Roman Legions 


How Many Soldiers in a Legion?

This painting depicts a relief of light-equipped legionaries attacking (expediti) in close order, notice they are carrying their shield (scuta) and javelin(pilum). The relief was from the base of a column from a Roman legionary fort in Germany now at the Landezmuseum, Mainz.

Legionaries were infantry soldiers who were the major armed forces of the Roman army. They were recruited from Roman citizens, usually as young as 19 but many as early as 14 years old. 4 foot 11 inches was the minimum height. Augustus had 25 legions of approximately 6,000 soldiers each. A legion was formed of 10 Cohorts (540 men in each Cohort). Each Cohort was subdivided into 6 Centuries (90 men formed a Century), and each legion had a wing of 120 cavalry. This discovery of a wall relief depicting ancient Roman Legionaries is important in the study of Biblical archaeology.

"Then said Jesus unto him, Put up again thy sword into his place: for all they that take the sword shall perish with the sword. Thinkest thou that I cannot now pray to my Father, and he shall presently give me more than twelve legions of angels?" - Matthew 26:52-53

The Legions: There were 25 legions in 23 AD (Tacitus Annals 4, 5), which had been increased to 30 at the time of the reign of Marcus Aurelius, 160-180 AD (CIL, VI, 3492 a-b) and to 33 under Septimius Severus (Dio Cassius, iv. 23-24). Each legion was made up, ordinarily, of 6,000 men, who were divided into 10 cohorts, each cohort containing 3 maniples, and each maniple in turn 2 centuries. The legatus Augustus pro praetore, or governor of each imperial province, was chief commander of all the troops within the province. An officer of senatorial rank known as legatus Augusti legionis was entrusted with the command of each legion, together with the bodies of auxilia which were associated with it. Besides, there were six tribuni militum, officers of equestrian rank (usually sons of senators who had not yet held the quaestorship) in each legion. The centurions who commanded the centuries belonged to the plebeian class. Between the rank of common soldier and centurion there were a large number of subalterns, called principales, who correspond roughly to the non-commissioned officers and men detailed from the ranks for special duties in modern armies. [ROMAN ARMY - ISBE]

THE ROMAN ARMY.--The Roman army was divided into legions, the number of which varied considerably (from 3000 to 6000), each under six tribuni ("chief captains,") Acts 21:31 who commanded by turns. The legion was subdivided into ten cohorts ("band,") Ac 10:1 the cohort into three maniples, and the maniple into two centuries, containing originally 100 men, as the name implies, but subsequently from 50 to 100 men, according to the strength of the legion. There were thus 60 centuries in a legion, each under the command of a centurion. Ac 10:1,22; Mt 8:5; 27:54 In addition to the legionary cohorts, independent cohorts of volunteers served under the Roman standards. One of these cohorts was named the Italian, Ac 10:1 as consisting of volunteers from Italy. The headquarters of the Roman forces in Judea were at Caesarea. [Smith's]

LEGIO. A Roman legion ; two of which constituted a consular army. It consisted of about five or six thousand (for the complement was not always the same) heavy-armed foot soldiers (legionarii) drawn from the Roman citizens ; augmented by a body of auxiliaries at least equal in number, and a detachment of cavalry, three hundred strong, which was always joined with it ; so that the effective force of a legion in the field is usually reckoned at ten thousand men at the least. Varro. Liv. Tac. Veget. [Roman Antiquities]

LEGIONA'RII. Legionary soldiers ; i.e. the body of five or six thousand heavy-armed ~ men, who formed the contingent furnished out of the Roman Citizens to each legion, the rest of its entire complement being made up by auxiliaries and cavalry. (Cic. Fam. x. 32. Caes. B.G. I. 42.) The annexed figure, from the column of Trajan, probably represents a legionary of the Imperial age ; he wears a close helmet, a sword suspended by a shoulder belt (balteus), and hanging on the right side, has an oblong square shield (scutum), a cuirass formed of flexible plates of metal (see Lorica, No. 7.), and military shoes (caligae). On the arches of Trajan and Septimius Severis, and the Columns of Trajan and Antoninus, numerous bodies of men are represented with the same accoutrements, and engaged in all the various duties which the soldiers of a legion were expected to perform. [Roman Antiquities]

Roman Legionary Soldier
Roman Legionary Soldier

Legionary troopers. Legiottarii equites. Legionary troopers ; i.e. the soldiers comprised in a detachment of three hundred horse, who were always joined with a Roman Legion. (Liv. xxv. 21. xxxv. 5. Veg. Mil. ii. 2.) Their defensive armour appears to have been the same as that of the infantry, at least during the Imperial epoch, as shown by the annexed figure, from the Column of Antoninus. [Roman Antiquities]

Roman Legionary Trooper
Roman Legionary Trooper

SCU'TUM . The large oblong shield generally adopted by the Roman infantry instead of the round buckler (clipius), at the period when the military ceased to serve without pay. It was about 4 feet long by 2 1/2 wide; formed out of boards, like a door firmly joined together and covered over with coarse cloth, under an outer coating of raw hide, attached and strengthened round the edges by a metal rim. The men of each legion had their shields painted of a different colour, and charged with distinctive symbols, as is exhibited by the illustration representing three scuta, as they stand upon the ground in the column of Trajan, distinguished severally by the image of a thunderbolt, of a wreath, and the same bolt with a pair of wings. Liv. i. 43. viii. 8. Plin. H. N. xvi. 77. Virg. y^n. viii. 662. Veg. Mil. ii. 18. Polyb. ii. 30. 3- vi. 23. 2. [Rich]


Roman Legionary Shields


 Legionary Shields from the Column of Trajan

Signa militaria. Military standards or ensigns, including, in reality, the eagle (aquila), which was the general ensign of the entire legion; but more commonly used with reference to the different standards belonging to each separate maniple and cohort, as distinct from the eagle. Cat. ii. 6. Tac. Hist. 11. 29. Tac. Ann. i. 18.) The illustration, a medal, shows the eagle between two standards of cohorts ; the name of each ensign is enumerated in the Classed Index, and an example given under its own denomination. [Rich]


Roman Eagle Ensign of the Entire Legion

SPECULA'TORES. Lookers-out: a term applied generally to any persons who acted the part of scouts or spies (Liv. xxii. 33. Sail. Jug. 114.); but specially to a small number of men attached to each Roman legion (Tac. Hist. i. 25. Hirt. B. Hisp. 13. Inscript. ap. Grut. 520. 5. Appian. B. C. v. 132.), whose duty it was to collect information respecting the numbers and motions of the enemy, and to act as aides-de-camp to the general in transmitting his orders to the different divisions of the army. Hirt. B. Afr. 31. [Rich]


Roman Legionary Scout (Speculatores)

TRIA'RII. A body of heavy-armed infantry soldiers, who formed the third division of a Roman legion. They were originally distinguished by the name of Pilani from the heavy javelin (pilum) with which they were equipped ; but when that weapon was also distributed to the other two divisions, comprising the Hastati and the Principes, the old name was changed for that of Triarii, either on account of the position they occupied in the order of battle, viz. the third line, which is the reason assigned by Livy, or because their corps consisted of picked men selected from each of the three heavy-armed classes, which is the reason assigned by Niebuhr. Their armour consisted of a bronze helmet, with a high crest, a cuirass, large shield, a short and pointed sword, and the heavy javelin ox pilum ; but no authentic monument representing these details with sufficient precision is known to exist. (Varro, L. L. v. 89. Liv. viii. 8.) Towards the latter end of the republic, the original distinction between the men styled respectively Hastati, Principes, and Triarii was abandoned, in consequence of the new system adopted of drawing up the army by lines in cohorts. [Rich]

Military Tribune. Tribuni militares or militum - Military tribunes; officers in the Roman army who held a rank below that of the legati, but superior to that of the centuriones. (Varro, L. L. v. 81. Cic. Cluent. 36.) The numbers of these officers appointed to each legion varied at different periods, as the number of men composing its strength was increased; but they enjoyed an important command and high rank, being often represented on the columns and arches in the immediate staff of the imperator, and wearing the same accoutrements with himself and the legatus, as exhibited by the annexed group, from the Column of Trajan, which shows the emperor in front, a legatus immediately behind him, and the tribune in the rear.  [Rich]


Roman Military Tribunes

TRIUM'PHUS. A triumph, or grand military procession, in which a victorious general and his troops entered the city after the successful termination of an important war, commencing at the porta triumphalis, then passing through the Velabrum and Circus Maximus, along the Via Sacra and Forum up to the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus on the Capitoline hill. It was headed by the entire body of the senate, who went out to meet the troops and conduct them into the city. Next followed the brass band, playing upon trumpets and horns; they preceded a file of carriages laden with the spoils taken from the enemy, intermixed with portable stages, on which articles most remarkable for value or beauty of workmanship were prominently displayed to attract the observation of the public, whilst the quantity and value of the booty and the names of the conquered provinces were placarded upon boards affixed to tall poles, and carried by the side of the objects described upon them. Then came a band of pipers (Tibicines) in advance of the victim intended for sacrifice - a white bull decorated with fillets of wool round the head, and a broad band of richly-dyed cloth across its back. Behind the victim walked a body of priests and their attendants with the sacrificial implements. After them the arms, standards, and other insignia of the conquered nations were displayed, immediately in advance of the princes, leaders, and their kindred taken captives in the war, followed by the entire number of ordinary prisoners in fetters. Next came the lictors of the general, in their civic costume, the toga, and with their brows and fasces wreathed with laurel; they formed a body immediately in advance of the triumphant general, who was dressed in his triumphalia, and standing in a circular car drawn by four horses. On his brow he wore a wreath of laurel, and behind him in the car stood a public servant, who held over his head a massive crown of gold studded with jewels . His youngest children were placed in the car with him; whilst those who had attained to manhood rode on horseback beside the car, or upon the horses which drew it. Behind the general marched the superior officers, the Legati, Tribuni, and the Equites, all on horseback; and the procession was finally closed by the entire body of the legions, carrying branches of laurel in their hands, and having chaplets of the same shrub round their heads, alternately singing songs in praise of their general, and cutting jokes at his expense. During the course of the route the procession passed under a temporary arch designed for the purpose and erected across the street, which in early times was taken down after the fete; but latterly it was replaced by a permanent structure of marble or stone. [Roman Antiquities]

TUB'A. A wind instrument made of bronze, with a funnel or bell-shaped mouth, and straight tube (Ov. Met. 1. 98. Juv. ii. 118. Veg. Mil. iii. 5.), like our trumpet, giving out very loud and interrupted notes ( fractos sonitus, Virg. Georg. iv. 72. terrihdi sonitu tarataiitara dixit. Ennius ap. Prise, viii. 842.). The example is from the arch of Titus.  [Rich]


Roman Tuba

TUB'ICEN. A trumpeter who blows the tuba (Varro, Z. L. v. 91. Ov. Met. iii. 705.), as exhibited by the annexed figure, from a bas-relief on the arch of Constantine. Trumpeters were always included in the brass band of the army (Liv. ii. 64.) ; amongst the musicians who performed at religious ceremonies (Varro, L. L. V. 117. ) ; and at funeral solemnities (Pers. iii. 103.) ; whence the expression ad titbicines mittere (Pet. Sat. I2g. 7.) means to prepare for death.  [Rich]


Roman Trumpeter Blowing the Tuba

TROPAE'UM. A trophy; a monument erected on the spot where a victory had been obtained; or, in the case of naval warfare, upon the nearest point of land to where the action had taken place. It was originally formed with the trunk of a tree, upon which and its branches some arms belonging to the defeated party were suspended, as in the illustration, from an Imperial coin ; but latterly trophies were designed as elaborate works of art, in marble or bronze, and erected apart from the battle-field, as permanent mementoes of the contest. Cic. Inv. ii. 23. Virg. ^-En. xi. 5?II. Suet. Cal. 45. Claud, i.  [Rich]


Roman Trophy

FER'CULUM. A sort of portable platform borne by a number of men upon their shoulders, in solemn processions and other pageants, upon which any object of attraction was placed in order that it might be exposed to the general gaze from an elevated position; as, for example, the images of the gods at the Circensian procession (Suet. Jul. 76. Compare Cic. Off. i. 36. ) ; the spoils of conquered nations at a triumph (Suet. Jul. 37.) ; and even the captives themselves, when of sufficient consequence, were subjected to this cruel exposure. (Senec. Here. Oet. no.) The illustration, from a bas-relief on the Arch of Titus, represents eight Roman soldiers at the triumph of that emperor, after the conquest of Jerusalem, carrying the spoils of the temple, the "table of gold" (I Kings vii. 48.) and trumpets on a ferculum; another basrelief on the same arch represents a group transporting the golden candlestick in the same manner. [Rich]


8 Roman Soldiers Carrying Spoils from Jerusalem on a Ferculum (Arch of Titus)

TIT'ULUS. A placard or board attached to a long pole, and carried by the soldiery in triumphal processions, to record the number of prisoners, amount of booty, and names of the towns or countries captured; all which details were inscribed upon it in large characters, for the information of the populace. (Ov. Trist. iv. 2. 20.) The illustration represents one of the boards carried at the triumph of the Emperor Titus, after the conquest of Jerusalem, from the arch erected in commemoration of that event. [Rich]


Roman Soldier Carrying the Titulus (Arch of Titus)

DORSUA'LIA. A broad band, made of richly dyed cloth, or embroidered silk, which was laid across the backs of horses upon state occasions, as in the example, from the triumphal procession of Constantine; or upon cattle conducted to the sacrifice, of which the Arch of Titus at Rome affords several specimens. Trebell. Gallien. 8. [Roman Antiquities]


Roman Procession Horse Bearing the Dorsualia Band

LICTOR. A lictor; a public officer attached to the service of certain Roman magistrates, whom he preceded whenever they went abroad ; viz. twenty-four for a dictator, twelve for a consul, decemvir, or tribune with military power; six for a praetor, and one for a Vestal virgin. He carried the fasces elevated on his left shoulder, and a rod (vir'ga) in the right hand, with which he removed any persons obstructing the way, and knocked at the doors of those whom the magistrate visited. In the city he wore the toga, and carried the fasces without the axe (sectiris), as exhibited by the annexed figure from a bas-relief of the Vatican; but out of Rome he wore the military cloak (sagum or paludamentum),and had the axe attached to his fasces. [Roman Antiquities]


Roman Lictor

Fasces. Fasces praeferre and submiittere. The lictor walked before the magistrate to whose service he was attached with a rod (virga) in his right hand, and the fasces on his left shoulder, as shown by the annexed figure, from a bas-relief in the Museum of Verona. This is expressed by the phrase fasces praferre; but if a magistrate of inferior rank met a superior, the lictor removed the fasces from his shoulder, and lowered them, as a mark of respect, till the great man had passed, as our soldiers ground arms in the presence of great personages. This is expressed by the phrase fasces submittere. [Roman Antiquities]

    
Roman Lictor Carrying the Fasces

Triumphant Chariot. Currus triumphalis. A triumphal car, in which the Roman general was carried at his triumph. This was not open at the back like the ordinary currus, but was completely circular, and closed all round (Zonar. vi. 21.), as shown by the annexed engraving, from a medal of Vespasian, which shows the persons in it. Its panels were also decorated with carvings in ivory, which are apparent in the present example, whence it is designated as the ivory car (currus ebirneus, Pedo Albin. El. i. 333.).  [Roman Antiquities]


Roman Triumphant Chariot (Currus) Drawn by 4 Horses

CORO'NA. A wreath., garland, or chaplet, made of real or artificial flowers, leaves, &c., worn as an ornament upon the head; but not as a crown in our sense of the word, i. e. as an emblem of royalty; for amongst the ancients, a diadem (diadema) occupied the place of the modern crown. Of these there were a great many varieties, distinguished by the different materials or the designs in which they were made, and chiefly employed as rewards for public virtue, or ornaments for festive occasions. Under these two divisions, the principal corona; are enumerated in the following paragraphs.

Corona triumphalis. The triumphal crown; of which there were three several kinds. (1.) A wreath of laurel leaves without the berries (Aul. Cell. V. 6. I. Plin. H. N. XV. 39.), worn by the general during his triumph in the manner shown by the annexed bust of Antoninus, from an engraved gem. This being esteemed the most honourable of the three, was expressly designated laurea insignis. (Liv. vii. 13.) (2.) A crown of gold made in imitation of laurel leaves, which was held over the head of the general during the triumph by a public officer {servus publicus, "Juv. x. 41.) appointed for the purpose, and in the manner shown by the illustration. from a bas-relief on the Arch of Titus, representing that emperor in his triumphal car at the procession for the conquest of Jerusalem, in which a winged figure of Victory poetically performs the part of the public officer. {3.) A crown of gold, and of considerable value, but merely sent as a present to the general who had obtained a triumph (Plut. Paul. Aimil. 34), from the different provinces, whence it is expressly called provincialis. Tertull. Coron. Mil. 13. [Rich]


Roman Triumphant Wearing the Corona (Laurel Crown) - Arch of Titus

VEXILLARIUS. The soldier who carried the vexillum, or colours of his regiment (Liv. viii. 8. Tac. Htst. I. 41.); more especially, though not exclusively descriptive of the cavalry troops, who used no other ensign. The illustration is copied from the Column of Antoninus. 2. Under the Empire, the name of Vexillarii was given to a distinct body of soldiers, supposed to have been composed of veterans, who were released from the military oath and regular service, but kept embodied under a separate flag (vexillum), to render assistance to the army if required, guard the frontiers, and garrison recently conquered provinces; a certain number of these supernumeraries being attached to each legion. Tac. Hist. ii. 83. lb. 100. Compare Ann. i. 36. [Rich]


Roman Flag Bearer (vexillarius)

VEXILLUM. A flag; consisting of a square piece of cloth fixed on a frame or cross-tree (Tertull. Apol. 16.) ; as contradistinguished from the standard (signum), which was simply a pole, with the image of an eagle, horse, or some other device, on the top of it. The flag was always the proper and only ensign of the Roman cavalry. In ver>- early times it was aiso used by the infantry (Liv. viii. 8. ) ; but it was afterwards employed for a distinctive banner of the allied troops, as the standard was for the legions ; whence the two are frequently enumerated together when it is intended to comprise the Roman legions and the allies. (Liv. xxxix. 20. Sn&t. Nero, 13. Vitell. 11.) The illustration represents the cross-tree upon which the flag was extended, from an original of bronze, with a miniature drawing of the flag and pole by its side. [Rich]


Roman Flag (vexillum)


Roman Legion Commander and Soldiers


Roman Army Encampment

PLAN OF A ROMAN MILITARY CAMP. A. Decumanian gate.?B. Praetorian gate.?C. and D. Principal side gates.?E. F. Via Quintana traversing the camp.?I. and II. Tents of the legions.?I. The Praetorium.?2. The Qurestorium.? 3. The Forum.?4 and 5. Tents of Roman volunteers.? 6 and 7. Tents of the main body and of allies. ?8. Foreign auxiliaries.?9. Tents of the twelve military tribunes.


Roman Army Crossing Bridge of Boats (Trajan's Column)

Painted Illustration of a Roman Centurion
Roman Centurion Painted Illustration
 

Heart Message

It's not Easy to Shake a Centurion

And when Jesus had cried out again in a loud voice, he gave up his spirit. At that moment the curtain of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom. The earth shook and the rocks split. The tombs broke open and the bodies of many holy people who had died were raised to life. They came out of the tombs, and after Jesus' resurrection they went into the holy city and appeared to many people. When the centurion and those with him who were guarding Jesus saw the earthquake and all that had happened, they were terrified, and exclaimed, "Surely he was the Son of God!" Matthew 28:50-54

Imagine the fear inspired by a detachment of Roman legionnaires marching into your village. The ground rumbles beneath one hundred soldiers armed with sword, shield and armor as they move down your street. The entire unit moving as one. Not one solider thinking of his own choices but moving as a single entity. Along side riding on a proud steed is the centurion. Distinguished in attire and character. He is one who worked his way up through the ranks by merit into a position of trusted authority. Seasoned by battle and enforcing law in hundreds of villages throughout the Empire his eyes are filled with a deep knowing. He has a charge and a duty to carry out and is little moved by the opinion of any human spirit.

One Centurion on what would have been an ordinary day of keeping order was witness to the day that shook the city and the world. Perhaps he had heard of Jesus of Nazareth or even seen the crowds that followed him. He may have even been an acquaintance of the centurion who's servant was healed by Christ. (Matt 8) He certainly saw the huge crowds watching this crucifixion. He saw some crying and others mocking. He saw the sign over his head, "This is Jesus. The King of the Jews" He even heard Christ promise one of the other crucified thieves next to him the promise of paradise! There must have been a lot of thinking and considering behind his steely-eyed gaze as he stood watch with his soldiers over this eerie event.

What made this Jesus so special? Another rabble-rouser Jewish extremist? But somehow he doesn't fit the profile. And why do the priests and religionists hate him so much? Why are they so threatened? In the midst of thought suddenly Jesus clears his throat and yells, "It is finished!" and gives up his spirit as if by choice and purpose. (John 19:30) Then a violent earthquake! Everything is shaking! The loud and dramatic waves of earth moving power is rumbling through every soul causing terror, screams near and far... the panic of people running, horses bucking, birds fleeing and rocks falling.

The centurion makes an authoritative decision. "Surely he was the Son of God!" A statement that his men and others must have heard, only adding to the sense of foreboding awe. This very day both the rocks and history split into two and God began to present the question and choice to every human: "But what about you... Who do you say that I am?" (Matt. 16:15)
 

He mocks proud mockers but gives grace to the humble. Proverbs 3:34

Legion. The largest division of the Roman army, of which it was, in order and armament, the miniature; 6,000 foot, with a body of horse. Matthew 26:53, "thinkest thou that I cannot now pray to My Father, and He shall presently give Me more than twelve legions of angels," against this band from the Roman "legion"; not merely My twelve apostles, but twelve "legions," and these "angels?" (compare 2 Kings 6:17; Daniel 7:10.) In Mark 5:9 the demon-possessed says, "my name is legion, for we are many," "because many demons (Greek) were entered into him." [Fausset's]

Legion. The chief subdivision of the Roman army, containing about 6000 infantry, with a contingent of cavalry. The term does not occur in the Bible in its primary sense, but appears to have been adopted in order to express any large number, with the accessory ideas of order and subordination. Mt 26:53; Mr 5:9 [Smith's]

Legion. A regiment of the Roman army, the number of men composing which differed at different times. It originally consisted of three thousand men, but in
the time of Christ consisted of six thousand, exclusive of horsemen, who were in number a tenth of the foot-men. The word is used (Matt. 26:53; Mark
5:9) to express simply a great multitude. [Easton's]

The Legions: There were 25 legions in 23 AD (Tacitus Annals 4, 5), which had been increased to 30 at the time of the reign of Marcus Aurelius, 160-180 AD (CIL, VI, 3492 a-b) and to 33 under Septimius Severus (Dio Cassius, iv. 23-24). Each legion was made up, ordinarily, of 6,000 men, who were divided into 10 cohorts, each cohort containing 3 maniples, and each maniple in turn 2 centuries. The legatus Augustus pro praetore, or governor of each imperial province, was chief commander of all the troops within the province. An officer of senatorial rank known as legatus Augusti legionis was entrusted with the command of each legion, together with the bodies of auxilia which were associated with it. Besides, there were six tribuni militum, officers of equestrian rank (usually sons of senators who had not yet held the quaestorship) in each legion. The centurions who commanded the centuries belonged to the plebeian class. Between the rank of common soldier and centurion there were a large number of subalterns, called principales, who correspond roughly to the non-commissioned officers and men detailed from the ranks for special duties in modern armies. [ISBE]

THE ROMAN ARMY.--The Roman army was divided into legions, the number of which varied considerably (from 3000 to 6000), each under six tribuni ("chief captains,") Acts 21:31 who commanded by turns. The legion was subdivided into ten cohorts ("band,") Ac 10:1 the cohort into three maniples, and the maniple into two centuries, containing originally 100 men, as the name implies, but subsequently from 50 to 100 men, according to the strength of the legion. There were thus 60 centuries in a legion, each under the command of a centurion. Ac 10:1,22; Mt 8:5; 27:54 In addition to the legionary cohorts, independent cohorts of volunteers served under the Roman standards. One of these cohorts was named the Italian, Ac 10:1 as consisting of volunteers from Italy. The headquarters of the Roman forces in Judea were at Caesarea. [Smith's]

THE ROMAN ARMY

ar'-mi, ro'-man; The treatment of this subject will be confined to (I) a brief description of the organization of the army, and (II) a consideration of the allusions to the Roman military establishment in the New Testament.
I. Organization.
There were originally no standing forces, but the citizens performed military service like any other civic duty when summoned by the magistrates. The gradual development of a military profession and standing army culminated in the admission of the poorest class to the ranks by Marius (about 107 BC). Henceforth the Roman army was made up of a body of men whose character was essentially that of mercenaries, and whose term of continuous service varied in different divisions from 16 to 26 years.
The forces which composed the Roman army under the Empire may be divided into the following five groups: (1) the imperial guard and garrison of the capital, (2) the legions, (3) the auxilia, (4) the numeri, (5) the fleet. We shall discuss their organization in the order mentioned.
1. The Imperial Guard:
The imperial guard consisted of the cohortes praetoriae, which together with the cohortes urbanae and vigiles made up the garrison of Rome. In the military system as established by Augustus there were nine cohorts of the praetorian guard, three of the urban troops, and seven of the vigiles. Each cohort numbered 1,000 men, and was commanded by a tribune of equestrian rank. The praetorian prefects (praefecti praetorii), of whom there were usually two, were commanders of the entire garrison of the capital, and stood at the highest point of distinction and authority in the equestrian career.
2. The Legions:
There were 25 legions in 23 AD (Tacitus Annals 4, 5), which had been increased to 30 at the time of the reign of Marcus Aurelius, 160-180 AD (CIL, VI, 3492 a-b) and to 33 under Septimius Severus (Dio Cassius, iv. 23-24). Each legion was made up, ordinarily, of 6,000 men, who were divided into 10 cohorts, each cohort containing 3 maniples, and each maniple in turn 2 centuries.
The legatus Augustus pro praetore, or governor of each imperial province, was chief commander of all the troops within the province. An officer of senatorial rank known as legatus Augusti legionis was entrusted with the command of each legion, together with the bodies of auxilia which were associated with it. Besides, there were six tribuni militum, officers of equestrian rank (usually sons of senators who had not yet held the quaestorship) in each legion. The centurions who commanded the centuries belonged to the plebeian class. Between the rank of common soldier and centurion there were a large number of subalterns, called principales, who correspond roughly to the non-commissioned officers and men detailed from the ranks for special duties in modern armies.
3. The "Auxilia":
The auxilia were organized as infantry in cohortes, as cavalry in alae, or as mixed bodies, cohortes equitatae. Some of these divisions contained approximately 1,000 men (cohortes or alae miliariae), but the greater number about 500 (cohortes or alae quingenariae). They were commanded by tribuni and praefecti of equestrian rank. The importance of the auxilia consisted originally in the diversity of their equipment and manner of fighting, since each group adhered to the customs of the nation in whose midst it had been recruited. But with the gradual Romanization of the Empire they were assimilated more and more to the character of the legionaries.
4. The "Numeri":
The numeri developed out of the provincial militia and began to appear in the 2nd century AD. They maintained their local manner of warfare. Some were bodies of infantry, others of cavalry, and they varied in strength from 300 to 90 (Mommsen, Hermes, XIX, 219 f, and XXII, 547 f). Their commanders were praepositi, praefecti or tribuni, all men of equestrian rank.
5. The Fleet:
The fleet was under the command of prefects (praefecti classis), who took rank among the highest officials of the equestrian class. The principal naval stations were at Misenum and Ravenna.
6. Defensive Arrangements:
Augustus established the northern boundary of the Empire at the Rhine and at the Danube, throughout the greater part of its course, and bequeathed to his successors the advice that they should not extend their sovereignty beyond the limits which he had set (Tacitus Annals i.11; Agricola 13); and although this policy was departed from in many instances, such as the annexation of Thrace, Cappadocia, Mauretania, Britain, and Dacia, not to mention the more ephemeral acquisitions of Trajan, yet the military system of the Empire was arranged primarily with the view of providing for the defense of the provinces and not for carrying on aggressive warfare on a large scale. Nearly all the forces, with the exception of the imperial guard, were distributed among the provinces on the border of the Empire, and the essential feature of the disposition of the troops in these provinces was the permanent fortress in which each unit was stationed. The combination of large camps for the legions with a series of smaller forts for the alae, cohorts, and numeri is the characteristic arrangement on all the frontiers. The immediate protection of the frontier was regularly entrusted to the auxiliary troops, while the legions were usually stationed some distance to the rear of the actual boundary. Thus the army as a whole was so scattered that it was a difficult undertaking to assemble sufficient forces for carrying out any considerable project of foreign conquest, or even to cope at once with a serious invasion, yet the system was generally satisfactory in view of the conditions which prevailed, and secured for the millions of subjects of the Roman Empire the longest period of undisturbed tranquillity known to European history.
7. Recruiting System:
In accordance with the arrangements of Augustus, the cohortes praetoriae and cohortes urbanae were recruited from Latium, Etruria, Umbria, and the older Roman colonies (Tacitus Annals 4, 5), the legions from the remaining portions of Italy, and the auxilia from the subject communities of the Empire (Seeck, Rheinisches Museum, XLVIII, 616).
But in course of time the natives of Italy disappeared, first from the legions, and later from the garrison of the capital. Antoninus Plus established the rule that each body of troops should draw its recruits from the district where it was stationed. Henceforth the previous possession of Roman citizenship was no longer required for enlistment in the legions. The legionary was granted the privilege of citizenship upon entering the service, the auxiliary soldier upon being discharged (Seeck, Untergang der antiken Welt, I, 250).
II. Allusions in the New Testament to the Roman Military Establishment.
Such references relate chiefly to the bodies of troops which were stationed in Judea. Agrippa I left a military establishment of one ala and five cohorts at his death in 44 AD (Josephus, Ant, XIX, ix, 2; BJ, III, iv, 2), which he had doubtless received from the earlier Roman administration. These divisions were composed of local recruits, chiefly Samaritans (Hirschfeld, Verwaltungsbeamte, 395; Mommsen, Hermes, XIX, 217, note 1).
The Ala I gemina Sebastenorum was stationed at Caesarea (Josephus, Ant, XX, 122; BJ, II, xii, 5; CIL, VIII, 9359).
1. Augustan Band:
Julius, the centurion to whom Paul and other prisoners were delivered to be escorted to Rome (Acts 27:1), belonged to one of the five cohorts which was stationed at or near Caesarea. This Speira Sebaste (Westcott-Hort), "Augustus' Band" (the Revised Version (British and American) "Augustan band"; the Revised Version, margin "cohort"), was probably the same body of troops which is mentioned in inscriptions as Cohors I Augusta (CIL, Supp, 6687) and Speira Augouste (Lebas-Waddington 2112). Its official title may have been Cohors Augusta Sebastenorum (GVN). It will be observed that all divisions of the Roman army were divided into companies of about 100 men, each of which, in the infantry, was commanded by a centurion, in the cavalry, by a decurion.
2. Italian Band:
There was another cohort in Caesarea, the "Italian band" (Cohors Italica, Vulgate) of which Cornelius was centurion (Acts 10:1: ek speires tes kaloumenes Italikes). The cohortes Italicae (civium Romanorum) were made up of Roman citizens (Marquardt, Romische Staatsverwaltung, II, 467).
3. Praetorian Guard:
One of the five cohorts was stationed in Jerusalem (Mt 27:27; Mk 15:16), the "chief captain" of which was Claudius Lysias. His title, chiliarchos in the Greek (Acts 23:10,15,17,19,22,26; 24:7 the King James Version), meaning "leader of a thousand men" (tribunus, Vulgate), indicates that this body of soldiers was a cohors miliaria. Claudius Lysias sent Paul to Felix at Caesarea under escort of 200 soldiers, 70 horsemen, and 200 spearmen (Acts 23:23). The latter (dexiolaboi, Westcott and Hort, The New Testament in Greek) are thought to have been a party of provincial militia. Several centurions of the cohort at Jerusalem appear during the riot and subsequent rescue and arrest of Paul (Acts 21:32; 22:25,26; 23:17,23). The cohortes miliariae (of 1,000 men) contained ten centurions. A centurion, doubtless of the same cohort, was in charge of the execution of the Saviour (Mt 27:54; Mk 15:39,44,45; Lk 23:47). It was customary for centurions to be entrusted with the execution of capital penalties (Tacitus Ann. i.6; xvi.9; xvi.15; Hist. ii.85).
The the King James Version contains the passage in Acts 28:16: "The centurion delivered the prisoners to the captain of the guard" (stratopedarches), which the Revised Version (British and American) omits. It has commonly been held that the expression stratopedarches was equivalent to praetorian prefect (praefectus praetorius), and that the employment of the word in the singular was proof that Paul arrived in Rome within the period 51-62 AD when Sex. Afranius Burrus was sole praetorian prefect. Mommsen (Sitzungsberichte der Berliner Akademie (1895), 491-503) believes that the sentence in question embodies an ancient tradition, but that the term stratopedarches could not mean praefectus praetorius, which is never rendered in this way in Greek. He suggests that it stands for princeps castrorum peregrinorum, who was a centurion in command of the frumentarii at Rome. These were detachments of legionary soldiers who took rank as principales. They served as military couriers between the capital and provinces, political spies, and an imperial police. It was probably customary, at least when the tradition under discussion arose, for the frumentarii to take charge of persons who were sent to Rome for trial (Marquardt, Romische Staatsverwaltung, II, 491-94). [ISBE]

 


Highways of the Roman Empire

 


The Word "Legion" is Mentioned in the Bible

Mark 5:15 - And they come to Jesus, and see him that was possessed with the devil, and had the legion, sitting, and clothed, and in his right mind: and they were afraid.

Luke 8:30 - And Jesus asked him, saying, What is thy name? And he said, Legion: because many devils were entered into him.

Mark 5:9 - And he asked him, What [is] thy name? And he answered, saying, My name [is] Legion: for we are many.

Matthew 26:53 - Thinkest thou that I cannot now pray to my Father, and he shall presently give me more than twelve legions of angels?


The Word "Caesar" in the Bible

(Note: It was not always Tiberius because he died in 37 A.D.)

Luke 3:1 - Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene.

Matthew 22:21 - They say unto him, Caesar's. Then saith he unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's; and unto God the things that are God's.

Luke 3:1 - Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene,

John 19:15 - But they cried out, Away with [him], away with [him], crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Shall I crucify your King? The chief priests answered, We have no king but Caesar.

John 19:12 - And from thenceforth Pilate sought to release him: but the Jews cried out, saying, If thou let this man go, thou art not Caesar's friend: whosoever maketh himself a king speaketh against Caesar.

Luke 20:25 - And he said unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things which be Caesar's, and unto God the things which be God's.

Mark 12:14 - And when they were come, they say unto him, Master, we know that thou art true, and carest for no man: for thou regardest not the person of men, but teachest the way of God in truth: Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar, or not?

Mark 12:17 - And Jesus answering said unto them, Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's. And they marvelled at him.

Acts 27:24 - Saying, Fear not, Paul; thou must be brought before Caesar: and, lo, God hath given thee all them that sail with thee.

Luke 23:2 - And they began to accuse him, saying, We found this [fellow] perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, saying that he himself is Christ a King.

Acts 11:28 - And there stood up one of them named Agabus, and signified by the Spirit that there should be great dearth throughout all the world: which came to pass in the days of Claudius Caesar.

Acts 25:11 - For if I be an offender, or have committed any thing worthy of death, I refuse not to die: but if there be none of these things whereof these accuse me, no man may deliver me unto them. I appeal unto Caesar.

Acts 25:21 - But when Paul had appealed to be reserved unto the hearing of Augustus, I commanded him to be kept till I might send him to Caesar.

Acts 17:7 - Whom Jason hath received: and these all do contrary to the decrees of Caesar, saying that there is another king, [one] Jesus.

Luke 2:1 - And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed.

Acts 28:19 - But when the Jews spake against [it], I was constrained to appeal unto Caesar; not that I had ought to accuse my nation of.

Matthew 22:17 - Tell us therefore, What thinkest thou? Is it lawful to give tribute unto Caesar, or not?

Acts 25:8 - While he answered for himself, Neither against the law of the Jews, neither against the temple, nor yet against Caesar, have I offended any thing at all.

Acts 26:32 - Then said Agrippa unto Festus, This man might have been set at liberty, if he had not appealed unto Caesar.

Luke 20:22 - Is it lawful for us to give tribute unto Caesar, or no?

Acts 25:12 - Then Festus, when he had conferred with the council, answered, Hast thou appealed unto Caesar? unto Caesar shalt thou go.

 

Some Scriptures mentioning the word "Rome"

 

Acts 23:11 - And the night following the Lord stood by him, and said, Be of good cheer, Paul: for as thou hast testified of me in Jerusalem, so must thou bear witness also at Rome.

2 Timothy 4:22 - The Lord Jesus Christ [be] with thy spirit. Grace [be] with you. Amen. <[The second [epistle] unto Timotheus, ordained the first bishop of the church of the Ephesians, was written from Rome, when Paul was brought before Nero the second time.]>

Acts 18:2 - And found a certain Jew named Aquila, born in Pontus, lately come from Italy, with his wife Priscilla; (because that Claudius had commanded all Jews to depart from Rome:) and came unto them.

Colossians 4:18 - The salutation by the hand of me Paul. Remember my bonds. Grace [be] with you. Amen. <[Written from Rome to Colossians by Tychicus and Onesimus.]>

Ephesians 6:24 - Grace [be] with all them that love our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity. Amen. <[To [the] Ephesians written from Rome, by Tychicus.]>

Philemon 1:25 - The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ [be] with your spirit. Amen. <[Written from Rome to Philemon, by Onesimus a servant.]>

Acts 2:10 - Phrygia, and Pamphylia, in Egypt, and in the parts of Libya about Cyrene, and strangers of Rome, Jews and proselytes,

Acts 19:21 - After these things were ended, Paul purposed in the spirit, when he had passed through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to Jerusalem, saying, After I have been there, I must also see Rome.

Acts 28:16 - And when we came to Rome, the centurion delivered the prisoners to the captain of the guard: but Paul was suffered to dwell by himself with a soldier that kept him.

Romans 1:7 - To all that be in Rome, beloved of God, called [to be] saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.

Galatians 6:18 - Brethren, the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ [be] with your spirit. Amen. <[To [the] Galatians written from Rome.]>

Philippians 4:23 - The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ [be] with you all. Amen. <[To [the] Philippians written from Rome, by Epaphroditus.]>

Acts 28:14 - Where we found brethren, and were desired to tarry with them seven days: and so we went toward Rome.

Romans 1:15 - So, as much as in me is, I am ready to preach the gospel to you that are at Rome also.

2 Timothy 1:17 - But, when he was in Rome, he sought me out very diligently, and found [me].

 

Daniel 2:40 - "And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron: forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces and subdueth all [things]: and as iron that breaketh all these, shall it break in pieces and bruise."

Acts 23:11 - And the night following the Lord stood by him, and said, Be of good cheer, Paul: for as thou hast testified of me in Jerusalem, so must thou bear witness also at Rome.

 


Related Pages:

Legion - Biblical Definition of Legion in Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Legion in Fausset's Bible Dictionary (Bible History Online)
http://www.bible-history.com/faussets/L/Legion/

Bible History Online - Roman Legion Bricks with Stamp - These bricks contain an inscribed stamp from the Roman legion which destroyed Jerusalem in 70 AD. They are stamped with th e inscription "Legio X Fretensis.
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/roman-legion-bricks.html

Bible History Online - Roman Legion Camp at Masada - Roman Legion Camp at Masada. This horrifying scene is the remains of the encampment of the Roman soldiers who laid siege to the Jewis h Zealots who had ...
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/legion-camp.html

Legion - Biblical Meaning of Legion in Eastons Bible Dictionary - Legion - Biblical Meaning for Legion in Eastons Bible Dictionary (Bible History Online)
http://www.bible-history.com/eastons/L/ Legion/

Legion - Meaning of Legion in Smiths Bible Dictionary - Legion: Biblical Meaning of Legion in Smiths Bible Dictionary (Bible History Online)
http://www.bible-history.com/smiths/L/ Legion/

LEGION in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE (Bible History Online) - Bibliography Information Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. "Definition for ' LEGION'". "International Standard Bible Encyclopedia" ;. bible-history.com - ISBE; ...
http://www.bible-history.com/isbe/L/LEGION/

Legion jesus00000095.gif LEGION. A main division of the Roman Army - LEGION. A main division of the Roman army, nearly equivalent to our regiment. It comprised a much larger number of men, running from 3000 men to about ...
http://www.bible-history.com/jesus/jesusuntitled00000409.htm

Roman Centurion (Bible History Online) - In ancient Rome the "centurion" meant "captain of 100", and the Roman centurion was captain over 100 foot soldiers in a legion. The centurion was loy al and ...
http://www.bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/roman-centurion.html

The Roman Army (Bible History Online Quotes) - The Legions: There were 25 legions in 23 AD (Tacitus Annals 4, 5), which had ... Each legion was made up, ordinarily, of 6000 men, who were divided int o 10 ...
http://www.bible-history.com/quotes/george_h_allen_1.html

LEGION in Naves Topical Bible (Bible History Online) - LEGION in Naves Topical Bible (Bible History Online)
http://www.bible-history.com/naves/L/LEGION/
 

The Roman Legions (Illustrated History of Ancient Rome)

Bible History Online - Roman Legions (Biblical Archaeology)

Book 3 - Julius Caesar's War Commentaries

Map of Ancient Israel - Roman Provincial Organization

Ancient Roman Eagle - Biblical Archaeology in Rome

Tacitus - HISTORIES

CENTURION in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE (Bible History Online)

A Harmony of the Life of Jesus - Herd of Many Swine Mat 8:28-33

Pontius Pilate - Conclusion

Pannonia - Clickable Map of the Roman Empire - First Century AD

Encarta Encyclopedia - The Empire Under Augustus



The History of Rome - Part One 743 - 136 B.C.

More Images of Rome's Emperors

Also see Roman Emperors - Photos, information , coins

 

Fallen Empires - Archaeology and the Bible

Archaeology Discoveries and the Ancient Biblical World 

The Black Obelisk. In the 1840's a British man named Austen Henry Layard had a desire to travel to the Middle East and dig around some of the strange looking mounds near the City of Mosul. He had heard many tales about things being found in these mounds. He was looking for any trace of evidence that would lead him to the lost city of Nineveh, the capital of the ancient Assyrian Empire. Little did he know that one of his discoveries would turn Europe upside down with excitement. He discovered a black limestone monument which is known today as The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III. This discovery brought a new authenticity and historicity to some of the stories in the Bible. It also gained him the support of the British Museum, and all the finances he needed to continue his excavations, and become known as "The Father of Assyriology."

The Pilate Inscription. It wasn't long ago when many scholars were questioning the actual existence of a Roman Governor with the name of Pontius Pilate, the procurator who ordered Jesus' crucifixion. In June 1961 Italian archaeologists led by Dr. Frova were excavating an ancient Roman amphitheatre near Caesarea-on-the-Sea (Maritima) and uncovered this interesting limestone block. On the worn face is a monumental inscription which is part of a larger dedication to Tiberius Caesar which clearly says that it was from "Pontius Pilate, Prefect of Judea."

The Megiddo Seal Bearing King Jeroboam's Name. It is very interesting that the Jasper Seal, found at Tel Megiddo bearing the name of King Jeroboam who ruled in the Northern Kingdom of Israel, would contain the symbol for their rival, the Southern Kingdom of Judah. But in examining all of the circumstances involved and seeing what the Bible says it is no wonder that the prosperous and victorious Northern Kingdom of Israel would boast with a symbol of their enemy.

The Tomb of Cyrus the Great. An inscription on the tomb of the great Persian monarch read: "O man, whoever you are and wherever you come from, for I know that you will come--I am Cyrus, son of Cambyses, who founded the Empire of the Persians and was king of the East. Do not grudge me this spot of earth which covers my body." - Cyrus". Is it true that Isaiah the Hebrew prophet mention Cyrus by name almost 200 years before he was born?

Sennacherib's Hexagonal Prism. This amazing discovery excavated in Nineveh in the 1830 records the Assyrian king Sennacherib's 8th campaign, which includes his siege of Jerusalem during the reign of "Hezekiah the Judahite" in 701 BC. There are 500 lines of writing in the Akkadian language on this magnificent clay prism. Is the story true that it was purchased by an American from an antiquities dealer in Baghdad?

Coming Soon The Ishtar Gate of Babylon. During the last days of the southern kingdom of Judah the Jews were taken captive to a distant land called Babylon at the latter part of the 6th century BC. They passed through a beautiful entrance gate made of mud brick masonry and glazed skin which stood 47 feet tall, commonly referred to as the Ishtar Gate since its discovery at the turn of the 20th century near modern Baghdad, Iraq. The tall gate was dedicated to the gods by Nebuchadnezzar King of Babylonia who reigned from 605—562 BC). Is it true that Hitler had it transported to Berlin? Where is the Ishtar Gate now?

[Next] The Remains of Solomon's Temple

Biblical Archaeology

The Bible mentions many things about people, places and events that happened in history. The Bible also gives an accurate chronology of those people, places and events. What is amazing is that modern archaeology has confirmed that the Bible has never made one error, or given any clear contradictions in all of its text in matters of historical fact. The paintings and illustrations below of archaeological discoveries and ruins illustrate this emphatically.

Paintings By Bjanikka Ben and Maliyah Weston

Assyria

Weld Prism

Sargon I Bust

Hammurabi Stele

Colossal Lion of Assyria

Statue of Ashurnasirpal II

Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III

Close up of Jehu - Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III

Tiglath Pileser III (Pul)

Enemy Trod Under Foot

Sargon II with Staff in Hand

Sargon II Relief

Winged Bull - One Sided

Winged Bull - Two Sided

Assyrian Royal Guard Soldiers of Sennacherib

Lachish Captives Being Skinned Alive

Israelite Captives from Lachish

Taylor Prism (Sennacherib Hexagonal Prism)

Stela of Ashurbanipal

Ruins of Ancient Assyria

Painting of Ancient Ashur

Israel

Moabite Stone

Beersheba Altar

Ivory Pomegranate Fake

Ossuary of Caiaphas

Proto Ionic Capital

El Amarna Letters

House of David Inscription

Korban Inscription

Lachish Letters

Megiddo Seal - Jeraboam Inscription

Pilate Inscription

Place of Trumpeting Inscription

Qumran Jar (Dead Sea Scrolls)

Siloam Inscription

Tel Dan Stele

Temple Warning Inscription

Uzziah Tablet Inscription

Stela of Baal

Gold of Ophir Inscription

Hazael King of Syria Statue

Ancient Caesarea Harbor

Ancient Caesarea Ruins

Ancient Hittite Ruins

Babylon

Striding Lion of Babylon 

Nebuchadnezzar II Cylinder

Lagash Rations Tablet

Ishtar Gate

Nebuchadnezzar II Brick

Babylonian Chronicle

Dragon of Marduk

Lion of Marduk

Detail of the Lion of Marduk

The Royal Standard of Ur

Persia

Tomb of Cyrus

Cyrus Cylinder

Ancient Persian Soldiers

Persepolis Lion

Darius Seated

Darius the Great (Up Close)

Ancient Persians

Ancient Persian Warriors at Susa

Egypt

Pharaoh Kneeling Before Bull

Amenophis II (Also Known as Thutmose-III)

Ramesses II

Shishak Smiting His Enemies

Apis the Sacred Bull of Memphis

Rosetta Stone

The Pyramids

Ramesses II Colossal Statue Painting

Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphs

The Israel Stela

Pharaoh Merneptah Statue

Ancient Egyptian Sphinx

Ancient Egyptian Obelisk

Rome

Bust of Julius Caesar

Bronze Bust of Augustus

Bust of Augustus Caesar

Bust of Tiberius Caesar

Arch of Titus Menorah Relief - 1

Arch of Titus Chariot Relief - 2

Bust of Vespasian

Bust of Titus

Bust of Nero

Roman Legionary Camp

Roman Legion Bricks with Stamp

Ancient Roman Eagle

Ancient Roman Aqueduct

Ancient Roman Legions

Ancient Roman Milestone

The Arch of Titus

The Colosseum

Greece

Alexander the Great Bust

Antiochus IV Epiphanes Coin

The Parthenon Ruins

The Ancient Parthenon of Athens

Antiochus IV Epiphanes Bust

Alexander the Great Coin

Greek Macedonian Infantry Helmet

Ancient Persian Soldiers

Peoples

Canaanite

Chaldean

Cilician

Indian

Ionian

Mede

Persian

Philistine

(More to come)

Illustrated Bible History A growing database of images and sketches of the ancient world.
Bible Maps A growing database of maps for study and teaching.

Reconstructions Sketches of ancient cities & monuments from archaeology.

Archaeology Resources:

The Popular Handbook of Archaeology and the Bible by Holden and Geisler. 352 Pages, 2012

Biblical Archaeology

Bible History Online

The Story of the Bible


© Bible History Online (http://www.bible-history.com)

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