. The Bible also gives an accurate chronology of those people, places and events. What is amazing is that modern archaeology has confirmed that the Bible has never made one error, or given any clear contradictions in all of its text in matters of historical fact. The paintings and illustrations below of archaeological discoveries and ruins illustrate this emphatically.

Paintings By Bjanikka Ben and Maliyah Weston

Assyria

Weld Prism

Sargon I Bust

Hammurabi Stele

Colossal Lion of Assyria

Statue of Ashurnasirpal II

Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III

Close up of Jehu - Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III

Tiglath Pileser III (Pul)

Enemy Trod Under Foot

Sargon II with Staff in Hand

Sargon II Relief

Winged Bull - One Sided

Winged Bull - Two Sided

Assyrian Royal Guard Soldiers of Sennacherib

Lachish Captives Being Skinned Alive

Israelite Captives from Lachish

Taylor Prism (Sennacherib Hexagonal Prism)

Stela of Ashurbanipal

Ruins of Ancient Assyria

Painting of Ancient Ashur

Israel

Moabite Stone

Beersheba Altar

Ivory Pomegranate Fake

Ossuary of Caiaphas

Proto Ionic Capital

El Amarna Letters

House of David Inscription

Korban Inscription

Lachish Letters

Megiddo Seal - Jeraboam Inscription

Pilate Inscription

Place of Trumpeting Inscription

Qumran Jar (Dead Sea Scrolls)

Siloam Inscription

Tel Dan Stele

Temple Warning Inscription

Uzziah Tablet Inscription

Stela of Baal

Gold of Ophir Inscription

Hazael King of Syria Statue

Ancient Caesarea Harbor

Ancient Caesarea Ruins

Ancient Hittite Ruins

Babylon

Striding Lion of Babylon 

Nebuchadnezzar II Cylinder

Lagash Rations Tablet

Ishtar Gate

Nebuchadnezzar II Brick

Babylonian Chronicle

Dragon of Marduk

Lion of Marduk

Detail of the Lion of Marduk

The Royal Standard of Ur

Persia

Tomb of Cyrus

Cyrus Cylinder

Ancient Persian Soldiers

Persepolis Lion

Darius Seated

Darius the Great (Up Close)

Ancient Persians

Ancient Persian Warriors at Susa

Egypt

Pharaoh Kneeling Before Bull

Amenophis II (Also Known as Thutmose-III)

Ramesses II

Shishak Smiting His Enemies

Apis the Sacred Bull of Memphis

Rosetta Stone

The Pyramids

Ramesses II Colossal Statue Painting

Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphs

The Israel Stela

Pharaoh Merneptah Statue

Ancient Egyptian Sphinx

Ancient Egyptian Obelisk

Rome

Bust of Julius Caesar

Bronze Bust of Augustus

Bust of Augustus Caesar

Bust of Tiberius Caesar

Arch of Titus Menorah Relief - 1

Arch of Titus Chariot Relief - 2

Bust of Vespasian

Bust of Titus

Bust of Nero

Roman Legionary Camp

Roman Legion Bricks with Stamp

Ancient Roman Eagle

Ancient Roman Aqueduct

Ancient Roman Legions

Ancient Roman Milestone

The Arch of Titus

The Colosseum

Greece

Alexander the Great Bust

Antiochus IV Epiphanes Coin

The Parthenon Ruins

The Ancient Parthenon of Athens

Antiochus IV Epiphanes Bust

Alexander the Great Coin

Greek Macedonian Infantry Helmet

Ancient Persian Soldiers

Peoples

Canaanite

Chaldean

Cilician

Indian

Ionian

Mede

Persian

Philistine

(More to come)

Illustrated Bible History A growing database of images and sketches of the ancient world.
Bible Maps A growing database of maps for study and teaching.

Reconstructions Sketches of ancient cities & monuments from archaeology.

Archaeology Resources:

The Popular Handbook of Archaeology and the Bible by Holden and Geisler. 352 Pages, 2012

Biblical Archaeology

Bible History Online

The Story of the Bible


© Bible History Online (http://www.bible-history.com)

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