Ancient Aqueduct 


Did the Romans Invent the Aqueduct?

This painting is of a section of an ancient Roman aqueduct on the outskirts of Caesarea Maritima to the south. The Romans used aqueducts to bring water into a city, they consisted of a cement-lined rectangular pipe supported on arches. The Romans built their first aqueduct in 312 BC. During the time of Augustus aqueducts brought nearly 300 million gallons of water per day to the city of Rome.

Aqueducts became one of Rome's greatest architectural marvels. They usually were constructed as arches, bridges, or siphons. This particular arched aqueduct was built by Herod to bring water from springs in the Carmel mountains in north Israel into the important city of Caesarea. The remains of this Ancient Roman Aqueduct is important in the study of Biblical archaeology. It corresponds exactly with what the Bible says concerning Herod, and concerning the achievements of the ancient Romans, and concerning the importance of ancient Caesarea during Biblical times.

Ancient aqueducts. Although particularly associated with the Romans, aqueducts were devised much earlier in Greece and the Near East and Indian subcontinent, where peoples such as the Egyptians and Harappans built sophisticated irrigation systems. Roman-style aqueducts were used as early as the 7th century BCE, when the Assyrians built an 80 km long limestone aqueduct, 10 m high and 300 m wide, to carry water across a valley to their capital city, Nineveh. [Wikipedia]

Roman Aqueduct at Caesarea
Ancient Caesarea Aqueduct Photo (click to enlarge)

Roman aqueducts were built in all parts of the Roman Empire, from Germany to Africa, and especially in the city of Rome, where they totaled over 415 km. The aqueducts supplied water to public baths and for drinking water, in large cities across the empire, and set a standard of engineering that was not surpassed for more than a thousand years. [Wikipedia]



Ancient Roman Aqueduct Sketch

AQUA DUCTUS. An aqueduct; an artificial channel, frequently of many miles in length, for the purpose of conveying a pure stream of water from its source to any determinate point. (Cic. _Att. xiii. 6. Frontinus de Aquaeduct.) The illustration represents a portion of the aqueduct constructed by the emperor Claudius, which is built of travertine stone, and upon a single tier of arches ; but some aqueducts conveyed as many as three separate streams in distinct channels, one above another ; and others were built according to the nature of the sites over which they passed. The channel (specus), through which the water flowed, is seen uncovered at the top. [Roman Antiquities, Rich]

Aqueducts and the baths. The magnificent water supply of ancient Rome was primarily designed for public rather than for private use, and supplying the baths was one of its most important functions. The aqueducts which carried water to Rome from the distant hills were among the foremost responsibilities, at first of the Roman officials and later of the emperors. The water for the Baths of Garacalla was supplied by a branch which that emperor constructed from the Aqua Marcia, an aqueduct built about the middle of the second century B.C. Neglect of the aqueducts would, of course, soon destroy the usefulness of the baths. [Marvels of Ancient rome]


Ancient Roman Arch Sketch

The Arch, a mechanical arrangement by which tiles, bricks, or blocks of stone are disposed in the form of a curve, which enables them to support one another by their mutual pressure, and bear any superincumbent weight, such as a bridge, aqueduct, upper story of a building, &c. &c. Ovid. Met. iii. 169. Juv. Sat. iii. il. Though the principle upon which an arch is constructed was not entirely unknown to the Greeks, yet their universal adoption of the columnar style of architecture, and general deficiency of roads, aqueducts, and bridges, rendered its use unnecessary to them ; but the Romans employed it extensively in all their great works, as will be seen by numerous examples throughout these pages, and at a very early period, as shown by the illustration annexed, which is an elevation of the wall called the pulcrum littus on the banks of the Tiber, and the three concentric arches which formed the Cloaca Maxima, a structure belonging to the fabulous age of the elder Tarquin. [Roman Antiquities, Rich]

Note: The famous Pont Du Gard aqueduct with its supporting arches stands today 323 feet long and 53 feet high.
 

AQUAE DUCTUS usually signifies an artificial channel or water-course, by which a supply of water is brought from a considerable distance upon an inclined plane raised on arches, and carried across valleys and uneven country, and occasionally under ground, where hills or rocks intervene. As nearly all the ancient aquaeducts now remaining are of Roman construction, it has been generally imagined that works of this description were entirely unknown to the Greeks; This, however, is an error, since some are mentioned by Pausanias and others, though too briefly to enable ns to judge of their particular construction ; whether they consisted chiefly of subterraneous channels bored through hills, or, if not, by what means they were carried across valleys, since the use of the arch, which is said to have been unknown to the Greeks, was indispensable for such a purpose. Probably those which have been recorded - such as that built by Pisistratus at Athens, that at Megara, and the celebrated one of Polycrates at Samos' - were rather conduits than ranges of building like the Roman ones. Of the latter, few were constructed in the times of the Republic. We are informed by Frontinus that it was not until about B.C, 313 that one was erected, the inhabitants supplying themselves up to that time with water from the Tiber, or making use of cisterns and springs. The first aquaduct was begun by Appius Claudius the Censor, and was named, after him, the Aqua Appia. From this aqueduct the water was conveyed from the distance of between seven and eight miles from the city, almost entirely under ground, since, out of 11,190 passus, its entire extent, the water was above ground only 60 passus before it reached the Porta Capeiia, and then was only partly carried on arches. Remains of this work no longer exist. Forty years afterward (B.C. 273) a second aquaeduct was begun by M. Curius Dentatus, by which the water was brought from the river Anio, 20 miles above Tibur (now Tivoli), making an extent c{ 43,000 passus, of which only 702 were above ground and upon arches. This was the one afterward known by the name of Anio Vetus, in order to distinguish it from another aquaeduct brought from the same river, and therefore called Anio Novus. Of the Anio Vetus considerable remains may yet be traced, both in the neighbourhood of Tivoli and in the vicinity of the present Porta Maggiore at Rome. It was constructed of blocks of Peperino stone, and the water-course was lined with a thick coating of cement. In B.C. 179, the censors M. iEmilius Lepidus and M. Flaccus Nobilior proposed that another aqueduct should be built; but the scheme was defeated in consequence of Licinius Crassus refusing to lei it be carried through his lands." A more abundant supply of water being found indispensable particularly as that furnished by the Anio Vetus was of such bad quality as to be 'almost unfit for drinking, the senate commissioned Quintus Marcius Rex, the praetor, who had superintended the repairs of the two aquaeducts already built, to undertake a third, which was called, after him, the Aqua Marcia.' This was brought from Sublaqueum (Subiaco) along an extent of 61,710 passus, viz., 54,267 under ground, and 7443 above ground, and chiefly on arches; and was of such elevation that water could be supplied from it to the loftiest part of the Capitoline Mount. Of the arches of this aquaeduct a considerable number are yet standing. Of those, likewise, called the Aqua Tepula (B.C. 127), and; 'to Aqua Julia (B.C. 35), which are next in point of date, remains are still existing; and in the vicinity of the city, these two aquaeducts and the Marcia were all united in one line of structure, forming three separate water-courses, one above the other, the lowermost of which formed the channel of the Aqua Marcia, and the uppermost that of the Aqua Julia, and they discharged themselves into one reservoir in common. The Aqua Julia was erected by M. Agrippa during his Aedileship, who, besides repairing both the Anio Vetus and the Aqua Marcia, supplied the city with seven hundred wells (lacus), one hundred and fifty springs or fountains and one hundred and thirty reservoirs. Besides repairing and enlarging the Aqua Miircia, and, by turning a new stream into it, increasing its supply to double what it formerly had been,

Augustus built the aquaeduct called Alsielina, sometimes called Augusta after its founder. The water famished by it was brought from the Lake of Alsietinus, and was of such bad quality as to be scarcely fit for drinking ; on which account it has been supposed that Augustus intended it chiefly for filling his naumachia, which required more water than' could be spared from the other aquaeducts, its basin being 1800 feet in length and 1200 in breadth. It was in the reign, too, of this emperor that M. Agrippa built the aquaeduct called Ihe Aqua, Virgo, which niune it is said to have obtained because the spring which supplied it was first pointed out by a girl to some soldiers who were in search of water. Pliny, however, gives a different origin to the name.' Its length was 14,105 passus, of which 12,865 were under ground ; and, for some part of its extent above ground, it was decorated with columns and statues. This aqueduct still exists entire, having been restored by Nicholas V., although not completely until the' pontificate of Pius IV., 1568, and it still bears the name of Aqua Vergine. A few years later, a second aquaeduct was built by Augustus, for the purpose of supplying the Aqua Marcia in times of drought. The two gigantic works of the Emperor Claudius, viz., the Aqua Claudia and Anio Novus, doubled the former supply of water ; and although none of the later aquaeducts rivaled the Marcia in the vastness and solidity of its constructions, they were of considerably greater extent. The Claudia had been begun by Caligula in the year A.D. 38, but was completed by his successor,' and was, although less copious in its supply, not at all inferior to the Marcia in the excellence of its water. The other was, if not so celebrated for the quality of the water itself, remarkable for the quantity which it conveyed to the city, it being in that respect the most copious of them all. Besides, which, it was by far the grandest in point of architectural effect, inasmuch as it presented, for about the extent of six miles before it reached the city, a continuous range of exceedingly lofty structure, the arches being in some places 109 feet high. It was much more elevated than any of the other aquaeducts, and in one part of its course was carried over the Claudia.

Nero afterward made additions to this vast work, by continuing it as far as Mount Caelius; where was a temple erected to Claudius. The Aqua Trajana, which was the work of the emperor whose name it bears, and was completed A.D; 111, was not so much an entirely new and distinct aquaeduct as a branch of the Anio Novus brought from Sublaqueura, where it was supplied by a spring of purer water than that of the Anio. It was in the time of this emperor, and of his predecessor Nerva, that the superintendence of all the aquaeducts was held by. Sextus Julius Frontinus, whose treatise De Aquaductibus has supplied us with the fullest information now to be obtained relative to their history and construction. In addition to the aquaeducts which have been already mentioned, there were others of later date: namely, the Antoniana, A.D. 212; the Alexandrina, A.D. 230; and the Jovia, A.D. 300; but these seem to have been of comparatively little note, nor have we any particular account of them.

The magnificence displayed by the Romans in their public works of this class was by no means confined to the capital; for aquaeducts more or less stupendous were constructed by them in various and even very remote parts of the empire - at Nicomedia, Ephesus, Smyrna, Alexandrea, Syracuse, Metz, Nismes (the Pont du Gard), Lyons, Evora, Merida, and Segovia. That at Evora, which was built by Quintus Sertorius, is still in good preservation; and at its termination in the city has a very elegant castellum in two stories, the lower one of which has Ionic columns. Merida in Spain, the Augusta Emerita of the Romans, who established a colony there in the time of Augustus, has among its other antiquities the remains of two aquaeducts, of one of which thirty-seven piers are standing, with three tiers of arches; while of the other there are only two which form part of the original constructions, the rest being modem. But that of Segovia, for which some Spanish writers have claimed an antiquity anterior to the sway of the Romans in Spain, is one of the most perfect and magnificent works of the kind anywhere remaining. It is entirely of stone, and of great solidity, the piers being eight feet wide and eleven in depth; and where it traverses a part of the city, the height is upward oi a hundred feet, and it has two tiers of arches, the lowermost of which are exceedingly lofty. After this historical notice of some of the principal aquaeducts both at Rome and in the provinces, we now proceed to give some general account of their construction. Before the mouth or opening into the aquaeduct was, where requisite, a large basin (piscina limosa), in which the water was collected, in order that it might first deposit its impurities; and similar reservoirs were formed at intervals along its course. The specus, or water-channel, was formed either of stone or brick coated with cement, and was arched over at top, in order to exclude the sun, on which account there were apertures or vent-holes at certain distances ; or where two or more such channels were carried one above the other, the vent-holes of the lower ones wore formed in their sides. The water, however, besides flowing through the specus, passed also through pipes either of lead or burned earth (terra-cotta), which latter were used not only on account of their greater cheapness, but as less prejudicial to the freshness and salubrity of the wafer. As far as was practicable, aquaeducts were carried in a direct line ; yet they frequently made considerable turns and windings in their course, either to avoid boring through hills, where that would have been attended with too much expense, or else to avoid, not only very deep valleys, but soft and marshy ground. In every aquaeduct, the castella or reservoirs were very important parts of the construction ; and besides the principal ones - that at its mouth and that at its termination - there were usually intermediate ones at certain distances along its course, both in order that the water might deposite in them any remaining sediment, and that the whole might be more easily superintended and kept in repair, a defect between any two such points being readily detected. Besides which, these castella were serviceable, inasmuch as they furnished water for the irrigation of fields and gardens, etc. The principal castellum or reservoir was that in which the aquaeduct terminated, and whence the water was conveyed by different branches and pipes to various parts of the city. This far exceeded any of the others, not in magnitude alone, but in solidity of construction and grandeur of architecture. The remains of a work of this kind still exist in what are called the Nove Sale, on the Esquiline Hill at Rome while the Piscina Mirabile, near Cuma, is still more interesting and remarkable, being a stupendous construction about 200 feet in length by 130 in breadth, whose vaulted roof rests upon forty-eight immense pillars, disposed in four rows, so as to form five aisles within the edifice, and sixty arches. Besides the principal castellum belonging to each aquaeduct (excepting the Alsietina, whose water was conveyed at once to the baths), there were, a number of smaller ones - altogether, it has been computed, 247- in the different regions of the city, as reservoirs for their respective neighbourhoods. The declivity of an aquaeduct (Libramentum aqua was at least the fourth of an inch in every 100 feet, or, according to Vitruvius, half a foot. During the times of the Republic, the censors and aediles had the superintendence of the aquaeducts ; but under the emperors particular officers were appointed for that purpose, under the title of curatores, or praefecti aquarum. These officers were first created by Augustus, and were invested with considerable authority. They were attended outside the city by two lictors, three public slaves, a secretary, and other attendants. In the time of Nerva and Trajan, about seven hundred architects and others were constantly employed, under the orders of the curatores aquarum, in attending to the aquaeducts. The officers who had charge of these works were, 1. The villici, whose duty it was to attend to the aquaeducts in their rourse to the city. 2. The casellarii, who had the superintendence of all the castella both within and without the city. 3. The circuitores, so called because they had to go from post to post, to examine into the state of the works, and also to keep watch over the labourers employed upon them. 4. The silicarii, or paviours. 5. The tectores, or plasterers. All these officers appear to have been included under the general term of aquarii.  [Roman Antiquities, Smith]

Caesarea Aqueduct Photo Enlarged
Ancient Caesarea Maritima Aqueduct Photo (click to enlarge)

Jesus said,

"Let not your heart be troubled: ye believe in God, believe also in me. In my Father's house are many mansions" - John 14:2 

(Note: The word "Mansions" comes from the Roman word "mansiones" which was a place along a Roman Road where a weary traveler could get rest for the night.

 


Highways of the Roman Empire


Heart Message

Ancient Roman Roads - Bloodstream of the Empire

"When the fullness of time came, God brought forth His Son, born of a woman, born under the law." (Gal 4:4)

The Roman road was the bloodstream of the empire. Merchants paid taxes to Rome on all their transactions, and they needed the roads to carry their goods to an ever-widening market. Legionnaires marched upon them swiftly gaining efficient access to battle. In a sense, the roads were funding and facilitating Roman expansion.

Yet God had a higher purpose. A new kind of merchant would soon be traversing the entire Mediterranean area, not one who transports his treasure to the city marketplace, but one who is a treasure, and who carries true riches, - not to sell, but to give away freely. The transforming good news of God?s forgiveness through Jesus the Messiah was imbedded into the hearts of the Apostles and early believers, and God prepared those roads for them to walk upon and lead others into His path.

A new kind of soldier would be running these well built thoroughfares to fight, - not flesh and blood, but a spiritual warfare that would liberate entire civilizations from the bondage of Satan?s tyrannical oppression and coercion, to a Kingdom ruled by love, service and willing devotion.

Throughout history ?the road? has provided an excellent metaphor for life?s journey. With amazement, we can look back over the winding grades of difficulty, the narrow pass of opportunity, the choice between security or adventure, when our road divided and we had to make the call.

Yes, all roads led to Rome, specifically the Forum, in the ancient empire of old, where an Emperor judged the players in the arena for their conduct before him. Our personal road will eventually and inevitably cease at the throne of Almighty God. It is He who must judge our travel upon this earth, in the blinding glory of His eternal justice. Compelled by His love, He placed sin?s damning penalty upon His Own Son, instead of us, so that we could freely receive the "thumbs up!" from Him who loves us beyond all measure.


Ancient Caesarea and Archaeology Caesarea: from Roman City to Crusader Fortress. Caesarea is located on the Mediterranean coast, about midway between Haifa and Tel Aviv. Archeological excavations during the 1950s and 1960s uncovered remains from many periods, in particular, a complex of fortifications of the Crusader city and the Roman theater. During the past 20 years, major excavations conducted by numerous expeditions from Israel and abroad have exposed impressive remains of the forgotten grandeur of both the Roman and the Crusader cities. [ARCHEOLOGICAL SITES] [Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs]

Ancient Harbor at Caesarea The Harbor at Caesarea Perhaps one of the most impressive parts of ancient Caesarea was its harbor, Sebastos. At the time it was built in the 1st century BC, Sebastos Harbor ranked as the largest artificial harbor built in the open sea, enclosing around 100,000 m2[9][10]. King Herod built the two moles, or breakwaters, of the harbor between 22 and 15 BC[11], and in 10/9 BC he dedicated the city and harbor to Caesar (Sebastos is Greek for Augustus)[12]. The speed of the harbor?s construction is stunning considering its size and complexity. The moles were made of lime and pozzolana, a type of volcanic ash, that would set into concrete underwater. Herod imported over 24,000 m3 of pozzolana from Puteoli, Italy, in order to construct the 500 meter long southern breakwater and 275 meter long northern breakwater[13]. At a conservative estimate, a shipment of this size would have required at least 44 shiploads of 400 tons each[11]. Herod also had 12,000 m3 of kurkar quarried to make rubble and 12,000 m3 of slaked lime produced to mix with the pozzolana. However, constructing the moles was just as complicated as obtaining the materials. In order to build the moles, architects had to devise a way to lay the wooden forms for the concrete moles underwater. One technique was to drive stakes into the ground to make a box and then fill the box with pozzolana concrete bit by bit[9]. However, this method required lots of divers to spend large amounts of time underwater hammering in the stakes and it also used a lot of the valuable pozzolana. Another technique was a double planking method used in the northern breakwater. On land, carpenters would construct a box with beams and frames on the inside and a watertight, double-planked wall on the outside. This double wall was built with a 23 cm gap between the inner and outer layer[14]. Although the box had no bottom, it was buoyant enough to float out to sea because of the watertight space between the inner and outer walls. Once it was floated into position, pozzolana was poured into the gap between the two walls and the box would sink into place on the seafloor and be staked down in the corners. The flooded inside area was then filled by divers bit by bit with pozzolana-lime mortar and kurkar rubble until it rose above sea level[14]. On the southern breakwater of Sebastos Harbor, another type of construction, called barge construction, was used. The southern side of Sebastos is much more exposed to harsh waves than the northern side, leading it to need sturdier breakwaters. Instead of using the double planked method filled with rubble, the architects constructing the southern breakwater sank barges filled with layers of pozzolana concrete and lime sand mortar. The barges were similar to boxes without lids, and they were constructed using mortise and tenon joints, the same technique used in ancient boats, to ensure they remained watertight. The barges were ballasted with 0.5 meters of pozzolana concrete and floated out to their position. Alternating layers of pozzolana based and lime based concretes were hand placed inside the barge to sink it and fill it up to the surface[14]. During its height, Sebastos Harbor was one of the most impressive harbors of its time. It had been constructed on a coast that had no natural harbors and it served as an important commercial harbor in antiquity, even rivaling Cleopatra?s harbor at Alexandria. The ancient historian Josephus was so impressed with the harbor at Caesarea he wrote, ?Although the location was generally unfavorable, [Herod] contended with the difficulties so well that the solidity of the construction could not be overcome by the sea, and its beauty seemed finished off without impediment.?[15] However, while the harbor was impressive on the surface, it had some underlying problems that would soon lead to its demise. Studies of the concrete cores of the moles at Caesarea have shown that the concrete is much weaker than similar pozzolana hydraulic concrete used in various ancient Italian ports. For unknown reasons, the pozzolana mortar did not adhere as well to the kurkar rubble as it did to other rubble types used in Italian harbors[13]. Small but numerous holes in some of the cores also indicate that the lime used was of poor quality and was stripped out of the mixture by strong waves before it could set[13]. Also, large lumps of lime were found in all five of the cores studied at Caesarea, which shows that the pozzolana-lime mixture was not mixed thoroughly, perhaps due to the incredibly rapid construction of the harbor[13]. These structural deficits probably would not have seriously affected the harbor?s stability, except for one other detail ? the harbor had been constructed over a geological fault line that runs along the coast of Israel. Seismic action gradually took its toll on the breakwaters, causing them to tilt down and settle into the seabed[15]. Also, studies of seabed deposits at Caesarea have shown that a tsunami struck the area sometime between the 1st and 2nd centuries AD[16]. Although it is unknown if this tsunami simply damaged or completely destroyed the harbor, it is known that by the sixth century AD the harbor was unusable and today the moles rest over 5 meters underwater[17]. [Wikipedia]

Ancient History of Caesarea Caesarea is believed to have been built on the ruins of Stratonospyrgos (Straton's Tower), founded by Straton I of Sidon. and was likely an agricultural storehouse in its earliest configuration.[2] In 90 BCE, Alexander Jannaeus captured Straton's Tower as part of his policy of developing the shipbuilding industry and enlarging the Hasmonean kingdom. Straton's Tower remained a Jewish city for two generations, until the Roman conquest of 63 BCE when the Romans declared it an autonomous city. The pagan city underwent vast changes under Herod the Great, who renamed it Caesarea in honor of the Roman emperor, Caesar Augustus. In 22 BCE, Herod began construction of a deep sea harbor and built storerooms, markets, wide roads, baths, temples to Rome and Augustus, and imposing public buildings.[3] Every five years the city hosted major sports competitions, gladiator games, and theatrical productions in its theatre overlooking the Mediterranian Sea. Caesarea also flourished during the Byzantine period. In the 3rd century, Jewish sages exempted the city from Jewish law, or Halakha, as by this time the majority of the inhabitants were non-Jewish.[4] The city was chiefly a commercial centre relying on trade. The area was only seriously farmed during the Rashidun Caliphate period, apparently until the Crusader conquest in the eleventh century.[4] Over time, the farms were buried under the sands shifting along the shores of the Mediterranean... [Wikipedia]

Caesarea Harbor Drawing and Photo In 10 B.C. Augustus Caesar decided to rebuild a small coastal station called Strato's Tower into a new city, which would be renamed Caesarea Maritima, in honor of Augustus. He allotted the task to the architectural mastermind Herod the Great. Herod built a harbor at Caesarea that would become one of the wonders of the ancient world. He built a massive breakwater which formed a horseshoe of protection around the whole bay. On the coast he built some of the most impressive works of architecture in the Roman world. He built an amphitheater, a citadel, a palace, a hippodrome, city walls and gates, paved squares with huge statues, and other marvels of Graeco-Roman civilization. It was here in Caesarea where the prefect Pontius Pilate lived, the foundation of his house was on a rock in the middle of the harbor and is still there to this day... [Bible History Online]

Caesarea in New Testament Times The Roman City. Founded by King Herod in the first century BCE on the site of a Phoenician and Greek trade post known as Stratons Tower, Caesarea was named for Herods Roman patron, Augustus Caesar. This city was described in detail by the Jewish historian Josephus Flavius. (Antiquities XV. 331 ff; War I, 408 ff) It was a walled city, with the largest harbor on the eastern Mediterranean coast, named Sebastos, the Greek name of the emperor Augustus. The temple of the city, dedicated to Augustus Caesar, was built on a high podium facing the harbor. A broad flight of steps led from the pier to the temple. Public buildings and elaborate entertainment facilities in the imperial tradition were erected. King Herods palace was in the southern part of the city. In the year 6 CE, Caesarea became the seat of the Roman procurators of Provincia Judaea and headquarters of the 10th Roman Legion. In the 2nd and 3rd centuries, the city expanded and became one of most important in the eastern part of the Roman Empire, classified as the "Metropolis of the Province of Syria Palaestina." Caesarea played an important role in early Christian history. Here the baptism of the Roman officer Cornelius took place; (Acts 10:1-5, 25-28) from here Paul set sail for his journeys in the eastern Mediterranean; and here he was taken prisoner and sent to Rome for trial. (Acts 23:23-24) The palace was built on a rock promontory jutting out into the sea, in the southern part of the Roman city. The excavations revealed a large architectural complex, measuring 110 x 60 m., with a decorative pool, surrounded by porticoes. This elegant structure in its unique location was identified as Herods palace. (Antiquitites, XV, 332) The palace was in use throughout the Roman period, as attested to by two columns with Greek and Latin dedicatory inscriptions naming governors of the province of Judea. [ARCHEOLOGICAL SITES] [Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs]

Caesarea in the First Century Under the Romans Herod built his palace on a promontory jutting out into the sea, with a decorative pool surrounded by stoas. In 13 BC, Caesarea became the civilian and military capital of Iudaea Province (sometimes spelled Judaea), and the official residence of the Roman procurators and governors, Pontius Pilatus, praefectus and Antonius Felix. Josephus describes the harbor as being as large as the one at Piraeus, the major harbor of Athens. Remains of the principal buildings erected by Herod and the medieval town are still visible today, including the city walls, the castle and a Crusader cathedral and church. Archaeological excavations in the 1950s and 1960s uncovered remains from many periods, in particular, a complex of Crusader fortifications and a Roman theatre. Other buildings include a temple dedicated to Caesar; a hippodrome rebuilt in the 2nd century as a more conventional theater; the Tiberieum, which has a limestone block with a dedicatory inscription [6] This is the only archaeological find with an inscription mentioning the name "Pontius Pilatus"; a double aqueduct that brought water from springs at the foot of Mount Carmel; a boundary wall; and a 200 ft (60 m) wide moat protecting the harbour to the south and west. The harbor was the largest on the eastern Mediterranean coast. Caesarea grew rapidly, becoming the largest city in Judea, with an estimated population of 125,000 over an urban area of 3.7 square kilometers. In 66 AD, a massacre of Jews here and the desecration of the local synagogue led to the disastrous Jewish revolt.[7] Vespasian declared it a colony and renamed it Colonia Prima Flavia Augusta Caesarea. In 70 AD, after the doomed Jewish revolt had been suppressed, games were held here to celebrate the victory of Titus. Many Jewish captives taken during the revolt were brought to Caesarea Maritima and 2500 were slaughtered in Gladiatorial games.[8] Early Christian mentions of Caesarea in the apostolic period follow the acts of Peter who established the church there when he baptized Cornelius the Centurion (Acts, 10, 11). The Apostle Paul often sojourned there (9:30; 18:22; 21:8), and was imprisoned at Caesarea for two years before being taken to Rome (23:23, 25:1-13). [Wikipedia]

Caesarea in Wikipedia Caesarea (Hebrew: קֵיסָרְיָה‎; Arabic: قيسارية‎, Kaysaria; Greek: Καισάρεια) is a town in Israel on the outskirts of Caesarea Maritima, the ancient port city. It is located mid-way between Tel Aviv and Haifa (45 km), on the Israeli Mediterranean coast near the city of Hadera. Modern Caesarea as of December 2007 has a population of 4,500 people,[1] and is the only Israeli locality managed by a private organization, the Caesarea Development Corporation, and also one of the most populous localities not recognized as a local council. It lies under the jurisdiction of the Hof HaCarmel Regional Council.

Caesarea in Wikipedia Caesarea (Hebrew: קֵיסָרְיָה‎; Arabic: قيسارية‎, Kaysaria; Greek: Καισάρεια) is a town in Israel on the outskirts of Caesarea Maritima, the ancient port city. It is located mid-way between Tel Aviv and Haifa (45 km), on the Israeli Mediterranean coast near the city of Hadera. Modern Caesarea as of December 2007 has a population of 4,500 people,[1] and is the only Israeli locality managed by a private organization, the Caesarea Development Corporation, and also one of the most populous localities not recognized as a local council. It lies under the jurisdiction of the Hof HaCarmel Regional Council. History [edit]Early history Further information: Caesarea Maritima Caesarea is believed to have been built on the ruins of Stratonospyrgos (Straton's Tower), founded by Straton I of Sidon. and was likely an agricultural storehouse in its earliest configuration.[2] In 90 BCE, Alexander Jannaeus captured Straton's Tower as part of his policy of developing the shipbuilding industry and enlarging the Hasmonean kingdom. Straton's Tower remained a Jewish city for two generations, until the Roman conquest of 63 BCE when the Romans declared it an autonomous city. The pagan city underwent vast changes under Herod the Great, who renamed it Caesarea in honor of the Roman emperor, Caesar Augustus. In 22 BCE, Herod began construction of a deep sea harbor and built storerooms, markets, wide roads, baths, temples to Rome and Augustus, and imposing public buildings.[3] Every five years the city hosted major sports competitions, gladiator games, and theatrical productions in its theatre overlooking the Mediterranian Sea. Caesarea also flourished during the Byzantine period. In the 3rd century, Jewish sages exempted the city from Jewish law, or Halakha, as by this time the majority of the inhabitants were non- Jewish.[4] The city was chiefly a commercial centre relying on trade. The area was only seriously farmed during the Rashidun Caliphate period, apparently until the Crusader conquest in the eleventh century.[4] Over time, the farms were buried under the sands shifting along the shores of the Mediterranean. In 1251, Louis IX fortified the city. The French king ordered the construction of high walls (parts of which are still standing) and a deep moat. However strong the walls were, they could not keep out the sultan Baybars, who ordered his troops to scale the walls in several places simultaneously, enabling them to penetrate the city. Further information: Qisarya Caesarea lay in ruins until the nineteenth century when the village of Qisarya (Arabic: قيسارية‎, the Arabic name for Caesarea) was established in 1884 by Muslim immigrants from Bosnia who built a small fishing village on the ruins of the Crusader fortress on the coast.[5][6] The kibbutz of Sdot Yam was established 1 km south in 1940. Many of Qisarya's inhabitants left before 1948, when a railway was built bypassing the port, ruining their livelihood. Qisarya had a population of 960 in 1945.[7] During the 1948 Arab-Israeli War part of the population fled for fear of attacks before it was conquered by Jewish forces in February, after which the remaining inhabitants were expelled and the village houses were demolished.[8] During the conquest of Qisarya a number of the Arab inhabittants were killed. According to a testimony collected from Battalion members obtained by Israeli historian Uri Milstein: "In February 1948, the 4th Batallion of Palmach, under the command of Josef Tabenkin, conquered Caesaria."...

Caesarea Maritima in Wikipedia Caesarea Maritima (Greek: ???????? ?????????), called Caesarea Palaestina from 133 AD onwards,[1] was a city and harbor built by Herod the Great about 25?13 BC. Today, its ruins lie on the Mediterranean coast of Israel about halfway between the cities of Tel Aviv and Haifa, on the site of Pyrgos Stratonos ("Strato" or "Straton's Tower", in Latin Turris Stratonis).[2] Caesarea Maritima as with Caesarea Philippi in the Golan Heights and Caesarea Mazaca in Anatolian Cappadocia was named to flatter the Caesar. The city was described in detail by the 1st century Roman Jewish historian Josephus.[3] The city became the seat of the Roman praefecti soon after its foundation. The emperor Vespasian raised its status to that of a colonia. After the destruction of Jerusalem, in 70 A.D., Caesarea was established as the provincial capital of Iudaea Province before the change of name to Syria Palaestina in 134 A.D. shortly before the suppression of the Bar Kokhba revolt.[4] According to historian H.H. Ben-Sasson, Caesarea was the "administrative capital" beginning in 6 A.D.[5] Caesarea remained the capital until the early 8th century, when the Umayyad caliph Suleiman transferred the seat of the government of the Jund Filastin to the newly built city of Ramla.

Pontius Pilate Inscription In June 1961 Italian archaeologists led by Dr. Frova were excavating an ancient Roman amphitheatre near Caesarea-on-the-Sea (Maritima) and uncovered this interesting limestone block. On the face is a monumental inscription which is part of a larger dedication to Tiberius Caesar which clearly says that it was from "Pontius Pilate, Prefect of Judea." It reads: Line One: TIBERIEUM, Line Two: (PON) TIUS, Line Three: (PRAEF) ECTUS IUDA (EAE). This is the only known occurrence of the name Pontius Pilate in any ancient inscription. Visitors to Caesarea's theater today see a replica, the original is in the Israel Museum in Jerusalem. It is interesting as well that there have been a few bronze coins found that were struck form 29-32 AD by Pontius Pilate. [Bible History Online]

The Amphitheatre at Caesarea The amphitheater, on the citys southern shore, was also mentioned by Josephus Flavius. It was north-south oriented and measured 64 x 31 m. Its eastern and rounded southern side are well preserved; the western side was largely destroyed by the sea. A 1.05 m-high wall surrounded an arena, covered with crushed, beaten chalk. When first built in the Herodian period, it seated about 8,000 spectators; in the first century CE seating areas were added, increasing its capacity to 15,000. The dimensions, shape and installations indicate that this amphitheater was used for racing horses and chariots and was, in fact, a hippodrome. An inscription found here reads Morismus [the] charioteer. During the second century, the amphitheater was rebuilt and adapted for use as a more standard type of amphitheater. [ARCHEOLOGICAL SITES] [Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs]

The Aqueduct at Caesarea The Aqueduct, which provided an abundant supply of water, was built in the Herodian period; it was later repaired and enlarged to a double channel when the city grew. The upper aqueduct begins at the springs located some nine kilometers northeast of Caesarea, at the foot of Mt. Carmel. It was constructed with considerable engineering know-how, ensuring the flow of water, by gravity, from the springs to the city. In some portions, the aqueduct was supported by rows of arches, then it crossed the kurkar ridge along the coast via a tunnel. Entering the city from the north, the water flowed through a network of pipes to collecting pools and fountains throughout the city. Many inscriptions in the aqueduct ascribe responsibility for its maintenance to the Second and Tenth Legions. [ARCHEOLOGICAL SITES] [Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs]

The Theater at Caesarea and the Pontius Pilate Stone Inscription The theater is located in the very south of the city. It was commissioned by King Herod and is the earliest of the Roman entertainment facilities built in his kingdom. The theater faces the sea and has thousands of seats resting on a semi-circular structure of vaults. The semi-circular floor of the orchestra, first paved in painted plaster, was later paved with marble. In the excavated theater a stone was found, bearing parts of an inscription mentioning Pontius Pilate, Procurator of Judea, and the Tiberium (the edifice in honor of the Emperor Tiberius) which he built. [ARCHEOLOGICAL SITES] [Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs]

Travel to Caesarea Some of the best Israel Holy Land tours stop at archaeologically rich sites such as Caesarea, which was built as part of Herod the Great?s mission to ?Hellenize? the Holy Land during the 1st century BCE. He built it in the style of a classic Greek city with a stadium and amphitheater. Herod was a bit of a revolutionary as well, creating an artificial harbor by piling concrete under the water?the first time this was every done in history. Caesarea was the capital of Palestine during Roman rule and it is the location where Peter converted Cornelius (a Roman centurion), where Paul stayed in prison prior to being taken away to Rome and where Bar Kochba revolt leaders were tried and put to death. Caesarea is also known for its archaeological sites such as the theater built by Herod, Byzantine Archive Buildings, Cardo Maximum, an amphitheater and much more. Acts Chapter 10:1-8 1 At Caesarea there was a man named Cornelius, a centurion of what was known as the Italian Cohort, 2 a devout man who feared God with all his household, gave alms liberally to the people, and prayed constantly to God. 3 About the ninth hour of the day he saw clearly in a vision an angel of God coming in and saying to him, ?Cornelius.? 4 And he stared at him in terror, and said, ?What is it, Lord?? And he said to him, ?Your prayers and your alms have ascended as a memorial before God. 5 And now send men to Joppa, and bring one Simon who is called Peter; 6 he is lodging with Simon, a tanner, whose house is by the seaside.? 7 When the angel who spoke to him had departed, he called two of his servants and a devout soldier from among those that waited on him, 8 and having related everything to them, he sent them to Joppa. Acts Chapter 23:23-35 23 Then he called two of the centurions and said, ?At the third hour of the night get ready two hundred soldiers with seventy horsemen and two hundred spearmen to go as far as Caesarea. 24 Also provide mounts for Paul to ride, and bring him safely to Felix the governor.? 25 And he wrote a letter to this effect: 26 ?Claudius Lysias to his Excellency the governor Felix, greeting. 27 This man was seized by the Jews, and was about to be killed by them, when I came upon them with the soldiers and rescued him, having learned that he was a Roman citizen. 28 And desiring to know the charge on which they accused him, I brought him down to their council. 29 I found that he was accused about questions of their law, but charged with nothing deserving death or imprisonment. 30 And when it was disclosed to me that there would be a plot against the man, I sent him to you at once, ordering his accusers also to state before you what they have against him.? 31 So the soldiers, according to their instructions, took Paul and brought him by night to Antipatris. 32 And on the morrow they returned to the barracks, leaving the horsemen to go on with him. 33 When they came to Caesarea and delivered the letter to the governor, they presented Paul also before him. 34 On reading the letter, he asked to what province he belonged. When he learned that he was from Cilicia 35 he said, ?I will hear you when your accusers arrive.? And he commanded him to be guarded in Herod?s praetorium. (America Israel Travel)


The Word "Caesarea" is Mentioned many Times in the Bible

Acts 10:1 - There was a certain man in Caesarea called Cornelius, a centurion of the band called the Italian [band],

Acts 23:23 - And he called unto [him] two centurions, saying, Make ready two hundred soldiers to go to Caesarea, and horsemen threescore and ten, and spearmen two hundred, at the third hour of the night;

Mark 8:27 - And Jesus went out, and his disciples, into the towns of Caesarea Philippi: and by the way he asked his disciples, saying unto them, Whom do men say that I am?

Acts 12:19 - And when Herod had sought for him, and found him not, he examined the keepers, and commanded that [they] should be put to death. And he went down from Judaea to Caesarea, and [there] abode.

Acts 21:8 - And the next [day] we that were of Paul's company departed, and came unto Caesarea: and we entered into the house of Philip the evangelist, which was [one] of the seven; and abode with him.

Acts 25:6 - And when he had tarried among them more than ten days, he went down unto Caesarea; and the next day sitting on the judgment seat commanded Paul to be brought.

Acts 8:40 - But Philip was found at Azotus: and passing through he preached in all the cities, till he came to Caesarea.

Acts 10:24 - And the morrow after they entered into Caesarea. And Cornelius waited for them, and had called together his kinsmen and near friends.

Acts 21:16 - There went with us also [certain] of the disciples of Caesarea, and brought with them one Mnason of Cyprus, an old disciple, with whom we should lodge.

Acts 25:4 - But Festus answered, that Paul should be kept at Caesarea, and that he himself would depart shortly [thither].

Acts 25:13 - And after certain days king Agrippa and Bernice came unto Caesarea to salute Festus.

Matthew 16:13 - When Jesus came into the coasts of Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples, saying, Whom do men say that I the Son of man am?

Acts 23:33 - Who, when they came to Caesarea, and delivered the epistle to the governor, presented Paul also before him.

Acts 25:1 - Now when Festus was come into the province, after three days he ascended from Caesarea to Jerusalem.

Acts 9:30 - [Which] when the brethren knew, they brought him down to Caesarea, and sent him forth to Tarsus.

Acts 18:22 - And when he had landed at Caesarea, and gone up, and saluted the church, he went down to Antioch.

Acts 11:11 - And, behold, immediately there were three men already come unto the house where I was, sent from Caesarea unto me.


The Word "Caesar" is Mentioned many Times in the Bible
(Note: It was not always Tiberius because he died in 37 A.D.)

Luke 3:1 - Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene.

Matthew 22:21 - They say unto him, Caesar's. Then saith he unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's; and unto God the things that are God's.

Luke 3:1 - Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene,

John 19:15 - But they cried out, Away with [him], away with [him], crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Shall I crucify your King? The chief priests answered, We have no king but Caesar.

John 19:12 - And from thenceforth Pilate sought to release him: but the Jews cried out, saying, If thou let this man go, thou art not Caesar's friend: whosoever maketh himself a king speaketh against Caesar.

Luke 20:25 - And he said unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things which be Caesar's, and unto God the things which be God's.

Mark 12:14 - And when they were come, they say unto him, Master, we know that thou art true, and carest for no man: for thou regardest not the person of men, but teachest the way of God in truth: Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar, or not?

Mark 12:17 - And Jesus answering said unto them, Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's. And they marvelled at him.

Acts 27:24 - Saying, Fear not, Paul; thou must be brought before Caesar: and, lo, God hath given thee all them that sail with thee.

Luke 23:2 - And they began to accuse him, saying, We found this [fellow] perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, saying that he himself is Christ a King.

Acts 11:28 - And there stood up one of them named Agabus, and signified by the Spirit that there should be great dearth throughout all the world: which came to pass in the days of Claudius Caesar.

Acts 25:11 - For if I be an offender, or have committed any thing worthy of death, I refuse not to die: but if there be none of these things whereof these accuse me, no man may deliver me unto them. I appeal unto Caesar.

Acts 25:21 - But when Paul had appealed to be reserved unto the hearing of Augustus, I commanded him to be kept till I might send him to Caesar.

Acts 17:7 - Whom Jason hath received: and these all do contrary to the decrees of Caesar, saying that there is another king, [one] Jesus.

Luke 2:1 - And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed.

Acts 28:19 - But when the Jews spake against [it], I was constrained to appeal unto Caesar; not that I had ought to accuse my nation of.

Matthew 22:17 - Tell us therefore, What thinkest thou? Is it lawful to give tribute unto Caesar, or not?

Acts 25:8 - While he answered for himself, Neither against the law of the Jews, neither against the temple, nor yet against Caesar, have I offended any thing at all.

Acts 26:32 - Then said Agrippa unto Festus, This man might have been set at liberty, if he had not appealed unto Caesar.

Luke 20:22 - Is it lawful for us to give tribute unto Caesar, or no?

Acts 25:12 - Then Festus, when he had conferred with the council, answered, Hast thou appealed unto Caesar? unto Caesar shalt thou go.

 

Some Scriptures mentioning the word "Rome"

 

Acts 23:11 - And the night following the Lord stood by him, and said, Be of good cheer, Paul: for as thou hast testified of me in Jerusalem, so must thou bear witness also at Rome.

2 Timothy 4:22 - The Lord Jesus Christ [be] with thy spirit. Grace [be] with you. Amen. <[The second [epistle] unto Timotheus, ordained the first bishop of the church of the Ephesians, was written from Rome, when Paul was brought before Nero the second time.]>

Acts 18:2 - And found a certain Jew named Aquila, born in Pontus, lately come from Italy, with his wife Priscilla; (because that Claudius had commanded all Jews to depart from Rome:) and came unto them.

Colossians 4:18 - The salutation by the hand of me Paul. Remember my bonds. Grace [be] with you. Amen. <[Written from Rome to Colossians by Tychicus and Onesimus.]>

Ephesians 6:24 - Grace [be] with all them that love our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity. Amen. <[To [the] Ephesians written from Rome, by Tychicus.]>

Philemon 1:25 - The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ [be] with your spirit. Amen. <[Written from Rome to Philemon, by Onesimus a servant.]>

Acts 2:10 - Phrygia, and Pamphylia, in Egypt, and in the parts of Libya about Cyrene, and strangers of Rome, Jews and proselytes,

Acts 19:21 - After these things were ended, Paul purposed in the spirit, when he had passed through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to Jerusalem, saying, After I have been there, I must also see Rome.

Acts 28:16 - And when we came to Rome, the centurion delivered the prisoners to the captain of the guard: but Paul was suffered to dwell by himself with a soldier that kept him.

Romans 1:7 - To all that be in Rome, beloved of God, called [to be] saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.

Galatians 6:18 - Brethren, the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ [be] with your spirit. Amen. <[To [the] Galatians written from Rome.]>

Philippians 4:23 - The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ [be] with you all. Amen. <[To [the] Philippians written from Rome, by Epaphroditus.]>

Acts 28:14 - Where we found brethren, and were desired to tarry with them seven days: and so we went toward Rome.

Romans 1:15 - So, as much as in me is, I am ready to preach the gospel to you that are at Rome also.

2 Timothy 1:17 - But, when he was in Rome, he sought me out very diligently, and found [me].

 

Daniel 2:40 - "And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron: forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces and subdueth all [things]: and as iron that breaketh all these, shall it break in pieces and bruise."

Acts 23:11 - And the night following the Lord stood by him, and said, Be of good cheer, Paul: for as thou hast testified of me in Jerusalem, so must thou bear witness also at Rome.

 


Related Pages:

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The History of Rome - Part One 743 - 136 B.C.

More Images of Rome's Emperors

Also see Roman Emperors - Photos, information , coins

 

Fallen Empires - Archaeology and the Bible

Archaeology Discoveries and the Ancient Biblical World 

The Black Obelisk. In the 1840's a British man named Austen Henry Layard had a desire to travel to the Middle East and dig around some of the strange looking mounds near the City of Mosul. He had heard many tales about things being found in these mounds. He was looking for any trace of evidence that would lead him to the lost city of Nineveh, the capital of the ancient Assyrian Empire. Little did he know that one of his discoveries would turn Europe upside down with excitement. He discovered a black limestone monument which is known today as The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III. This discovery brought a new authenticity and historicity to some of the stories in the Bible. It also gained him the support of the British Museum, and all the finances he needed to continue his excavations, and become known as "The Father of Assyriology."

The Pilate Inscription. It wasn't long ago when many scholars were questioning the actual existence of a Roman Governor with the name of Pontius Pilate, the procurator who ordered Jesus' crucifixion. In June 1961 Italian archaeologists led by Dr. Frova were excavating an ancient Roman amphitheatre near Caesarea-on-the-Sea (Maritima) and uncovered this interesting limestone block. On the worn face is a monumental inscription which is part of a larger dedication to Tiberius Caesar which clearly says that it was from "Pontius Pilate, Prefect of Judea."

The Megiddo Seal Bearing King Jeroboam's Name. It is very interesting that the Jasper Seal, found at Tel Megiddo bearing the name of King Jeroboam who ruled in the Northern Kingdom of Israel, would contain the symbol for their rival, the Southern Kingdom of Judah. But in examining all of the circumstances involved and seeing what the Bible says it is no wonder that the prosperous and victorious Northern Kingdom of Israel would boast with a symbol of their enemy.

The Tomb of Cyrus the Great. An inscription on the tomb of the great Persian monarch read: "O man, whoever you are and wherever you come from, for I know that you will come--I am Cyrus, son of Cambyses, who founded the Empire of the Persians and was king of the East. Do not grudge me this spot of earth which covers my body." - Cyrus". Is it true that Isaiah the Hebrew prophet mention Cyrus by name almost 200 years before he was born?

Sennacherib's Hexagonal Prism. This amazing discovery excavated in Nineveh in the 1830 records the Assyrian king Sennacherib's 8th campaign, which includes his siege of Jerusalem during the reign of "Hezekiah the Judahite" in 701 BC. There are 500 lines of writing in the Akkadian language on this magnificent clay prism. Is the story true that it was purchased by an American from an antiquities dealer in Baghdad?

Coming Soon The Ishtar Gate of Babylon. During the last days of the southern kingdom of Judah the Jews were taken captive to a distant land called Babylon at the latter part of the 6th century BC. They passed through a beautiful entrance gate made of mud brick masonry and glazed skin which stood 47 feet tall, commonly referred to as the Ishtar Gate since its discovery at the turn of the 20th century near modern Baghdad, Iraq. The tall gate was dedicated to the gods by Nebuchadnezzar King of Babylonia who reigned from 605—562 BC). Is it true that Hitler had it transported to Berlin? Where is the Ishtar Gate now?

[Next] The Remains of Solomon's Temple

Biblical Archaeology

The Bible mentions many things about people, places and events that happened in history. The Bible also gives an accurate chronology of those people, places and events. What is amazing is that modern archaeology has confirmed that the Bible has never made one error, or given any clear contradictions in all of its text in matters of historical fact. The paintings and illustrations below of archaeological discoveries and ruins illustrate this emphatically.

Paintings By Bjanikka Ben and Maliyah Weston

Assyria

Weld Prism

Sargon I Bust

Hammurabi Stele

Colossal Lion of Assyria

Statue of Ashurnasirpal II

Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III

Close up of Jehu - Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III

Tiglath Pileser III (Pul)

Enemy Trod Under Foot

Sargon II with Staff in Hand

Sargon II Relief

Winged Bull - One Sided

Winged Bull - Two Sided

Assyrian Royal Guard Soldiers of Sennacherib

Lachish Captives Being Skinned Alive

Israelite Captives from Lachish

Taylor Prism (Sennacherib Hexagonal Prism)

Stela of Ashurbanipal

Ruins of Ancient Assyria

Painting of Ancient Ashur

Israel

Moabite Stone

Beersheba Altar

Ivory Pomegranate Fake

Ossuary of Caiaphas

Proto Ionic Capital

El Amarna Letters

House of David Inscription

Korban Inscription

Lachish Letters

Megiddo Seal - Jeraboam Inscription

Pilate Inscription

Place of Trumpeting Inscription

Qumran Jar (Dead Sea Scrolls)

Siloam Inscription

Tel Dan Stele

Temple Warning Inscription

Uzziah Tablet Inscription

Stela of Baal

Gold of Ophir Inscription

Hazael King of Syria Statue

Ancient Caesarea Harbor

Ancient Caesarea Ruins

Ancient Hittite Ruins

Babylon

Striding Lion of Babylon 

Nebuchadnezzar II Cylinder

Lagash Rations Tablet

Ishtar Gate

Nebuchadnezzar II Brick

Babylonian Chronicle

Dragon of Marduk

Lion of Marduk

Detail of the Lion of Marduk

The Royal Standard of Ur

Persia

Tomb of Cyrus

Cyrus Cylinder

Ancient Persian Soldiers

Persepolis Lion

Darius Seated

Darius the Great (Up Close)

Ancient Persians

Ancient Persian Warriors at Susa

Egypt

Pharaoh Kneeling Before Bull

Amenophis II (Also Known as Thutmose-III)

Ramesses II

Shishak Smiting His Enemies

Apis the Sacred Bull of Memphis

Rosetta Stone

The Pyramids

Ramesses II Colossal Statue Painting

Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphs

The Israel Stela

Pharaoh Merneptah Statue

Ancient Egyptian Sphinx

Ancient Egyptian Obelisk

Rome

Bust of Julius Caesar

Bronze Bust of Augustus

Bust of Augustus Caesar

Bust of Tiberius Caesar

Arch of Titus Menorah Relief - 1

Arch of Titus Chariot Relief - 2

Bust of Vespasian

Bust of Titus

Bust of Nero

Roman Legionary Camp

Roman Legion Bricks with Stamp

Ancient Roman Eagle

Ancient Roman Aqueduct

Ancient Roman Legions

Ancient Roman Milestone

The Arch of Titus

The Colosseum

Greece

Alexander the Great Bust

Antiochus IV Epiphanes Coin

The Parthenon Ruins

The Ancient Parthenon of Athens

Antiochus IV Epiphanes Bust

Alexander the Great Coin

Greek Macedonian Infantry Helmet

Ancient Persian Soldiers

Peoples

Canaanite

Chaldean

Cilician

Indian

Ionian

Mede

Persian

Philistine

(More to come)

Illustrated Bible History A growing database of images and sketches of the ancient world.
Bible Maps A growing database of maps for study and teaching.

Reconstructions Sketches of ancient cities & monuments from archaeology.

Archaeology Resources:

The Popular Handbook of Archaeology and the Bible by Holden and Geisler. 352 Pages, 2012

Biblical Archaeology

Bible History Online

The Story of the Bible


© Bible History Online (http://www.bible-history.com)

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