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The Colosseum in Rome

The Roman Colosseum
Was the Colosseum Built with Jewish Temple money?

This painting represents the Colosseum in Rome as it appears today. In ancient times it was one of the wonders of the entire world. Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus became Emperor of Rome in 79 AD when his father Vespasian died and he completed and dedicated the Flavian Amphitheatre (the Colosseum).

The Colosseum in Rome stands today as a symbol of the mighty Roman Empire. It is probably the most famous ancient ruin in the world along with the Pyramids of Egypt. The Colosseum was known in ancient Rome as the Flavian Amphitheatre, named after the 3 emperors who were all involved in its construction. Vespasian conceived the idea and began building in 72 AD and his son Titus dedicated it in 80 AD with a 100 day festival. This included bloody gladiator combats, wild animals, and huge naval battles with the arena filled with water. The Colosseum was totally finished during the reign of Domitian (81-96 AD).

The Colosseum is a marvel of architectural engineering, it was built with giant travertine blocks, layered with soft stones and concrete. It was originally overlayed with marble but that was looted over the centuries. Its magnificent columns were made of the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders. 

The mammoth Colosseum measures 620 feet by 513 feet, 1/3 of a mile around. The 6 acre building contained 3 tiers of seats, 80 entrances, seated 50,000 spectators, resembling the size and capacity of the Houston Astrodome.

Enlarged Photo of the Colosseum taken in October 2011

Title: The Colosseum
Description: Photo of the Roman Colosseum taken in October 2011
Location / Provenance: Rome, Italy
Date: 79-81 AD (Depicted as a Youth)
Object Type: 4-Story Outer Wall (157 Foot) Built of Travertine Stone
Photographer: Rusty Russell
Commentary: This photo shows the facial expression of the Destroyer of Jerusalem and Emperor of Rome

The Colosseum in Wikipedia The Colosseum, or the Coliseum, originally the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium, Italian Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo), is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire. It is considered one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and Roman engineering. Occupying a site just east of the Roman Forum, its construction started in 72 AD under the emperor Vespasian and was completed in 80 AD under Titus,[2] with further modifications being made during Domitian's reign (81–96). The name "Amphitheatrum Flavium" derives from both Vespasian's and Titus's family name (Flavius, from the gens Flavia). Capable of seating 50,000 spectators, the Colosseum was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles such as mock sea battles, animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on Classical mythology. The building ceased to be used for entertainment in the early medieval era. It was later reused for such purposes as housing, workshops, quarters for a religious order, a fortress, a quarry, and a Christian shrine. Although in the 21st century it stays partially ruined because of damage caused by devastating earthquakes and stone-robbers, the Colosseum is an iconic symbol of Imperial Rome. It is one of Rome's most popular tourist attractions and still has close connections with the Roman Catholic Church, as each Good Friday the Pope leads a torchlit "Way of the Cross" procession that starts in the area around the Colosseum. The Colosseum is also depicted on the Italian version of the five-cent euro coin. [Wikipedia]

The Colosseum was the name since medieval times of the Amphitheatrum Flavium, a vast amphitheatre in Rome, begun circa75 ad. [Oxford Classical Dictionary]

It is calculated that the Flavian Amphitheatre was capable of containing more than 90,000 spectators, and was furnished with vomitories and staircases sufficient for the whole concourse to disperse in less than five minutes. [Vomitoria, Rich]

The Colosseum

The most imposing structure built in Rome was the Colosseum. This huge amphitheater (double theater) had seating all around. The arena is also known as the Flavian amphitheater because it was built during the reign of the Emperor Vespasian (69-79 AD) although gladiatorial games existed for centuries. The murderous battles of man-and-man and man-and-animal were staged in the Colosseum. The oval arena (287 x 180 feet) was surrounded by a 15 foot wall and had deep cells and cellars below. It had three tiers of arches, plus a top story with superimposed Doric, ionic, and Corinthian half columns. The 45,000 spectators were protected from rain or fierce sun by huge canvas awnings fixed to masts secured to the topmost rim. After nearly two thousand years of pillage by other builders who used it as a quarry for building churches, palaces, and houses, the Colosseum still remains a lasting monument to the indestructible solidity of Roman architecture.

jesus00000104.gif A DAY AT THE COLOSSEUM

- The usual program for a day at the Colosseum would begin with the "venatio," (an event that featured wild animals).

- The animals might be pitted against each other, or sent into the arena to mangle defenseless humans, but the typical display was a simulated hunt during which animals were stalked by "bestiarii"

-specialists armed with spears, bows and arrows, and other weapons. (always lots of blood)

- As many as 5000 animals may have died during one day of major festivals such as the inauguration of the Colosseum in 80 AD.

- To keep amphitheaters supplied, a great trade in wild beasts developed.

- Many species virtually disappeared from their home regions of North Africa and the Middle East. See Gladiator.

 

jesus00000098.gif Gladiators

- The animal displays were merely used to wet the audience's appetite for the main attraction-the gladiatorial bouts.

- Roman gladiators were specially trained performers, mostly captured war prisoners, who fought to stay alive a little longer.

- The gladiators specialized in peculiar forms of fighting:
  1. the "retiarus" armed with a net, dagger, and a trident (three pronged pitch fork) usually fought the:
  2. the "secutor" who was armed only with sword and shield and a helmet on his head.
  3. The helmeted figure in the picture was called a "samnis." He wore a sleeve of leather or metal with a shoulder piece on the right arm, a belt, greaves on the legs, a vizored helmet with crest, and carried a shield and short sword.
- For the most part, these games aroused brutal passions and blood lust in the Roman people and created a class of lazy loungers who did nothing but attend games.

Later, many Christians were condemned to be thrown to the beasts in the Colosseum to entertain spectators. One early Christian wrote: "I am God's wheat and shall be ground by the teeth of wild beasts, so that I may become God's pure bread. . . the time for my birth is at hand. Letters - Ignatius of Antioch (100 AD)

The Colosseum. by far the most celebrated of all was the Flavian amphitheatre, afterward called the Colosseum, which was begun by Vespasian, and finished by his son Titus, who dedicated it A.D. 80, on which occasion, according to Eutropius, 5000, and according to Dion, 9000, beasts were destroyed. This immense edifice, which is even yet comparatively entire, was capable of containing about 87,000 spectators, and originally stood nearly in the centre of the city, on the spot previously occupied by the lake or large pond attached to Nero's palace, and at no very great distance from the Baths of Titus. It covers altogether about five acres of ground; and the transverse, or longer diameter of the external ellipse, is 615 feet, and the conjugate, or shorter one, 510; while those of the interior ellipse, or arena, are 281 and 176 feet respectively. [Smith Dictionary]

Photo of the Colosseum Interior
Recent Photo of the Colosseum Interior (Click to enlarge)

THE INTERIOR OF THE COLOSSEUM, SHOWING THE ARENA, AND THE UNDERGROUND CAVES. The Colosseum typifies ancient Rome, as St. Peter's does the modern city. Known as the Flavian Amphitheatre, it was built in the reign of Vespasian, and was long the scene of gladiatorial combats and fights with wild beasts. Capable of accommodating 80,000 spectators, each class had its special part of the mighty building set apart, the imperial benches and those of the vestals being on the first stage, and the common people on the topmost. Faced with white marble, it was one of the finest structures the world has ever seen, and even in its ruin it remains a majestic monument of the builder's art. [Bryce's Book of History]

Sketch of the Colosseum Enlarged
Sketch of the Colosseum in 1757 by Giovanni Piranesi (Click to enlarge)

1832 Painting of the Interior of the Roman Colosseum by Cole
Oil Painting of the Colosseum Interior  1832 by Thomas Cole (Click to enlarge)

Sketch of the ancient city of Rome
Sketch of Ancient Rome (Notice the Colosseum in the upper right corner)

Colosseum Coin
Coin commemorating the Colosseum, struck by the Emperor Titus in 80 AD.

Colosseum Coin Drawing Color Painting
Colored Sketch of the Above Coin (Notice the statues in the galleries.)


Sketch of the Ruins of the Ancient Colosseum

Sketch of the Inside of an Amphitheatre
Sketch of the interior of an Amphitheatrum

AMPHITHEATRUM An amphitheatre; a building originally constructed for the exhibition of gladiatorial combats, but occasionally used for other kinds of spectacles. [Rich]

Ancient History of the Colosseum, Construction of the Colosseum began under the rule of the Emperor Vespasian in around 70–72 AD. The site chosen was a flat area on the floor of a low valley between the Caelian, Esquiline and Palatine Hills, through which a canalised stream ran. By the 2nd century BC the area was densely inhabited. It was devastated by the Great Fire of Rome in AD 64, following which Nero seized much of the area to add to his personal domain. He built the grandiose Domus Aurea on the site, in front of which he created an artificial lake surrounded by pavilions, gardens and porticoes. The existing Aqua Claudia aqueduct was extended to supply water to the area and the gigantic bronze Colossus of Nero was set up nearby at the entrance to the Domus Aurea. Although the Colossus was preserved, much of the Domus Aurea was torn down. The lake was filled in and the land reused as the location for the new Flavian Amphitheatre. Gladiatorial schools and other support buildings were constructed nearby within the former grounds of the Domus Aurea. According to a reconstructed inscription found on the site, "the emperor Vespasian ordered this new amphitheatre to be erected from his general's share of the booty." This is thought to refer to the vast quantity of treasure seized by the Romans following their victory in the Great Jewish Revolt in 70 AD. The Colosseum can be thus interpreted as a great triumphal monument built in the Roman tradition of celebrating great victories,[12] placating the Roman people instead of returning soldiers. Vespasian's decision to build the Colosseum on the site of Nero's lake can also be seen as a populist gesture of returning to the people an area of the city which Nero had appropriated for his own use. In contrast to many other amphitheatres, which were located on the outskirts of a city, the Colosseum was constructed in the city centre; in effect, placing it both literally and symbolically at the heart of Rome. The Colosseum had been completed up to the third story by the time of Vespasian's death in 79. The top level was finished and the building inaugurated by his son, Titus, in 80. Dio Cassius recounts that over 9,000 wild animals were killed during the inaugural games of the amphitheatre. The building was remodelled further under Vespasian's younger son, the newly designated Emperor Domitian, who constructed the hypogeum, a series of underground tunnels used to house animals and slaves. He also added a gallery to the top of the Colosseum to increase its seating capacity. In 217, the Colosseum was badly damaged by a major fire (caused by lightning, according to Dio Cassius[13]) which destroyed the wooden upper levels of the amphitheatre's interior. It was not fully repaired until about 240 and underwent further repairs in 250 or 252 and again in 320. An inscription records the restoration of various parts of the Colosseum under Theodosius II and Valentinian III (reigned 425–455), possibly to repair damage caused by a major earthquake in 443; more work followed in 484[14] and 508. The arena continued to be used for contests well into the 6th century, with gladiatorial fights last mentioned around 435. Animal hunts continued until at least 523, when Anicius Maximus celebrated his consulship with some venationes, criticised by King Theodoric the Great for their high cost. [Wikipedia]

The Colosseum or Coliseum, originally known as the Flavian Amphitheater (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium, Italian: Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo), is a giant amphitheater in the center of the city of Rome. Originally capable of seating 45,000 to 50,000 spectators, it was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles. It was built on a site just east of the Roman Forum, with construction starting between 70 and 72 C.E. under the emperor Vespasian. The amphitheater, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire, was completed in 80 C.E. under Titus, with further modifications being made during Domitian's reign. The Colosseum remained in use for nearly 500 years, with the last recorded games being held there as late as the sixth century—well after the traditional date of the fall of Rome in 476. As well as the traditional gladiatorial games, many other public spectacles were held there, such as mock sea battles, animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on classical mythology. The building eventually ceased to be used for entertainment in the early medieval era. It was later reused for such varied purposes as housing, workshops, quarters for a religious order, a fortress, a quarry, and a Christian shrine. Although it is now in a severely ruined condition due to damage caused by earthquakes and stone-robbers, the Colosseum has long been seen as an iconic symbol of Imperial Rome and is one of the finest surviving examples of Roman architecture. It is one of modern Rome's most popular tourist attractions and still has close connections with the Roman Catholic Church. The Pope leads a torchlit "Way of the Cross" procession to the amphitheater every Good Friday. [New World Encyclopedia]

Ancient History of the Colosseum. Construction of the Colosseum began under the rule of the Emperor Vespasian around 70 to 72 C.E. The site chosen was a flat area on the floor of a low valley between the Caelian, Esquiline, and Palatine Hills, through which a canalized stream ran. The area was devastated by the Great Fire of Rome in 64 C.E., following which Nero added much to his personal domain. He built the grandiose Domus Aurea on the site, in front of which he created an artificial lake surrounded by pavilions, gardens, and porticoes. The still-existing Aqua Claudia aqueduct was extended to supply water to the area, and the gigantic bronze Colossus of Nero was set up nearby at the entrance to the Domus Aurea. The area was transformed under the Emperor Vespasian and his successors. Although the Colossus was preserved, much of the Domus Aurea was torn down. The lake was filled in and the land reused as the location for the new Flavian Amphitheater, known more popularly today as the Colossuem. Gladiatorial schools and other support buildings were constructed nearby within the former grounds of the Domus Aurea. According to a reconstructed inscription found on the site: "The emperor Vespasian ordered this new amphitheater to be erected from his general's share of the booty." This is thought to refer to the vast quantity of treasure seized by the Romans following their victory in the Jewish Revolt, in 70 C.E. The Colosseum can be thus interpreted as a great triumphal monument built in the Roman tradition of celebrating great victories. Vespasian's decision to build the Colosseum on the site of Nero's lake can also be seen as a populist gesture—in effect, returning to the people an area of the city which Nero had appropriated for his own use. It was built near the Roman Forum. By the second century B.C.E. the area was densely inhabited. The Colosseum had been completed up to the third story by the time of Vespasian's death in 79 C.E. The top level was finished and the building inaugurated by his son, Titus, in 80 C.E. The historian Dio Cassius recounts that 11,000 wild animals were killed in gladiatorial contests during the 100 days of celebration which inaugurated the amphitheater. The building was remodeled further under Vespasian's younger son, the newly designated Emperor Domitian, who constructed the hypogeum, a series of underground tunnels used to house animals and slaves. He also added a gallery to the top of the Colosseum to increase its seating capacity. In 217 C.E., the Colosseum was badly damaged by a major fire (caused by lightning, according to Dio Cassius), which destroyed the wooden, upper levels of the amphitheater's interior. It was not fully repaired until about 240 C.E. and underwent further repairs around 250 and again in 320. An inscription records the restoration of various parts of the Colosseum under Theodosius II and Valentinian III (reigned 425 to 450 C.E.), possibly to repair damage caused by an earthquake in 443 C.E. More work followed in 484 and 508. The arena continued to be used for contests well into the sixth century, with gladiatorial fights last mentioned around 435 C.E. Animal hunts continued until at least 523 C.E. [New World Encyclopedia]

The Colosseum represents the most elaborate type of amphitheatre created by the architects of the empire. Its external elevation consisted of four storeys. The three lowest had arcades whose piers were adorned with engaged columns of the three Greek orders. The arches numbered eighty. Those of the basement storey served as entrances; seventy-six were numbered and allotted to the general body of spectators, those at the extremities of the major axis led into the arena, and the boxes reserved for the emperor and the presiding magistrate were approached from the extremities of the minor axis. The higher arcades had a low parapet with (apparently) a statue in each arch, and gave light and air to the passages which surrounded the building. The openings of the arcades above the principal entrances were larger than the rest, and were adorned with figures of chariots. The highest stage was composed of a continuous wall of masonry, pierced by forty small square windows, and adorned with Corinthian pilasters. There was also a series of brackets to support the poles on which the awning was stretched. The interior may be naturally divided into the arena and the cavea (see annexed plan, which shows the Colosseum at two different levels). The arena was the portion assigned to the combatants, and derived its name from the sand with which it was strewn, to absorb the blood and prevent it from becoming slippery. Some of the emperors showed their prodigality by substituting precious powders, and even gold dust, for sand. The arena was generally of the same shape as the amphitheatre itself, and was separated from the spectators by a wall built perfectly smooth, that the wild beasts might not by any possibility climb it. At Rome it was faced inside with polished marble, but at Pompeii it was simply painted. For further security, it was surrounded by a metal railing or network, and the arena was sometimes surrounded also by a ditch (euripus), especially on account of the elephants. Below the arena were subterranean chambers and passages, from which wild beasts and gladiators were raised on movable platforms (pegmata) through trap-doors. Such chambers have been found in the amphitheatres of Capua and Pozzuoli as well as in the Colosseum. Means were also provided by which the arena could be flooded when a sea-fight (naumachia) was exhibited, as was done by Titus at the inauguration of the Colosseum. The part assigned to the spectators was called cavea. It was divided into several galleries (maeniana) concentric with the outer walls, and therefore, like them, of an elliptical form. The place of honour was the lowest of these, nearest to the arena, and called the podium. The divisions in it were larger, so as to be able to contain movable seats. At Rome it was here that the emperor sat, his box bearing the name of suggestus, cubiculum or pulvinar. The senators, principal magistrates, vestal virgins, the provider (editor) of the show, and other persons of note, occupied the rest of the podium. At Nîmes, besides the high officials of the town, the podium had places assigned to the principal gilds, whose names are still seen inscribed upon it, with the number of places reserved for each. In the Colosseum there were three maeniana above the podium, separated from each other by terraces (praecinctiones) and walls (baltei), and divided vertically into wedge-shaped blocks (cunei) by stairs. The lowest was appropriated to the equestrian order, the highest was covered in with a portico, whose roof formed a terrace on which spectators found standing room. Numerous passages (vomitoria) and small stairs gave access to them; while long covered corridors, behind and below them, served for shelter in the event of rain. At Pompeii each place was numbered, and elsewhere their extent is defined by little marks cut in the stone. The spectators were admitted by tickets (tesserae), and order preserved by a staff of officers appointed for the purpose. The height of the Colosseum is about 160 ft.; but the fourth storey in its present form is not earlier in date than the 3rd century A.D. It seems to have been originally of wood, since an inscription of the year A.D. 80 mentions the summum maenianum in ligneis. It is stated in the Notitia Urbis Romae (4th century) that the Colosseum contained 87,000 places; but Huelsen calculates that the seats would accommodate 45,000 persons at most, besides whom 5000 could find standing room. The exaggerated estimate is due to the fact that space was allotted to corporate bodies, whose numbers were taken as data. The greatest length is about 615 ft., and the length of the shorter axis of the ellipse about 510 ft. The dimensions of the arena were 281 ft. by 177 ft. [1911 Encyclopedia Britannica]
 


The Colosseum on a Roman coin (bronze sestertius) issued by Titus in AD 80 (British Museum)


Titus Aurius, Front: Laurel wreath head, Rear: Titus seated holding scepter and branch.

Heart Message

A Constant Craving

Rome had so conquered its domain, achieving dominion, knowledge and wealth in varied disciplines of warfare, science, art, & architecture among others, that citizens had leisure and could enjoy the glorious civilization. But nations, like individuals, when strife for survival is no longer demanding, can feel the emptiness inside of our fallen nature rather than being able to enjoy what was built. An entire population can become unruly when it has time on its hands. Governments should be directing their citizen’s to higher aspirations, but without leadership, a people can fall to its baser instincts.

Amusements have a shelf life before they become boring. A joke can only be told once and be funny. Wealth in our own time is producing darker and darker forms of entertainment as society is continually desensitized and requires more and more stimulation.

The ugly bottom of this never-ending craving can become a bloodlust, the desire to see others suffer. The self-hatred inside an empty soul can be hyped up and projected towards a scapegoat who seems offensive enough to be blamed for one’s own fallen emotions. The Romans offered up the Christians who in faith to Christ were trying not to ride along with the corrupted culture but received the forgiveness of God and fullness of the Holy Spirit.

As Gladys Knight once sung, “I’d rather live in his world, than live without him in mine.”

 

Map of the Roman Empire in 68 AD

Key Dates From Nero to the Colosseum

54 AD Nero becomes Emperor of Rome

55 AD Britannicus (childhood friend of Titus) is poisoned+ by Nero

57-59 AD Titus is tribune in Germania

59 The apostle Paul is imprisoned at Caesarea

61 Paul a prisoner at Rome

63 AD Titus returns to Rome and marries Arrecina Tertulla

64 AD The great fire of Rome, Christians are blamed

65 AD Tertulla dies, Titus marries Marcia Furnilla

65 AD Nero kicks his wife Poppaea in a rage and kills her

65 AD Titus divorces Marcia never to remarry

66 AD The Jews of Judea revolt against Rome

67 AD Nero appoints Vespasian to head campaign against Jews

67 AD Paul the Apostle is martyred in Rome

68 (June 9) Nero is forced to commit suicide (end of Julio-Claudian dynasty).

69 AD Vespasian enters Rome to become sole emperor until 79

69 AD Jerusalem besieged by the Romans

69 AD Jochanan ben Zakkai seeks an audience with Vespasian

70 AD Siege and fall of Jerusalem under military leadership of Vespasian's son, Titus.

70 AD Jerusalem falls; the Temple burned; the Jews deported

70 AD Coliseum begun by Emperor Vespasian (funded by Jewish defeat).

73 AD Masada the final Jewish stronghold  is captured after a long siege.

76 AD Birth of the Emperor Hadrian in Rome.

77 AD Josephus publishes The War of the Jews

79 AD Vespasian dies and Titus succeeds his father as the tenth Roman Emperor.

79 AD Mt. Vesuvius erupts burying the towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Pliny the Elder dies by getting too close.

80 AD The Colosseum is dedicated by Titus.

80 AD A mighty fire threatens Rome.

81 AD on September 13 Titus dies of a fever on his way to the Sabine territories.

81 AD Domitian becomes Roman emperor

81 AD Construction of the Arena, Colosseum  is complete by 96 AD


Titus


Face of Titus (Palace of Versailles)

Titus (79–81 C.E.) Titus, the eldest son of Vespasian, had been groomed to rule. He had served as an effective general under his father, helping to secure the east and eventually taking over the command of Roman armies in Syria and Iudaea, quelling the significant Jewish revolt going on at the time. He shared the consul for several years with his father and received the best tutelage. Although there was some trepidation when he took office because of his known dealings with some of the less respectable elements of Roman society, he quickly proved his merit, even recalling many exiled by his father as a show of good faith. However, his short reign was marked by disaster: in 79 C.E., Mount Vesuvius erupted in Pompeii, and in 80, a fire destroyed much of Rome. His generosity in rebuilding after these tragedies made him very popular. Titus was very proud of his work on the vast amphitheater begun by his father. He held the opening ceremonies in the still unfinished edifice during the year 80, celebrating with a lavish show that featured 100 gladiators and lasted 100 days. Titus died in 81 C.E., at the age of 41 of what is presumed to be illness; it was rumored that his brother Domitian murdered him in order to become his successor, although these claims have little merit. Whatever the case, he was greatly mourned and missed. [ New World Encyclopedia]

TITUS (full name, Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus):

Emperor of Rome from 79 to 81; born in 39 or 41; died Sept. 13, 81; son of Vespasian, the conqueror of Jerusalem. He was educated at the courts of Claudius and Nero. Titus served first in Germany and later in Britain under his father, whom he subsequently assisted greatly in Judea by suppressing the rebellion of the Jews.

In Judea.

While Vespasian was operating in Galilee, the news of the death of Nero (June 9, 68) was received; and Titus, accompanied by Agrippa II., was sent to Rome to swear allegiance to Nero's successor. Galba was murdered in the meantime, however; and Titus hastened back to Judea, where the Egyptian and Syrian troops proclaimed Vespasian emperor, an occurrence which Josephus declares he had predicted in the presence of Titus himself (Josephus, "B. J." iii. 8, § 9; comp. Suidas, s.v. Ἰώσητος; in Dion Cassius, lxvi. 1, Titus is not mentioned). It was Titus, moreover, who, under the leadership of his father, reduced the cities of Jotapata, Taricheæ, and Giscala, where he displayed, on the one hand, great courage and contempt of death, and, on the other, bitter cruelty toward the conquered; when, therefore, Vespasian went to Rome as emperor, Titus was left to prosecute the Jewish war.

Besieges Jerusalem.

With a considerable force he left Cæsarea andreached the walls of Jerusalem a few days before the Passover festival of the year 70. Omitting the details of this memorable war, only those events which concern Titus personally need be mentioned here. Together with 600 horsemen he rode ahead of his main army to reconnoiter the surrounding country, and had ventured so far in advance that only his valor saved him from capture in a Jewish attack ("B. J." v. 2, § 2). He endeavored at first to persuade the Jews to submit by making promises to them (Dion Cassius, lxvi. 4); and Josephus was sent to them several times with messages to that effect. They refused all overtures, however; and batteringrams were then set in action, and the beleaguerment of Jerusalem began. The Jews often destroyed these siege-works, and during one of their sorties Titus himself was so severely wounded in the left shoulder by a stone that his hand remained weak ever afterward (Dion Cassius, l.c. § 5; Josephus in "B. J." v. 6, § 2 relates a similar occurrence, although he does not mention the wounding of Titus). According to Dion Cassius, the Romans refused to attack the Temple on account of their respect for its sanctity; and Titus had to force them to do so. Josephus, on the other hand, differs on this point also, stating instead that Titus first held a council of war with his commanding officers, among them Tiberius Julius Alexander, and that certain generals advised the destruction of the Temple. He himself, however, wished to spare it ("B. J." vi. 4, § 3), and gave orders to extinguish the fire which had begun to consume the cloisters, apparently displaying this mildness either on account of Berenice or to show his friendship for Agrippa. Against this stands the narrative of the monk Sulpicius, who is said to have drawn his information from Tacitus; and, following this authority, Jacob Bernays ("Programm des Jüdisch-Theologischen Seminars in Breslau," 1861, p. 48) charges Josephus with untruthfulness; Grätz, however ("Gesch." iii. 539), is inclined to believe in the veracity of Josephus' statement.


Burning of the Temple.

On the following day (the tenth of Ab, 70) the Jews made a desperate sortie, and one of the Roman soldiers, weary of fighting, threw a burning piece of wood into the Temple. In vain did Titus give orders to extinguish the flames; his voice was drowned in the uproar. Titus himself, impelled by curiosity, entered the Sanctuary, but the smoke forced him to withdraw; and thus the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem became associated with his name. On the ruins of the Sanctuary Titus was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers ("B. J." vi. 6, § 1; Dion Cassius, l.c. § 7; Suetonius, "Titus," v.), although both he and his father refused the epithet "Judaicus," because the word might suggest an inclination toward the Jewish religion (see, however, Joël, "Blicke in die Religionsgeschichte," ii. 46).

Arches of Titus.

Even Josephus was able to point to only scanty traces of mildness in the life of Titus, while, on the other hand, cruelties are recorded which must be attributed to personal hatred on his part, and not to the unavoidable harshness of war. In Cæsarea in Palestine, in Cæsarea Philippi, and in Berytus he forced the captive Jews to fight against wild animals and also against one another; and many thousands more were slain to please the revengeful Syrians and Greeks. It was in Rome, however, that he celebrated his triumphs, together with his father and his brother Domitian; there 700 Jews of splendid physique and the leaders of the Zealots, John of Giscala and Simon bar Giora, helped to grace his procession. Two triumphal arches were erected in his honor. Of these, one no longer exists, and is remembered only on account of the inscription which it bore ("C. I. L." vi. 444), but the other, a beautiful structure, still stands in Rome, and on it may be seen representations of the captured vessels of the Temple. See Titus, Arch of.

Rabbinical Legends.

The Jews hated Titus on account of his share in the destruction of the Temple; and the Rabbis accordingly termed him "Titus the miscreant," thus contrasting sharply with the statements of the classical writers, who regarded him as an ornament of the human race. It may be proved, however, that he was anything but upright while he was crown prince; indeed, he was cruel, licentious, and ambitious, and was even suspected of having sought to poison his father. Only during the latter part of his reign did he display praiseworthy qualities. A significant saying of frequent recurrence in rabbinic sources is to the effect that he was honored in Rome as the conqueror of the barbarians (υικητὴς βαρβάρων; Gen. R. x.; Lev. R. xxii. 3; Lam. R., Introduction, No. 23, etc.), thus showing that the Jews were regarded as an inferior and barbarous nation. All the other accounts of Titus in rabbinical literature are purely legendary, and their utter unreliability is shown by the fact that he is called the nephew instead of the son of Vespasian, a view which was repeatedin medieval chronicles (Neubauer, "M. J. C." i. 50, 70). In the Holy of Holies, moreover, he was said to have pierced the veil of the Ark, to have had intercourse with two courtezans (a reminiscence of his relations with Berenice), and to have defiled the Torah (ib.; Giṭ. 56b); in short, to have blasphemed God. That he packed the sacred vessels in a basket and took them on board his ship was also stated in rabbinical tradition. As he stepped from his bath—so runs a legend—a drink was handed to him, when suddenly a gnat () stung him in the nose, and thus caused his death (Ab. R. N., Recension B, vii.; it is noteworthy that this form of retribution also figures in Arabic legends, which often confuse Titus with Nebuchadnezzar, who likewise destroyed the Temple; "R. E. J." lxix. 212). This has been interpreted as implying that Titus became melancholy and insane in his declining years (Hamburger, "R. B. T." s.v.); but such an explanation seems inadmissible. Despite the Jewish hatred of Titus, many Jews as well as Christians have borne his name (in the New Testament, Titus i. 4; Gal. ii. 3; II Cor. ii. 13, and elsewhere; for the Jews, see Krauss, "Lehnwörter," ii. 262); and in later times four prominent Jewish families of Italy have traced their descent from prisoners taken by him (see Rome).

The medieval Jews invented numerous legends concerning Titus; thus, according to "Yosippon" and Benjamin of Tudela, the Roman consuls (i.e., senators) blamed him for taking three years instead of two to conquer Jerusalem. Benjamin claims also to have seen the supposed palace of Titus at Rome; and, according to Abraham ibn Daud ("Sefer ha-Ḳabbalah)," ed. Prague, 1795, p. 40b), Titus put to death the high priest Ishmael b. Elisha and R. Simeon b. Gamaliel, although only the latter was actually executed. The names of hosts of other patriots and martyrs who lost their lives through Titus are unknown.

[Jewish Encyclopedia]




Painting of the Destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans in 70 AD by Ercole de Roberti

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Titus in Wikipedia (Latin: Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus;[1] 30 December 39 – 13 September 81), was Roman Emperor from 79 to 81. A member of the Flavian dynasty, Titus succeeded his father Vespasian upon his death, thus becoming the first Roman Emperor to come to the throne after his own father. Prior to becoming Emperor, Titus gained renown as a military commander, serving under his father in Judaea during the First Jewish-Roman War. The campaign came to a brief halt with the death of emperor Nero in 68, launching Vespasian's bid for the imperial power during the Year of the Four Emperors. When Vespasian was declared Emperor on 1 July 69, Titus was left in charge of ending the Jewish rebellion. In 70, he successfully laid siege to and destroyed the city and Temple of Jerusalem. For this achievement Titus was awarded a triumph; the Arch of Titus commemorates his victory to this day. Under the rule of his father, Titus gained notoriety in Rome serving as prefect of the Praetorian Guard, and for carrying on a controversial relationship with the Jewish queen Berenice. Despite concerns over his character, Titus ruled to great acclaim following the death of Vespasian in 79, and was considered a good emperor by Suetonius and other contemporary historians. As emperor, he is best known for completing the Colosseum and for his generosity in relieving the suffering caused by two disasters, the Mount Vesuvius eruption of 79 and a fire in Rome in 80. After barely two years in office, Titus died of a fever on 13 September 81. He was deified by the Roman Senate and succeeded by his younger brother Domitian. [Wikipedia]

TITUS FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS, the eldest son of the emperor Vespasian, was born on the 29th of December, a.d. 40, and was educated at the court of Nero, along with Britannicus, and contracted a great friendship with that unfortunate prince, who was poisoned by Nero in a.d. 55. He distinguished himself at an early age as tribunus militum in Britain and Germany. He became afterwards quaestor; and in a.d. 67, he commanded one of the legions, under his father, in Palestine, where he showed much military skill and personal courage in the siege and capture of the towns of Taricheae and Gamala. After the murder of Nero, (a.d. 69,) he was sent by his father to Rome, in order to gain the favour of Galba, the new emperor. He had proceeded as far as Corinth, when he was informed that Galba had been murdered. He thereupon returned to Judaea. On the termination of the short reign of Vitellius, Vespasian was, by the support of Mucianus, the pro-consul of Syria, Tiberius Alexander, and Titus, proclaimed emperor by the army in the East, while his brother Flavius Sabinus occupied for him the Capitol in Rome, and compelled Vitellius to lay down the imperial diadem. Vespasian left Judaea for Rome ; and the command of the army of Judaea, and the continuation of the war, devolved upon Titus. As soon as Vespasian had taken possession of the imperial authority, he declared Titus his colleague in the consulate, a.d. 70. In the mean time that prince was carrying on the arduous siege of Jerusalem, which city, after suffering the most horrible calamities, was taken on the 2nd September, in that year, with the destruction of the Temple, which Titus in vain attempted to save. The cruelties of that memorable siege, in which Jews fought against Jews with more ferocity than against the common enemy, are scarcely paralleled in history. After the reduction of Jerusalem he went to Alexandria, where he assisted at the consecration of the ox Apis. But finding that his delays occasioned some sinister rumours, he hastened back to Rome, where his father and himself were honoured with a magnificent triumph for their victories over the Jews, in commemoration of which a triumphal arch was erected, which is still one of the finest monuments of antiquity at Rome.

Vespasian now took Titus for his colleague in the empire; and he exercised a large share of the imperial power in perfect concert with his father. If Suetonius, however, is to be credited, his conduct during this part of his life was very far from being unblemished. During the Jewish war he had contracted a violent passion for Berenice, daughter of Agrippa I. king of the Jews, and widow of Herod, king of Chalcis, who followed him to Rome ; and the Roman people were much displeased by this attachment to a foreign queen of a doubtful reputation. But he sent, invitus invitam, Berenice back to Judaea, and by this proved that his passion for her did not prevent him from doing his duty. He gave soon after still more decisive proofs of the excellence of his character. Vespasian died a.d. 79, and Titus immediately succeeded to the whole sovereign power ; and the accounts transmitted to us of his short reign present little more than a series of deeds of princely beneficence. One of his first acts was the confirmation of all the grants and donations which had been made by his predecessors, and which it had formerly been customary to regard as annulled at the demise of each sovereign till they were renewed by the successor. His example in this point became a rule to all succeeding emperors. When he took possession of the office of chief pontiff, he made a declaration that he received it as a solemn engagement never to imbrue his hands in the blood of a citizen. A more extensive benefit was his abrogation of the law of majesty, or high-treason, 254 with respect to all accusations for words or writings against the person or dignity of the emperor — a fertile source in many preceding reigns of disquiet and ruin to exalted individuals. The principal public events of this reign were, the great eruption of Mount Vesuvius, in which Herculaneum, Stabiae, Pompeii, and other towns, were buried, (August, a.d. 79 ;) and a dreadful conflagration in Rome, followed by a fatal epidemic disorder (a. d. 80). These calamities called forth the bounty of Titus to relieve the sufferers in property, and his humanity and compassion, in alleviating other distresses. In this reign, also, Agricola restored tranquillity to Britain, and penetrated as far as the Frith of Tay, (a.d. 80 ;) and in the following year he constructed the wall between the Frith of Clyde and the Frith of Forth, in order to protect Britain from the incursions of the Caledonians. Still the object of the warm affection of his subjects, and unstained by a single act of injustice or oppression, Titus was seized with a fever on a visit to the country of the Sabines, which soon exhibited dangerous symptoms. It is said, that, opening his litter as he travelled, and looking towards heaven, he complained of his early doom, adding, " for I have nothing with which to reproach myself in my life, except a single action." What this was he did not explain, and it can be only a matter of conjecture. He died on the 13th September, a.d. 81, at a villa near Reate, the same family-seat at which his father expired, in the 41st year of his age, and after a reign of two years and less than three months, leaving no male offspring. His death was deplored at Rome as a general calamity. He was succeeded by his brother Domitian.  [Biographical Dictionary]

Titus (a.d. 79-81 ). In a short reign of two years Titus won the title of "the Friend and the Delight of Mankind." He was unwearied in acts of benevolence and in bestowal of favors. His reign was signalized by two great disasters. The first was a conflagration at Rome, which was almost as calamitous as the Great Fire in the reign of Nero. The second was the destruction, by an eruption of Vesuvius, of the Campanian cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. The cities were buried beneath showers of cinders, ashes, and streams of volcanic mud. Pliny the Elder, the great naturalist, venturing too near the mountain to investigate the phenomenon, lost his life. [From Tiberius to the Accession of Diocletian]

REIGN OF TITUS, A.D. 79-81. Titus was one of the most accomplished and benevolent of men. Eloquent, warlike, moderate in his desires, he was called _Amor et deliciae humani generis_, "The love and the delight of the human race." In early life he had been thought inclined to severity, and his treatment of the Jews, at the fall of their city, does not seem in accordance with his character for humanity. But no sooner had he ascended the throne than he won a general affection. Such was the mildness of his government that no one was punished at Rome for political offenses. Those who conspired against him he not only pardoned, but took into his familiarity. He was so generous that he could refuse no request for aid. He was resolved, he said, that no one should leave his presence sorrowful; and he thought that day lost in which he had done no good deed. Titus wrote poems and tragedies in Greek, and was familiar with his native literature. During his reign, A.D. 79, occurred a violent eruption of Vesuvius, together with an earthquake, by which Herculaneum, Stabiae, and Pompeii, three towns on the Bay of Naples, were destroyed. The emperor was so touched by the sufferings of the inhabitants that he expended nearly his whole private fortune in relieving their wants. Pompeii and Herculaneum, which were covered by lava or ashes, were thus preserved from farther decay, and, having been partially excavated and restored, enable us to form a truthful conception of the domestic life of the Roman cities in the age of Titus. We here enter the villas of the rich or the humble homes of the poor, and find every where traces of comfort, elegance, and taste. The next year after the destruction of these cities, a fire broke out in Rome, which raged for three days, desolating the finest regions of the city. The Capitoline Temple was again destroyed, together with many buildings in the Campus Martius. A pestilence followed soon after, which ravaged Rome and all Italy. In A.D. 81 Titus dedicated the Colosseum, which was now completed, and also his famous baths, the ruins of which may still be visited at Rome. Splendid games and spectacles were exhibited in honor of these events. Few military events occurred during this reign, the empire being perfectly quiet, except where the active Agricola was subduing the wandering tribes of Scotland. At length Titus, having gone to the Sabine villa where his father Vespasian died, was himself suddenly arrested by death. It was believed that his brother Domitian was the cause of this unhappy event, and all the people lamented their emperor as if they had lost a father or a friend. Titus died September 13, A.D. [SM History of Rome]

THE SACRA VIA AND THE VELIA. The Sacra via, the oldest and most famous street in Rome, began at the sacellum Streniae a shrine mentioned only in this connection, and undoubtedly near the lucus Streniae in the Colosseum valley, and ran northwest to the summit of the Velia, which it crossed near the arch of Titus. This was the summa Sacra via, and from here the street curved toward the north and entered the Forum at the fornix Fabianus. Its course from this point to the Capitol has been described . Originally the name Sacra via was given only to that part of the street which was between the Velia and the Forum, but it was soon made to include the whole extent from the Colosseum to the Forum, and in modern times even the part within the Forum. The part from the Forum to the Velia was also called the Sacer clivus. [Topography of Ancient Rome 1911]

The Death of Titus

History* records Titus as saying these last words at his death: "I have made but one mistake". The exact meaning is not certain, but many believe he was murdered by Domitian and these words were directed at him.

* See Suetonius and Cassius Dio

Jewish Account of the Death of Titus. According to the Babylonian Talmud (Gittin 56b), an insect flew into Titus's nose and picked at his brain for seven years. He noticed that the sound of a blacksmith hammering caused the ensuing pain to abate, so he paid for blacksmiths to hammer nearby him; however, the effect wore off and the insect resumed its gnawing. When he died, they opened his skull and found the insect had grown to the size of a bird. The Talmud gives this as the cause of his death and interprets it as divine retribution for his wicked actions. [Wikipedia]

Vespasian

Vespasian (69 a. d.) was made emperor by his army in Judea. An old-fashioned Roman, he sought to revive the ancient virtues of honesty and frugality. His son Titus, after capturing Jerusalem (pp. 85, 284), shared the throne with his father, and finally succeeded to the empire. His generosity and kindness won him the name of the Delight of Mankind. He refused to sign a death-warrant, and pronounced any day lost in which he had not done some one a favor. During this happy period, Agricola conquered nearly all Britain, making it a Roman province; the famous Colosseum at Rome was finished ; but Pompeii and Herculaneum were destroyed by an eruption of Mount Vesuvius. [Political History of Rome]

TITUS Vespasian, son of Vespasian and Flavia Domitilla, became known by his valor in the Roman armies, particularly at the siege of Jerusalem. In the 79th year of the Christian era, he was invested with the imperial purple, and the Roman people had every reason to expect in him the barbarities of a Tiberius, and the debaucheries of a Nero. When raised to the throne, he thought himself bound to be the father of his people, the guardian of virtue, and the patron of liberty ; and Titus is, perhaps, the only monarch who, when invested with uncontrollable power, bade adieu to those vices, those luxuries, and indulgences, which, as a private man, he never ceased to gratify. All informers were banished from his presence, and even severely punished. A reform was made in the judicial proceedings, and trials were no longer permitted to be postponed for years. To do good to his subjects was the ambition of Titus ; and it was at the recollection that he had done no service, or granted no favor one day, that he exclaimed in the memorable words of, "My friends, I have lost a day" Two of the senators conspired against his life, but the emperor disregarded their attempts. He made them his friends by kindness, and, like another Nerva, presented them with a sword to destroy him. During his reign, Rome was three days on fire ; the towns of Campania were destroyed by an eruption of Vesuvius ; and the empire was visited by a pestilence, which carried off an infinite number of inhabitants. In this time of public calamity, the emperor's benevolence and philanthrophy were conspicuous. The Romans, however, had not long to enjoy the favors of this magnificent prince. Titus was taken ill; and as he retired into the country of the Sabines, to his father's house, his indisposition was increased by a burning fever. He died the 13th of September, A.D. 81, in the 41st year of his age, after a reign of two years, two months, and twenty days. [Historical and Biographical]

Vespasian (a.d. 69-79). A short troublous period followed the reign of Nero and then the imperial purple was assumed by Flavius Vespasian, the old and beloved commander of the legions in Palestine. One of the most memorable events of Vespasian's reign was the capture and destruction of Jerusalem. After one of the most harassing sieges recorded in history, the city was taken by Titus, son of Vespasian. A vast multitude of Jews who had crowded into the city—it was the season of the Passover — perished. In imitation of Nebuchadnezzar, Titus robbed the temple of its sacred utensils and bore them away as trophies. Upon the triumphal arch at Rome that bears his name may be seen at the present day the sculptured representation of the seven-branched golden candlestick, which was one of the memorials of the war. After a most prosperous reign of ten years Vespasian died a.d. 79, the first Emperor after Augustus who had not met with a violent death. [From Tiberius to the Accession of Diocletian]

VESPASIANUS, (Titus Flavius,) an obscure native of Reate, in the country of the Sabines, was born a.d. 9. In a.d. 39, in the third year of Caligula, he was made praetor. By his merits and virtues he rose to consequence in the Roman armies, and headed the expedition against Jerusalem. On the death of Vitellius a.d. 69, he was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers; and the wisdom, moderation, and firmness of his reign showed the propriety of the choice. This virtuous monarch, the liberal patron of learning, and the friend of morality and order, died a.d. 79, in the seventieth year of his age. [Biographical Dictionary]

Vespasian. The Flavians and the Antonines. Vespasian is the first of the good emperors. He restored the discipline of the army and of the Praetorian guards, abolished the treason courts, improved the administration of justice, and filled the state treasury by economy and sagacity. He built the temple of peace, and the Colosseum, whose ruins still excite the admiration of the traveler, brought back the Batavians of the lower Rhine to the obedience, and enlarged the borders of the i empire, by the conquests of Judea and of Britain. The oppressions of the Roman officers who governed Judea, especially the cruelty and greed of Gessius Florus, drove the people finally to rebellion. They fought with the courage of desparation, but were conquered by the Roman legions and forced into Jerusalem, which was besieged at first by Vespasian, and then afterward by his son Titus. The crowded city was so wasted by pestilence and starvation, that thousands plunged into the grave. Titus offered pardon in vain; rage and fanaticism urged the Jews to a desperate struggle. They defended their temple, until the magnificent building broke into flames, and death in every form raged among the vanquished. The victory of Titus was followed by the complete destruction of Jerusalem. Among the prisoners that followed the victorious chariot of the Roman, was the Jewish historian Josephus. The triumphal arch of Titus still standing in Rome, shows pictures of the Jewish sacred vessels, that were carried to the city. The Jews who were left at home, suffered terribly from Roman rule. But sixty years after the destruction of Jerusalem, Hadrian established a pagan colony on its sacred soil, which was called Alia Capitoltna : and erected on the heights, where the temple of Jehovah had been built by Solomon, a temple to Jupiter. The exasperated Jews, led by the fanatical Simon, " son of the star," took arms again to prevent this insult. In a murderous war of three years, in which half a million inhabitants were slaughtered, they were conquered by tlie Romans. The survivors wandered out in throngs. The laud resembled a desert, and the Jewish commonwealth came to an end. Since then the Jews live scattered over the whole earth, faithful to their customs, their religion, and their superstition ; but wholly separate from other peoples. Subsequently, the exiles were allowed, once a year, on payment of a certain sum, to weep over the ruins of their sacred city. During the reign of Vespasian, Agricola, the father-in-law of Tacitus, conquered Britain as far as the Scotch highlands, and introduced Roman institutions, customs, and speech. Britain remained subject to the Romans 400 years. The religion of the Druids yielded gradually to Roman paganism, and the foreign civilization struck root in the land. But the warlike strength of the people was weakened by' this contact with the Romans, so that the Britains were unable to resist the rough Picts and Scots, from whom the wall, erected by Hadrian, was not sufficient to protect them. The plain but powerful Vespasian was succeeded by his son Titus. The faults and sins of his youth were laid aside by the new emperor, and he earned for himself the splendid name " Love and Delight of the Human Race." During his reign Herculaneum and Pompeii were destroyed by the eruption of Vesuvius. Pliny, the elder, lost his life in this eruption, as we learn from a letter of his nephew to the historian Tacitus. The excavations made at these buried cities, especially at Pompeii, have been of immense importance to our knowledge of antiquity, and to the art of our own times. [Ancient World]


Portrait of Vespasian (Capitoline Museum)

REIGN OF T. FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS, A.D. 69-79.--Vespasian, the founder of the first Flavian family of emperors, was a soldier of fortune, who had risen from a low station to high command in the army. He was brave, active, free from vice, and, although fond of money, was never charged with extortion or rapacity. Toward the close of the summer, A.D. 70, he arrived in Rome, and received the imperium from the Senate. He began at once to restore discipline in the army, and raised to the rank of Senators and Equites illustrious men from the provinces, as well as from Italy and Rome, thus giving to the provincials a certain share in the government. The courts of justice were purified, the _Delatores_, or spies, were discountenanced, and trials for treason ceased. To increase his revenues, Vespasian renewed the taxes in several provinces which had been exempted by Nero, and he introduced economy and good order into the administration of the finances. Yet he expended large sums in rebuilding the Capitoline Temple, and also in completing the Colosseum, whose immense ruins form one of the most remarkable features in the modern scenery of Rome. He built, too, the Temple of Peace and a public library. He appointed lecturers upon rhetoric, with a salary of 100 sesterces, but was possessed himself of little mental cultivation. He is even said to have disliked literary men, and, in the year A.D. 74, expelled the Stoic and Cynic philosophers from Rome. In A.D. 70, September 2, his son Titus took the city of Jerusalem, after a brave defense by the Jews, who were finally betrayed by their own factions. The city was totally destroyed, and nearly half a million of the Jews perished in the siege. Those who survived, being forbidden to rebuild their city, were scattered over the empire, and each Jew was compelled to pay a yearly tax of two drachmae, which was appropriated to rebuilding the Capitoline Temple. The Arch of Titus, which still exists at Rome, was erected in commemoration of the fall of Jerusalem. Vespasian's generals repressed an insurrection of the Germans, and in A.D. 71 C. Julius Agricola, father-in-law of the historian Tacitus, entered Britain as legate to Petilius Cerialis. He was made governor of the province in A.D. 77, and led his victorious armies as far north as the Highlands of Scotland. This excellent character, by his justice and moderation, reconciled the Britons to the Roman yoke. By his first wife, Flavia Domatilla, Vespasian had three children--Titus, Domitian, and Domatilla. When she died he formed an inferior kind of marriage with Coenis, a woman of low station, who, however, seems to have deserved his esteem. He died 23d of June, A.D. 79, at the age of seventy. Although never a refined or cultivated man, Vespasian, by his hardy virtues, restored the vigor of the Roman government, and gave peace and prosperity to his subjects; while he who founded a library and established schools of rhetoric can not have been so wholly illiterate as some writers have imagined. [SM History of Rome]

The Destruction of Jerusalem under Titus

The Destruction of Jerusalem. Vespasian committed the care of the war against the Jews to his son Titus ; for after the ascension of our Saviour, the Jews, in addition to their wickedness against him, were now incessantly plotting mischief against his apostles. First they slew Stephen by stoning him, next James, who first obtained the episcopal seat at Jerusalem, after the ascension of our Saviour. . . . But the rest of the apostles they harassed in many ways with a view to destroying them, and they drove them from the land of Judea. These apostles accordingly went to preach the gospel to all nations, relying upon the aid of Christ, when he said, " Go and teach all nations in my name." The whole body of the church at Jerusalem, however,— when commanded by a divine revelation given to men of approved piety there before the war, — removed from the city, and dwelt at a certain town called Pella beyond the Jordan. The Jews formed their line close under their walls, whence if successful they might venture to advance, and where if repulsed they had a refuge at hand. . . . The Romans then began to prepare for an assault. It seemed beneath them to await the result of famine. . . . But the commanding situation of the city the Jews had strengthened by enormous works which would have  been a thorough defense even for level ground. Two hills of great height they fenced in with walls skillfully bent inward in such a manner that the flank of an assailant was exposed to missiles. The work ended in a precipice ; the towers they had raised to a height of sixty feet where the hill lent its aid to the fortification ; where the ground fell, they were a hundred and twenty feet high. These towers presented a marvelous appearance, and to a distant spectator seemed to be of uniform height. There had been prodigies, which this nation, prone to superstition but hating all religious rites, did not deem it lawful to expiate by offerings and sacrifice. They had seen hosts joining battle in the skies, the fiery gleam of arms, the temple illuminated by a sudden radiance from the clouds. The doors of the inner shrine suddenly opened, and a voice of more than mortal tone was heard to cry that the Gods were going away. At the same instant there was a mighty stir as of departure. A few put a fearful meaning on these events, but in most people was a firm persuasion that the ancient records of their priests  contained a prediction that at this very time the East was to grow powerful, and rulers from Judea were to acquire universal empire. These mysterious prophecies had pointed to Vespasian and Titus ; but the common people, with the usual blindness of ambition, had interpreted these mighty omens in their own favor, and could not be brought even by disasters to believe the truth. In computing the whole number of the slain, the historian says, that eleven hundred thousand perished by famine, and that the rest, including factions and robbers, mutually informing against each other after the capture, were put to death. Of the young men the tallest and those distinguished for beauty were kept for the triumph. Of the remaining multitude all above seventeen were sent as prisoners to labor in the mines of Egypt. Great numbers, however, were distributed among the provinces, to be destroyed by the sword or by wild beasts in the theatres. Those under seventeen were carried away to be sold as slaves. In the last named class alone were as many as ninety thousand. Vespasian died on the eighth of the calends of July at the age of sixty-nine years. [Story of Rome]

The First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called The Great Revolt (Hebrew: המרד הגדול‎, ha-Mered Ha-Gadol), was the first of three major rebellions by the Jews of Judaea Province (Iudaea), against the Roman Empire. The second was the Kitos War in 115–117 CE; the third was Bar Kokhba's revolt of 132–135 CE). The Great Revolt began in the year 66 CE, initially due to Greek and Jewish religious tensions, but later escalated due to anti-taxation protests and attacks upon Roman citizens.[2] The Roman military garrison of Judaea was quickly overrun by rebels and the pro-Roman king Agrippa II fled Jerusalem, together with Roman officials to Galilee. Cestius Gallus, the legate of Syria, brought the Syrian army, based on XII Fulminata, reinforced by auxiliary troops, to restore order and quell the revolt. The legion, however, was ambushed and defeated by Jewish rebels at the Battle of Beth Horon, a result that shocked the Roman leadership. The Roman command of the revolt's suppression was then handed to general Vespasian and his son Titus, who assembled four legions and began cleansing the country, starting with Galilee, in the year 67 CE. The revolt ended when legions under Titus besieged and destroyed the center of rebel resistance in Jerusalem in the year 70 CE, and defeated the remaining Jewish strongholds later on. [Wikipedia]

The Fall of Jerusalem. The siege of Jerusalem, the capital city, had begun early in the war, but had turned into a stalemate. Unable to breach the city's defences, the Roman armies established a permanent camp just outside the city, digging a trench around the circumference of its walls and building a wall as high as the city walls themselves around Jerusalem. Anyone caught in the trench attempting to flee the city would be captured, crucified, and placed in lines on top of the dirt wall facing into Jerusalem. The two Zealot leaders, John of Gischala and Simon Bar Giora, only ceased hostilities and joined forces to defend the city when the Romans began to construct ramparts for the siege. Those attempting to escape the city were crucified, with as many as five hundred crucifixions occurring in a day. Titus Flavius, Vespasian's son, led the final assault and siege of Jerusalem. During the infighting inside the city walls, a stockpiled supply of dry food was intentionally burned by Sicarii to induce the defenders to fight against the siege instead of negotiating peace; as a result many city dwellers and soldiers died of starvation during the siege. Zealots under Eleazar ben Simon held the Temple, Sicarii led by Simon Bar Giora held the upper city. Titus eventually wiped out the last remnants of Jewish resistance. By the summer of 70, the Romans had breached the walls of Jerusalem, ransacking and burning nearly the entire city. The Romans began by attacking the weakest spot: the third wall. It was built shortly before the siege so it did not have as much time invested in its protection. They succeeded towards the end of May and shortly afterwards broke through the more important second wall. The Second Temple (the renovated Herod's Temple) was destroyed on Tisha B'Av (29 or 30 July 70). Tacitus, a historian of the time, notes that those who were besieged in Jerusalem amounted to no fewer than six hundred thousand, that men and women alike and every age engaged in armed resistance, everyone who could pick up a weapon did, both sexes showed equal determination, preferring death to a life that involved expulsion from their country. All three walls were destroyed and in turn so was the Temple, some of whose overturned stones and their place of impact can still be seen. John of Giscala surrendered at Agrippa II's fortress of Jotapata and was sentenced to life imprisonment. The famous Arch of Titus still stands in Rome: it depicts Roman legionaries carrying the Temple of Jerusalem's treasuries, including the Menorah, during Titus's triumphal procession in Rome... The defeat of the Jewish revolt altered the Jewish diaspora, as many of the Jewish rebels were scattered or sold into slavery. Josephus claims that 1,100,000 people were killed during the siege, a sizeable portion of these were at Jewish hands and due to illnesses brought about by hunger. "A pestilential destruction upon them, and soon afterward such a famine, as destroyed them more suddenly." 97,000 were captured and enslaved and many others fled to areas around the Mediterranean. The Jewish Encyclopedia article on the Hebrew Alphabet states: "Not until the revolts against Nero and against Hadrian did the Jews return to the use of the old Hebrew script on their coins, which they did from motives similar to those which had governed them two or three centuries previously; both times, it is true, only for a brief period." Titus reportedly refused to accept a wreath of victory, claiming that he had "lent his arms to God". [Wikipedia]

Josephus Describes the Siege. "Now as soon as the army had no more people to slay or to plunder, because there remained none to be the objects of their fury (for they would not have spared any, had there remained any other work to be done), [Titus] Caesar gave orders that they should now demolish the entire city and Temple, but should leave as many of the towers standing as they were of the greatest eminence; that is, Phasaelus, and Hippicus, and Mariamne; and so much of the wall enclosed the city on the west side. This wall was spared, in order to afford a camp for such as were to lie in garrison [in the Upper City], as were the towers [the three forts] also spared, in order to demonstrate to posterity what kind of city it was, and how well fortified, which the Roman valor had subdued; but for all the rest of the wall [surrounding Jerusalem], it was so thoroughly laid even with the ground by those that dug it up to the foundation, that there was left nothing to make those that came thither believe it [Jerusalem] had ever been inhabited. This was the end which Jerusalem came to by the madness of those that were for innovations; a city otherwise of great magnificence, and of mighty fame among all mankind... And truly, the very view itself was a melancholy thing; for those places which were adorned with trees and pleasant gardens, were now become desolate country every way, and its trees were all cut down. Nor could any foreigner that had formerly seen Judaea and the most beautiful suburbs of the city, and now saw it as a desert, but lament and mourn sadly at so great a change. For the war had laid all signs of beauty quite waste. Nor had anyone who had known the place before, had come on a sudden to it now, would he have known it again. But though he [a foreigner] were at the city itself, yet would he have inquired for it... The slaughter within was even more dreadful than the spectacle from without. Men and women, old and young, insurgents and priests, those who fought and those who entreated mercy, were hewn down in indiscriminate carnage. The number of the slain exceeded that of the slayers. The legionaries had to clamber over heaps of dead to carry on the work of extermination." [Josephus]


Vespasian coin with 'Judea Capta' on the back, IVDEA CAPTA, "Judaea conquered". The coin was Issued
in 71 AD to celebrate the victory of the Romans in the Jewish Revolt.

Judaea Capta coins were originally issued by the Roman Emperor Vespasian to commemorate the capture of Judaea and the destruction of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem by his son Titus in 70 AD during the First Jewish Revolt.

Josephus. The main account of the revolt comes from Josephus, the former Jewish commander of Galilee who, after capture by the Romans after the Siege of Yodfat, attempted to end the rebellion by negotiating with the Judeans on Titus's behalf. Josephus and Titus became close friends, and later Josephus was granted Roman citizenship and a pension. He never returned to his homeland after the fall of Jerusalem, living in Rome as a historian under the patronage of Vespasian and Titus. He wrote two works, The Jewish War (c. 75) and Jewish Antiquities (c. 94) which, on occasion, are contradictory. These are the only surviving source materials containing information on specific events occurring during the fighting. But the material has been questioned because of claims that cannot be verified by secondary sources and because of Josephus' potential bias as a client of the Romans and defender of the Roman cause. Only since the discovery of the Dead Sea scrolls has some solid confirmation been given to the events he describes. [Wikipedia]


Painting of the horrors of the Destruction of the Jerusalem Temple on the ninth of Av in 70 AD.

Domitian

DOMITIAN. Unfortunately for Rome, after a short reign the noble ruler Titus was succeeded by his cruel brother Domitian (81-96), a gloomy, misanthropic tyrant and a cowardly profligate, who disgraced the warlike fame of Rome; for, after an ignominious campaign on the Danube, he purchased peace from the Marcomanni and the Dacians by a yearly payment of money; and nevertheless caused himself to be honoured by an ostentatious triumph, with festive games and magnificent arches. Caring only for wild beast fights, the combats of gladiators, and savage pleasures, he stifled all nobler emotions in his proud, despotic nature, lent ear to evil counsellors, informers, flatterers, and spies, and took delight in torturings and executions, "The sea was covered with the banished," says Tacitus, " the rocks were stained with the and dismay prevailed in Rome." Perturbed and restless through fear of men and sinister suspicion, he was at last murdered in his own palace by the ministers and companions of his cruelty and pleasures, at the instigation of his beautiful and talented but immoral wife Domitia. [Roman World]

 


The Bible mentions believers being "persecuted":

Lamentations 3:43 - Thou hast covered with anger, and persecuted us: thou hast slain, thou hast not pitied.

Psalms 143:3 - For the enemy hath persecuted my soul; he hath smitten my life down to the ground; he hath made me to dwell in darkness, as those that have been long dead.

Galatians 4:29 - But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him [that was born] after the Spirit, even so [it is] now.

Deuteronomy 30:7 - And the LORD thy God will put all these curses upon thine enemies, and on them that hate thee, which persecuted thee.

Isaiah 14:6 - He who smote the people in wrath with a continual stroke, he that ruled the nations in anger, is persecuted, [and] none hindereth.

Galatians 1:13 - For ye have heard of my conversation in time past in the Jews' religion, how that beyond measure I persecuted the church of God, and wasted it:

Psalms 109:16 - Because that he remembered not to shew mercy, but persecuted the poor and needy man, that he might even slay the broken in heart.

Matthew 5:12 - Rejoice, and be exceeding glad: for great [is] your reward in heaven: for so persecuted they the prophets which were before you.

Acts 7:52 - Which of the prophets have not your fathers persecuted? and they have slain them which shewed before of the coming of the Just One; of whom ye have been now the betrayers and murderers:

Acts 26:11 - And I punished them oft in every synagogue, and compelled [them] to blaspheme; and being exceedingly mad against them, I persecuted [them] even unto strange cities.

John 15:20 - Remember the word that I said unto you, The servant is not greater than his lord. If they have persecuted me, they will also persecute you; if they have kept my saying, they will keep yours also.

1 Corinthians 4:12 - And labour, working with our own hands: being reviled, we bless; being persecuted, we suffer it:

Galatians 1:23 - But they had heard only, That he which persecuted us in times past now preacheth the faith which once he destroyed.

Revelation 12:13 - And when the dragon saw that he was cast unto the earth, he persecuted the woman which brought forth the man [child].

Psalms 119:161 - SCHIN. Princes have persecuted me without a cause: but my heart standeth in awe of thy word.

Matthew 5:10 - Blessed [are] they which are persecuted for righteousness' sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

Acts 22:4 - And I persecuted this way unto the death, binding and delivering into prisons both men and women.

1 Corinthians 15:9 - For I am the least of the apostles, that am not meet to be called an apostle, because I persecuted the church of God.

1 Thessalonians 2:15 - Who both killed the Lord Jesus, and their own prophets, and have persecuted us; and they please not God, and are contrary to all men:

2 Corinthians 4:9 - Persecuted, but not forsaken; cast down, but not destroyed;
 

The Bible also mentions a lot regarding "persecution":

Acts 8:1 - And Saul was consenting unto his death. And at that time there was a great persecution against the church which was at Jerusalem; and they were all scattered abroad throughout the regions of Judaea and Samaria, except the apostles.

Acts 13:50 - But the Jews stirred up the devout and honourable women, and the chief men of the city, and raised persecution against Paul and Barnabas, and expelled them out of their coasts.

Acts 11:19 - Now they which were scattered abroad upon the persecution that arose about Stephen travelled as far as Phenice, and Cyprus, and Antioch, preaching the word to none but unto the Jews only.

Mark 4:17 - And have no root in themselves, and so endure but for a time: afterward, when affliction or persecution ariseth for the word's sake, immediately they are offended.

Galatians 6:12 - As many as desire to make a fair shew in the flesh, they constrain you to be circumcised; only lest they should suffer persecution for the cross of Christ.

Romans 8:35 - Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? [shall] tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword?

Matthew 13:21 - Yet hath he not root in himself, but dureth for a while: for when tribulation or persecution ariseth because of the word, by and by he is offended.

Galatians 5:11 - And I, brethren, if I yet preach circumcision, why do I yet suffer persecution? then is the offence of the cross ceased.

2 Timothy 3:12 - Yea, and all that will live godly in Christ Jesus shall suffer persecution.

Lamentations 5:5 - Our necks [are] under persecution: we labour, [and] have no rest.
 

The Bible also mentions a lot regarding "persecute":

Psalms 69:26 - For they persecute [him] whom thou hast smitten; and they talk to the grief of those whom thou hast wounded.

Jeremiah 17:18 - Let them be confounded that persecute me, but let not me be confounded: let them be dismayed, but let not me be dismayed: bring upon them the day of evil, and destroy them with double destruction.

Romans 12:14 - Bless them which persecute you: bless, and curse not.

Psalms 7:1 - O LORD my God, in thee do I put my trust: save me from all them that persecute me, and deliver me:

Matthew 23:34 - Wherefore, behold, I send unto you prophets, and wise men, and scribes: and [some] of them ye shall kill and crucify; and [some] of them shall ye scourge in your synagogues, and persecute [them] from city to city:

Psalms 31:15 - My times [are] in thy hand: deliver me from the hand of mine enemies, and from them that persecute me.

Jeremiah 29:18 - And I will persecute them with the sword, with the famine, and with the pestilence, and will deliver them to be removed to all the kingdoms of the earth, to be a curse, and an astonishment, and an hissing, and a reproach, among all the nations whither I have driven them:

Psalms 7:5 - Let the enemy persecute my soul, and take [it]; yea, let him tread down my life upon the earth, and lay mine honour in the dust. Selah.

Luke 21:12 - But before all these, they shall lay their hands on you, and persecute [you], delivering [you] up to the synagogues, and into prisons, being brought before kings and rulers for my name's sake.

Matthew 5:44 - But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you;

Psalms 10:2 - The wicked in [his] pride doth persecute the poor: let them be taken in the devices that they have imagined.

Psalms 119:84 - How many [are] the days of thy servant? when wilt thou execute judgment on them that persecute me?

Matthew 5:11 - Blessed are ye, when [men] shall revile you, and persecute [you], and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake.

Matthew 10:23 - But when they persecute you in this city, flee ye into another: for verily I say unto you, Ye shall not have gone over the cities of Israel, till the Son of man be come.

John 5:16 - And therefore did the Jews persecute Jesus, and sought to slay him, because he had done these things on the sabbath day.

John 15:20 - Remember the word that I said unto you, The servant is not greater than his lord. If they have persecuted me, they will also persecute you; if they have kept my saying, they will keep yours also.

Psalms 35:3 - Draw out also the spear, and stop [the way] against them that persecute me: say unto my soul, I [am] thy salvation.

Luke 11:49 - Therefore also said the wisdom of God, I will send them prophets and apostles, and [some] of them they shall slay and persecute:

Psalms 35:6 - Let their way be dark and slippery: and let the angel of the LORD persecute them.

Psalms 83:15 - So persecute them with thy tempest, and make them afraid with thy storm.

Psalms 119:86 - All thy commandments [are] faithful: they persecute me wrongfully; help thou me.

Lamentations 3:66 - Persecute and destroy them in anger from under the heavens of the LORD.

Job 19:28 - But ye should say, Why persecute we him, seeing the root of the matter is found in me?

Psalms 71:11 - Saying, God hath forsaken him: persecute and take him; for [there is] none to deliver [him].

Job 19:22 - Why do ye persecute me as God, and are not satisfied with my flesh?
 

The Word "Caesar" is Mentioned many Times in the Bible

Luke 3:1 - Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene.

Matthew 22:21 - They say unto him, Caesar's. Then saith he unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's; and unto God the things that are God's.

Luke 3:1 - Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene,

John 19:15 - But they cried out, Away with [him], away with [him], crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Shall I crucify your King? The chief priests answered, We have no king but Caesar.

John 19:12 - And from thenceforth Pilate sought to release him: but the Jews cried out, saying, If thou let this man go, thou art not Caesar's friend: whosoever maketh himself a king speaketh against Caesar.

Luke 20:25 - And he said unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things which be Caesar's, and unto God the things which be God's.

Mark 12:14 - And when they were come, they say unto him, Master, we know that thou art true, and carest for no man: for thou regardest not the person of men, but teachest the way of God in truth: Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar, or not?

Mark 12:17 - And Jesus answering said unto them, Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's. And they marvelled at him.

Acts 27:24 - Saying, Fear not, Paul; thou must be brought before Caesar: and, lo, God hath given thee all them that sail with thee.

Luke 23:2 - And they began to accuse him, saying, We found this [fellow] perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, saying that he himself is Christ a King.

Acts 11:28 - And there stood up one of them named Agabus, and signified by the Spirit that there should be great dearth throughout all the world: which came to pass in the days of Claudius Caesar.

Acts 25:11 - For if I be an offender, or have committed any thing worthy of death, I refuse not to die: but if there be none of these things whereof these accuse me, no man may deliver me unto them. I appeal unto Caesar.

Acts 25:21 - But when Paul had appealed to be reserved unto the hearing of Augustus, I commanded him to be kept till I might send him to Caesar.

Acts 17:7 - Whom Jason hath received: and these all do contrary to the decrees of Caesar, saying that there is another king, [one] Jesus.

Luke 2:1 - And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed.

Acts 28:19 - But when the Jews spake against [it], I was constrained to appeal unto Caesar; not that I had ought to accuse my nation of.

Matthew 22:17 - Tell us therefore, What thinkest thou? Is it lawful to give tribute unto Caesar, or not?

Acts 25:8 - While he answered for himself, Neither against the law of the Jews, neither against the temple, nor yet against Caesar, have I offended any thing at all.

Acts 26:32 - Then said Agrippa unto Festus, This man might have been set at liberty, if he had not appealed unto Caesar.

Luke 20:22 - Is it lawful for us to give tribute unto Caesar, or no?

Acts 25:12 - Then Festus, when he had conferred with the council, answered, Hast thou appealed unto Caesar? unto Caesar shalt thou go.

 

Some Scriptures mentioning the word "Rome"

 

Acts 23:11 - And the night following the Lord stood by him, and said, Be of good cheer, Paul: for as thou hast testified of me in Jerusalem, so must thou bear witness also at Rome.

2 Timothy 4:22 - The Lord Jesus Christ [be] with thy spirit. Grace [be] with you. Amen. <[The second [epistle] unto Timotheus, ordained the first bishop of the church of the Ephesians, was written from Rome, when Paul was brought before Nero the second time.]>

Acts 18:2 - And found a certain Jew named Aquila, born in Pontus, lately come from Italy, with his wife Priscilla; (because that Claudius had commanded all Jews to depart from Rome:) and came unto them.

Colossians 4:18 - The salutation by the hand of me Paul. Remember my bonds. Grace [be] with you. Amen. <[Written from Rome to Colossians by Tychicus and Onesimus.]>

Ephesians 6:24 - Grace [be] with all them that love our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity. Amen. <[To [the] Ephesians written from Rome, by Tychicus.]>

Philemon 1:25 - The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ [be] with your spirit. Amen. <[Written from Rome to Philemon, by Onesimus a servant.]>

Acts 2:10 - Phrygia, and Pamphylia, in Egypt, and in the parts of Libya about Cyrene, and strangers of Rome, Jews and proselytes,

Acts 19:21 - After these things were ended, Paul purposed in the spirit, when he had passed through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to Jerusalem, saying, After I have been there, I must also see Rome.

Acts 28:16 - And when we came to Rome, the centurion delivered the prisoners to the captain of the guard: but Paul was suffered to dwell by himself with a soldier that kept him.

Romans 1:7 - To all that be in Rome, beloved of God, called [to be] saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.

Galatians 6:18 - Brethren, the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ [be] with your spirit. Amen. <[To [the] Galatians written from Rome.]>

Philippians 4:23 - The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ [be] with you all. Amen. <[To [the] Philippians written from Rome, by Epaphroditus.]>

Acts 28:14 - Where we found brethren, and were desired to tarry with them seven days: and so we went toward Rome.

Romans 1:15 - So, as much as in me is, I am ready to preach the gospel to you that are at Rome also.

2 Timothy 1:17 - But, when he was in Rome, he sought me out very diligently, and found [me].

 

Daniel 2:40 - "And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron: forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces and subdueth all [things]: and as iron that breaketh all these, shall it break in pieces and bruise."

Acts 23:11 - And the night following the Lord stood by him, and said, Be of good cheer, Paul: for as thou hast testified of me in Jerusalem, so must thou bear witness also at Rome.

 


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Titus: Bible Names N-Z - Bible History Links (Ancient Biblical Studies) - Prior to becoming emperor, Titus gained renown as a military commander, serving under his father in Judaea during the First Jewish-Roman War, which was ...
http://www.bible-history.com/links.php?cat=45&sub=1952&cat_name=Bible+Names+N-Z&subcat_name=Titus

Ancient History Timeline - Christ - 100 AD - 69 Vespasian becomes Roman emperor. 70 Jerusalem falls; the Temple burned; the Jews deported. 73 The last stand of the Jewish rebels at Masada. 79 Titus ...
http://www.bible-history.com/timeline/timeline_4_bc_100_ad.html

Arch of Titus Chariot Relief - Biblical Archaeology in Rome - It was constructed in c.82 AD by the Roman Emperor Domitian shortly after the death of his older brother Titus to commemorate Titus' victories, including the ...
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/arch-titus-menorah-2.html

Arch of Titus - Biblical Archaeology in Rome (Bible History Online) - The Arch of Titus in Rome. Which Roman Emperor Erected the Arch of Titus? This painting of the Arch of Titus reveals a triumphal monument with scenes in ...
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/1-arch-of-titus-bb.html

Arch of Titus - Meaning of Arch of Titus in Smiths Bible Dictionary - A triumphal arch erected at Rome, and still remaining there, to commemorate the conquest of Judea and the destruction of Jerusalem by the emperor Titus. ...
http://www.bible-history.com/smiths/A/Arch+of+Titus/

Bible History Online - Arch of Titus Menorah Relief - 1 - This wall relief on the Arch of Titus reveals one of the most troubling scenes in all history, Roman soldiers carrying spoils from the destruction of the Temple of ...
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/arch-titus-menorah-1.html

Bible History Online - Arch of Titus Chariot Relief - 2 - This second scene on the Arch of Titus reveals the actual triumphal procession of Roman soldiers who conquered Jerusale m in 70 AD. Titus is in his chariot with ...
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/arch-titus-menorah-2.html

Rome: Biblical Archaeology - Bible History Links - Arch of Titus Chariot Relief Was Titus an instrument of God in destroying Jerusalem in 70 ... This second scene on the Arch of Titus reveals the actual triumphal ...
http://www.bible-history.com/links.php?cat=36&sub=347&cat_name=Biblical+Archaeology&subcat_name=Rome

Arch of Titus - Meaning of Arch of Titus in Smiths Bible Dictionary - Arch of Titus: Biblical Meaning of Arch of Titus in Smiths Bible Dictionary (Bible History Online)
http://www.bible-h istory.com/smiths/A/Arch+of+Titus/

Bible History Online Images and Resources for Biblical History - ... The Tax Collector, The Pool of Bethesda, Flavian Amphitheatre, Arch of Titus, Tomb of Cyrus, Pilate Inscription, Fall of Babylon, Winemaking, Tiberius Caesar, ...
http://www.bible-history.com/

Art & Images: Ancient Rome - Bible History Links - Ancient and Modern Inscriptions on the Arch of Titus First, the ancient ... Arch of< Titus, Rome Roman Empire: Arch of Titus, Rome: view from W. [through the ...
http://www.bible-history.com/links.php?cat=1&sub=10&cat_name=Ancient+Rome&subcat_name=Art+%26+Images

Arch of Titus Reliefs - Ancient Roman Stone Reliefs - Images - Ancient Arch of Titus Reliefs in Roman Stone Reliefs - Bible History Online.
http://www.bible-history.com/ibh/Rom an+Stone+Reliefs/Arch+of+Titus+Reliefs/

Bible History Online - What's New - For example the Ishtar Gate, the Entrance to Sargon's Palace, the Arch of Titus, the Pyramid of Gizeh, the Parthenon, Solomon's Temple, and more. Important ...http://www.bible-history.com/biblehistoryonline_whatsnew.php

Rome: Biblical Archaeology - Bible History Links - Arch of Titus Chariot Relief Was Titus an instrument of God in destroying Jerusalem in 70 ... This second scene on the Arch of Titus reveals the actual triumphal ...
http://www.bible-history.com/links.php?cat=36&sub=347&cat_name=Biblical+Archaeology&subcat_name=Rome

Arch of Titus - Meaning of Arch of Titus in Smiths Bible Dictionary - Arch of Titus: Biblical Meaning of Arch of Titus in Smiths Bible Dictionary (Bible History Online)
http://www.bible-h istory.com/smiths/A/Arch+of+Titus/

Bible History Online Images and Resources for Biblical History - ... The Tax Collector, The Pool of Bethesda, Flavian Amphitheatre, Arch of Titus, Tomb of Cyrus, Pilate Inscription, Fall of Babylon, Winemaking, Tiberius Caesar, ...http://www.bible-history.com/

Art & Images: Ancient Rome - Bible History Links (Ancient Biblical - Ancient and Modern Inscriptions on the Arch of Titus First, the ancient ... Arch of< /b> Titus, Rome Roman Empire: Arch of Titus, Rome: view from W. [through the ...
http://www.bible-history.com/links.php?cat=1&sub=10&cat_name=Ancient+Rome&subcat_name=Art+%26+Images

Arch of Titus Reliefs - Ancient Roman Stone Reliefs - Images and - Ancient Arch of Titus Reliefs in Roman Stone Reliefs - Bible History Online.
http://www.bible-history.com/ibh/Rom an+Stone+Reliefs/Arch+of+Titus+Reliefs/

Bible History Online - What's New - For example the Ishtar Gate, the Entrance to Sargon's Palace, the Arch of Titus, the Pyramid of Gizeh, the Parthenon, Solomon's Temple, and more. Important ...http://www.bible-history.com/biblehistoryonline_whatsnew.php

Arches - Ancient Roman Monuments - Images and Illustrations - Illustration of the Arch of Titus at Rome. Candlesticks, Trumpet, And Table. The candlestick, trumpets and table for shewbread, as represent ed on the Arch of ...
http://www.bible-history.com/ibh/Roman+Monuments/Arches/

Rome: Biblical Archaeology - Bible History Links (Ancient Biblical - Arch of Titus Chariot Relief Was Titus an instrument of God in destroying Jerusalem in 70 ... This second scene on the Arch of Titus reveals the actual triumphal ...
http://www.bible-history.com/links.php?cat=36&sub=347&cat_name=Biblical+Archaeology&subcat_name=Rome

Bible History Online Images and Resources for Biblical History - ... The Tax Collector, The Pool of Bethesda, Flavian Amphitheatre, Arch of Titus, Tomb of Cyrus, Pilate Inscription, Fall of Babylon, Winemaking, Tiberius Caesar, ...http://www.bible-history.com/

Art & Images: Ancient Rome - Bible History Links - Ancient and Modern Inscriptions on the Arch of Titus First, the ancient ... Arch of< /b> Titus, Rome Roman Empire: Arch of Titus, Rome: view from W. [through the ...
http://www.bible-history.com/links.php?cat=1&sub=10&cat_name=Ancient+Rome&subcat_name=Art+%26+Images

Arch of Titus Reliefs - Ancient Roman Stone ... - Bible History Online - Ancient Arch of Titus Reliefs in Roman Stone Reliefs - Bible History Online.
http://www.bible-history.com/ibh/R oman+Stone+Reliefs/Arch+of+Titus+Reliefs/

Bible History Online - What's New - For example the Ishtar Gate, the Entrance to Sargon's Palace, the Arch of Titus, the Pyramid of Gizeh, the Parthenon, Solomon's Temple, and more. Important ...http://www.bible-history.com/biblehistoryonline_whatsnew.php

Arches - Ancient Roman Monuments - Images and Illustrations - Illustration of the Arch of Titus at Rome. Candlesticks, Trumpet, And Table. The candlestick, trumpets and table for shewbread, as represent ed on the Arch of ...
http://www.bible-history.com/ibh/Roman+Monuments/Arches/

Arch of Titus Reliefs - Ancient Roman Stone ... - Bible History Online - Triumphal Procession. Relief from the Arch of Titus in the Roman Forum. Portion Of Bas Relief O n Arch Of Titus Showing The Golden Candlestick. Illustration of a ...
http://www.bible-history.com/sublinks.php?cat=66&subcatid=279&subcatname=Arch+of+Titus+Reliefs


The Jewish Revolt - When Nero heard about the bitter defeat of the 12th Legion, he dispatched his most able commander, General Titus Flavius Vespasian, to put down the rebellion ...
http://www.bib le-history.com/nero/NEROThe_Jewish_Revolt.htm

Vespasian: People - Ancient Rome - Bible History Links - People - Ancient Rome: Vespasian Born Titus Flavius Vespasianus, he was Roman Emperor ruling from 69 to 79. Vespasi?nus, Titus Flavius Sab?nus in ...
http://www.bible-history.com/links.php?cat=47&sub=4613&cat_name=People+-+Ancient+Rome&subcat_name=Vespasian

Tacitus - HISTORIES - Titus Vespasian had been sent from Judaea by his father while Galba still lived, and alleged as a reason for his journey the homage due to the Emperor, and his ...
http://www. bible-history.com/texts/tacitus/the_histories_book2.html

And she..."shall sit on the ground" - ... over the knee, and some with the hands tied behind the back, with a Roman soldier standing in front of her. (see coins of Titus, Vespasian, and Domitian ). ...
http://www.bible-history.com/backd2/sit_on_the_ground.html

Tacitus - HISTORIES - These mysterious prophecies had pointed to Vespasian and Titus, but the common people, with the usual blindness of ambition, had interpreted these mighty ...
http://w ww.bible-history.com/texts/tacitus/the_histories_book5.html

The Antonia Fortress - Overview - Titus Vespasian attacked the city of Jerusalem from the north side in 70 A.D. and overcame it. The legions of Rome slaughtered over a million Jews and 9500 0 ...
http://www.bible-history.com/antonia-fortress/antoniafortress_the_antonia_fortress.html

Antonia Fortress - Location - (It is important to note that Titus Vespasian attacked the city of Jerusalem from the north in 70 A.D.) The Antonia Fortress was located on the northwest corner of ...
http://www.bible-history.com/antonia-fortress/antoniafortress_location.html

Timeline - 69 Vespasian is sole emperor until 79. 70 Siege and fall of Jerusalem under military leadership of Vespasian's son, Titus. 70 Coliseum begun by Emperor ...
http://www.bible-history.com/ nero/NEROTimeline.htm

Vespasian: People - Ancient Rome - Bible History Links - People - Ancient Rome: Vespasian Born Titus Flavius Vespasianus, he was Roman Emperor ruling from 69 to 79. Vespasi?nus, Titus Flavius Sab?nus in ...
http://www.bible-history.com/links.php?cat=47&sub=4613&cat_name=People+-+Ancient+Rome&subcat_name=Vespasian

Tacitus - HISTORIES - Titus Vespasian had been sent from Judaea by his father while Galba still lived, and alleged as a reason for his journey the homage due to the Emperor, and his ...
http://www. bible-history.com/texts/tacitus/the_histories_book2.html

And she..."shall sit on the ground" - ... over the knee, and some with the hands tied behind the back, with a Roman soldier standing in front of her. (see coins of Titus, Vespasian, and Domitian ). ...
http://www.bible-history.com/backd2/sit_on_the_ground.html

Tacitus - HISTORIES - These mysterious prophecies had pointed to Vespasian and Titus, but the common people, with the usual blindness of ambition, had interpreted these mighty ...
http://w ww.bible-history.com/texts/tacitus/the_histories_book5.html

The Antonia Fortress - Overview - Titus Vespasian attacked the city of Jerusalem from the north side in 70 A.D. and overcame it. The legions of Rome slaughtered over a million Jews and 9500 0 ...
http://www.bible-history.com/antonia-fortress/antoniafortress_the_antonia_fortress.html

Antonia Fortress - Location - (It is important to note that Titus Vespasian attacked the city of Jerusalem from the north in 70 A.D.) The Antonia Fortress was located on the northwest corner of ...< /b>
http://www.bible-history.com/antonia-fortress/antoniafortress_location.html

Timeline - 69 Vespasian is sole emperor until 79. 70 Siege and fall of Jerusalem under military leadership of Vespasian's son, Titus. 70 Coliseum begun by Emperor ...
http://www.bible-history.com/ nero/NEROTimeline.htm

Bible History Online - The Arch of Titus (Biblical Archaeology) - The Arch of Titus is one of Rome's most famous monuments. It was built to commemorate the victories of Titus and Vespasi an in the war against the Jews and ...
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/1-arch-of-titus-bb.html

Tacitus - HISTORIES - Titus Vespasian had been sent from Judaea by his father while Galba still lived, and alleged as a reason for his journey the homage due to the Emperor, and his ...
http://www. bible-history.com/texts/tacitus/the_histories_book2.html

And she..."shall sit on the ground" - ... over the knee, and some with the hands tied behind the back, with a Roman soldier standing in front of her. (see coins of Titus, Vespasian, and Domitian ). ...
http://www.bible-history.com/backd2/sit_on_the_ground.html

Tacitus - HISTORIES - These mysterious prophecies had pointed to Vespasian and Titus, but the common people, with the usual blindness of ambition, had interpreted these mighty ...
http://w ww.bible-history.com/texts/tacitus/the_histories_book5.html

The Antonia Fortress - Overview - Titus Vespasian attacked the city of Jerusalem from the north side in 70 A.D. and overcame it. The legions of Rome slaughtered over a million Jews and 9500 0 ...
http://www.bible-history.com/antonia-fortress/antoniafortress_the_antonia_fortress.html

Antonia Fortress - Location - (It is important to note that Titus Vespasian attacked the city of Jerusalem from the north in 70 A.D.) The Antonia Fortress was located on the northwest corner of ...< /b>
http://www.bible-history.com/antonia-fortress/antoniafortress_location.html

Timeline - 69 Vespasian is sole emperor until 79. 70 Siege and fall of Jerusalem under military leadership of Vespasian's son, Titus. 70 Coliseum begun by Emperor ...
http://www.bible-history.com/ nero/NEROTimeline.htm

Bible History Online - The Arch of Titus (Biblical Archaeology) - The Arch of Titus is one of Rome's most famous monuments. It was built to commemorate the victories of Titus and Vespasi an in the war against the Jews and ...
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/1-arch-of-titus-bb.html

Domitian: People - Ancient Rome - Bible History Links - Domiti?nus, Titus Flavius in Harpers Dictionary The second son of Vespasian, born at Ro me A.D. 51. Vespasian, well aware of his natural disposition, reposed ...
http://www.bible-history.com/links.php?cat=47&sub=4614&cat_name=People+-+Ancient+Rome&subcat_name=Domitian


Bible History Online - Bust of Vespasian (Biblical Archaeology) - The face of the Roman Emperor, Vespasian. The bust of Vespasian is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology, it reveals the i mage of the Roman general ...
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/vespasian-bust.html

Bible History Online - Vespasian Coin - Vespasian Coin Vespasian Coin. Coin showing the image of the Emperor Vespasian. Return to Ancient Sketches ╖ Return to Bible History Online.
http://www.bible-history.com/sketches/rome/caesar-vespasian-coin.html

Suetonius story about Vespasian - One day the emperor Vespasian approached the foremost comedian of his day and said "why do you never tell jokes about me?" to which the wag shot back "I ...
http://www.b ible-history.com/lostl6.htm

Bible History Online - Vespasian Statue - Vespasian Statue Vespasian Statue. Statue of the Emperor Vespasian. Return to Ancient Sketches ╖ Return to Bible History Online.
http://www.bibl e-history.com/sketches/rome/vespasian-statue.html

Vespasian - Ancient Roman People - Images and Illustrations - Ancient Roman People. Vespasian. The Emperor Vespasian. From a bronze bust in the Louvre. Illustra ted Bible History ╖ Background Bible Study. If you notice a ...
http://www.bible-history.com/sublinks.php?cat=208&subcatid=1666&subcatname=Vespasian

Bible History Online - Bust of Vespasian (Biblical Archaeology) - The face of the Roman Emperor, Vespasian. The bust of Vespasian is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology, it reveals the i mage of the Roman general ...
http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/vespasian-bust.html

Bible History Online - Vespasian Coin - Vespasian Coin Vespasian Coin. Coin showing the image of the Emperor Vespasian. Return to Ancient Sketches ╖ Return to Bible History Online.
http://www.bible-history.com/sketches/rome/caesar-vespasian-coin.html

Suetonius story about Vespasian - One day the emperor Vespasian approached the foremost comedian of his day and said "why do you never tell jokes about me?" to which the wag shot back "I ...
http://www.bible-history.com/lostl6.htm

Bible History Online - Vespasian Statue - Vespasian Statue Vespasian Statue. Statue of the Emperor Vespasian. Return to Ancient Sketches ╖ Return to Bible History Online.
http://www.bibl e-history.com/sketches/rome/vespasian-statue.html

Vespasian - Ancient Roman People - Images - Ancient Roman People. Vespasian. The Emperor Vespasian. From a bronze bust in the Louvre. Illustrate d Bible History ╖ Background Bible Study. If you notice a ...
http://www.bible-history.com/sublinks.php?cat=208&subcatid=1666&subcatname=Vespasian

Vespasian - Ancient Roman People - Images - Syrian Walls and Gates ╖ Weapons and Warfare ╖ back. Ancient Roman People - Vespasian. The Emperor Vespasian. From a bronze bust in the Louvre.
http://www.bible-history.com/ibh/Roman+People/Vespasian/

Bible History Online - Vespasian Coin - Vespasian Coin Vespasian Coin. Coin showing the image of the Emperor Vespasian. Return to Ancient Sketches ╖ Return to Bible History Online.
http://www.bible-history.com/sketches/rome/caesar-vespasian-coin.html

Suetonius story about Vespasian - One day the emperor Vespasian approached the foremost comedian of his day and said "why do you never tell jokes about me?" to which the wag shot back "I ...
http://www.b ible-history.com/lostl6.htm

Bible History Online - Vespasian Statue - Vespasian Statue Vespasian Statue. Statue of the Emperor Vespasian. Return to Ancient Sketches ╖ Return to Bible History Online.
http://www.bibl e-history.com/sketches/rome/vespasian-statue.html

The Jewish Revolt - Titus Vespasian was a very skilled military strategist and planned his attack starting ... Nero had committed suicide on June 9th, 68 A.D. and Titus Vespasian was ...
ht tp://www.bible-history.com/nero/NEROThe_Jewish_Revolt.htm

Timeline - 67 Nero appoints Vespasian to head campaign against Jews. 68 After ... 69 Year of the four emperors: Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian. 69 Vespasian is ...
http://www.bible-histo ry.com/nero/NEROTimeline.htm

Vespasian - Ancient Roman People - Images- Ancient Roman People. Vespasian. The Emperor Vespasian. From a bronze bust in the Louvre. Illustrate d Bible History ╖ Background Bible Study. If you notice a ...
http://www.bible-history.com/sublinks.php?cat=208&subcatid=1666&subcatname=Vespasian

Vespasian - Ancient Roman People - Images - Syrian Walls and Gates ╖ Weapons and Warfare ╖ back. Ancient Roman People - Vespasian. The Emperor Vespasian. From a bronze bust in the Louvre.
http://www.bible-history.com/ibh/Roman+People/Vespasian/

Domitian: People - Ancient Rome- Vespasian, well aware of his natural disposition, reposed no confidence in him during ... Upon the death of Vespasian he endeavoured to foment troubles in the ...
http://www.bible-history.com/links.php?cat=47&sub=4614&cat_name=People+-+Ancient+Rome&subcat_name=Domitian

 



The History of Rome - Part One 743 - 136 B.C.

More Images of Rome's Emperors

Also see Roman Emperors - Photos, information , coins

 

Biblical Archaeology

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