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The Colosseum in Rome
This painting represents the Colosseum in Rome as it appears today. In ancient times it was one of the wonders of the entire world. Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus became Emperor of Rome in 79 AD when his father Vespasian died and he completed and dedicated the Flavian Amphitheatre (the Colosseum).
The Colosseum is a marvel of architectural engineering, it was built with giant travertine blocks, layered with soft stones and concrete. It was originally overlayed with marble but that was looted over the centuries. Its magnificent columns were made of the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders.
The mammoth Colosseum measures 620 feet by 513 feet, 1/3 of a mile around. The 6 acre building contained 3 tiers of seats, 80 entrances, seated 50,000 spectators, resembling the size and capacity of the Houston Astrodome.
Title: The Colosseum
The Colosseum in Wikipedia The Colosseum, or the Coliseum, originally the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium, Italian Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo), is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire. It is considered one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and Roman engineering. Occupying a site just east of the Roman Forum, its construction started in 72 AD under the emperor Vespasian and was completed in 80 AD under Titus, with further modifications being made during Domitian's reign (81–96). The name "Amphitheatrum Flavium" derives from both Vespasian's and Titus's family name (Flavius, from the gens Flavia). Capable of seating 50,000 spectators, the Colosseum was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles such as mock sea battles, animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on Classical mythology. The building ceased to be used for entertainment in the early medieval era. It was later reused for such purposes as housing, workshops, quarters for a religious order, a fortress, a quarry, and a Christian shrine. Although in the 21st century it stays partially ruined because of damage caused by devastating earthquakes and stone-robbers, the Colosseum is an iconic symbol of Imperial Rome. It is one of Rome's most popular tourist attractions and still has close connections with the Roman Catholic Church, as each Good Friday the Pope leads a torchlit "Way of the Cross" procession that starts in the area around the Colosseum. The Colosseum is also depicted on the Italian version of the five-cent euro coin. [Wikipedia]
The Colosseum was the name since medieval times of the Amphitheatrum Flavium, a vast amphitheatre in Rome, begun circa75 ad. [Oxford Classical Dictionary]
It is calculated that the Flavian Amphitheatre was capable of containing more than 90,000 spectators, and was furnished with vomitories and staircases sufficient for the whole concourse to disperse in less than five minutes. [Vomitoria, Rich]
The most imposing structure built in Rome was the Colosseum. This huge amphitheater (double theater) had seating all around. The arena is also known as the Flavian amphitheater because it was built during the reign of the Emperor Vespasian (69-79 AD) although gladiatorial games existed for centuries. The murderous battles of man-and-man and man-and-animal were staged in the Colosseum. The oval arena (287 x 180 feet) was surrounded by a 15 foot wall and had deep cells and cellars below. It had three tiers of arches, plus a top story with superimposed Doric, ionic, and Corinthian half columns. The 45,000 spectators were protected from rain or fierce sun by huge canvas awnings fixed to masts secured to the topmost rim. After nearly two thousand years of pillage by other builders who used it as a quarry for building churches, palaces, and houses, the Colosseum still remains a lasting monument to the indestructible solidity of Roman architecture.
A DAY AT THE COLOSSEUM- The usual program for a day at the Colosseum would begin with the "venatio," (an event that featured wild animals).
- The animals might be pitted against each other, or sent into the arena to mangle defenseless humans, but the typical display was a simulated hunt during which animals were stalked by "bestiarii"-specialists armed with spears, bows and arrows, and other weapons. (always lots of blood)
- As many as 5000 animals may have died during one day of major festivals such as the inauguration of the Colosseum in 80 AD.- To keep amphitheaters supplied, a great trade in wild beasts developed.
- Many species virtually disappeared from their home regions of North Africa and the Middle East. See Gladiator.
Gladiators- The animal displays were merely used to wet the audience's appetite for the main attraction-the gladiatorial bouts.
- Roman gladiators were specially trained performers, mostly captured war prisoners, who fought to stay alive a little longer.- The gladiators specialized in peculiar forms of fighting:
Later, many Christians were condemned to be thrown to the beasts in the Colosseum to entertain spectators. One early Christian wrote: "I am God's wheat and shall be ground by the teeth of wild beasts, so that I may become God's pure bread. . . the time for my birth is at hand. Letters - Ignatius of Antioch (100 AD)
The Colosseum. by far the most celebrated of all was the Flavian amphitheatre, afterward called the Colosseum, which was begun by Vespasian, and finished by his son Titus, who dedicated it A.D. 80, on which occasion, according to Eutropius, 5000, and according to Dion, 9000, beasts were destroyed. This immense edifice, which is even yet comparatively entire, was capable of containing about 87,000 spectators, and originally stood nearly in the centre of the city, on the spot previously occupied by the lake or large pond attached to Nero's palace, and at no very great distance from the Baths of Titus. It covers altogether about five acres of ground; and the transverse, or longer diameter of the external ellipse, is 615 feet, and the conjugate, or shorter one, 510; while those of the interior ellipse, or arena, are 281 and 176 feet respectively. [Smith Dictionary]
THE INTERIOR OF THE COLOSSEUM, SHOWING THE ARENA, AND THE UNDERGROUND CAVES. The Colosseum typifies ancient Rome, as St. Peter's does the modern city. Known as the Flavian Amphitheatre, it was built in the reign of Vespasian, and was long the scene of gladiatorial combats and fights with wild beasts. Capable of accommodating 80,000 spectators, each class had its special part of the mighty building set apart, the imperial benches and those of the vestals being on the first stage, and the common people on the topmost. Faced with white marble, it was one of the finest structures the world has ever seen, and even in its ruin it remains a majestic monument of the builder's art. [Bryce's Book of History]
AMPHITHEATRUM An amphitheatre; a building originally constructed for the exhibition of gladiatorial combats, but occasionally used for other kinds of spectacles. [Rich]
Ancient History of the Colosseum, Construction of the Colosseum began under the rule of the Emperor Vespasian in around 70–72 AD. The site chosen was a flat area on the floor of a low valley between the Caelian, Esquiline and Palatine Hills, through which a canalised stream ran. By the 2nd century BC the area was densely inhabited. It was devastated by the Great Fire of Rome in AD 64, following which Nero seized much of the area to add to his personal domain. He built the grandiose Domus Aurea on the site, in front of which he created an artificial lake surrounded by pavilions, gardens and porticoes. The existing Aqua Claudia aqueduct was extended to supply water to the area and the gigantic bronze Colossus of Nero was set up nearby at the entrance to the Domus Aurea. Although the Colossus was preserved, much of the Domus Aurea was torn down. The lake was filled in and the land reused as the location for the new Flavian Amphitheatre. Gladiatorial schools and other support buildings were constructed nearby within the former grounds of the Domus Aurea. According to a reconstructed inscription found on the site, "the emperor Vespasian ordered this new amphitheatre to be erected from his general's share of the booty." This is thought to refer to the vast quantity of treasure seized by the Romans following their victory in the Great Jewish Revolt in 70 AD. The Colosseum can be thus interpreted as a great triumphal monument built in the Roman tradition of celebrating great victories, placating the Roman people instead of returning soldiers. Vespasian's decision to build the Colosseum on the site of Nero's lake can also be seen as a populist gesture of returning to the people an area of the city which Nero had appropriated for his own use. In contrast to many other amphitheatres, which were located on the outskirts of a city, the Colosseum was constructed in the city centre; in effect, placing it both literally and symbolically at the heart of Rome. The Colosseum had been completed up to the third story by the time of Vespasian's death in 79. The top level was finished and the building inaugurated by his son, Titus, in 80. Dio Cassius recounts that over 9,000 wild animals were killed during the inaugural games of the amphitheatre. The building was remodelled further under Vespasian's younger son, the newly designated Emperor Domitian, who constructed the hypogeum, a series of underground tunnels used to house animals and slaves. He also added a gallery to the top of the Colosseum to increase its seating capacity. In 217, the Colosseum was badly damaged by a major fire (caused by lightning, according to Dio Cassius) which destroyed the wooden upper levels of the amphitheatre's interior. It was not fully repaired until about 240 and underwent further repairs in 250 or 252 and again in 320. An inscription records the restoration of various parts of the Colosseum under Theodosius II and Valentinian III (reigned 425–455), possibly to repair damage caused by a major earthquake in 443; more work followed in 484 and 508. The arena continued to be used for contests well into the 6th century, with gladiatorial fights last mentioned around 435. Animal hunts continued until at least 523, when Anicius Maximus celebrated his consulship with some venationes, criticised by King Theodoric the Great for their high cost. [Wikipedia]
The Colosseum or Coliseum, originally known as the Flavian Amphitheater (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium, Italian: Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo), is a giant amphitheater in the center of the city of Rome. Originally capable of seating 45,000 to 50,000 spectators, it was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles. It was built on a site just east of the Roman Forum, with construction starting between 70 and 72 C.E. under the emperor Vespasian. The amphitheater, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire, was completed in 80 C.E. under Titus, with further modifications being made during Domitian's reign. The Colosseum remained in use for nearly 500 years, with the last recorded games being held there as late as the sixth century—well after the traditional date of the fall of Rome in 476. As well as the traditional gladiatorial games, many other public spectacles were held there, such as mock sea battles, animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on classical mythology. The building eventually ceased to be used for entertainment in the early medieval era. It was later reused for such varied purposes as housing, workshops, quarters for a religious order, a fortress, a quarry, and a Christian shrine. Although it is now in a severely ruined condition due to damage caused by earthquakes and stone-robbers, the Colosseum has long been seen as an iconic symbol of Imperial Rome and is one of the finest surviving examples of Roman architecture. It is one of modern Rome's most popular tourist attractions and still has close connections with the Roman Catholic Church. The Pope leads a torchlit "Way of the Cross" procession to the amphitheater every Good Friday. [New World Encyclopedia]
Ancient History of the Colosseum. Construction of the Colosseum began under the rule of the Emperor Vespasian around 70 to 72 C.E. The site chosen was a flat area on the floor of a low valley between the Caelian, Esquiline, and Palatine Hills, through which a canalized stream ran. The area was devastated by the Great Fire of Rome in 64 C.E., following which Nero added much to his personal domain. He built the grandiose Domus Aurea on the site, in front of which he created an artificial lake surrounded by pavilions, gardens, and porticoes. The still-existing Aqua Claudia aqueduct was extended to supply water to the area, and the gigantic bronze Colossus of Nero was set up nearby at the entrance to the Domus Aurea. The area was transformed under the Emperor Vespasian and his successors. Although the Colossus was preserved, much of the Domus Aurea was torn down. The lake was filled in and the land reused as the location for the new Flavian Amphitheater, known more popularly today as the Colossuem. Gladiatorial schools and other support buildings were constructed nearby within the former grounds of the Domus Aurea. According to a reconstructed inscription found on the site: "The emperor Vespasian ordered this new amphitheater to be erected from his general's share of the booty." This is thought to refer to the vast quantity of treasure seized by the Romans following their victory in the Jewish Revolt, in 70 C.E. The Colosseum can be thus interpreted as a great triumphal monument built in the Roman tradition of celebrating great victories. Vespasian's decision to build the Colosseum on the site of Nero's lake can also be seen as a populist gesture—in effect, returning to the people an area of the city which Nero had appropriated for his own use. It was built near the Roman Forum. By the second century B.C.E. the area was densely inhabited. The Colosseum had been completed up to the third story by the time of Vespasian's death in 79 C.E. The top level was finished and the building inaugurated by his son, Titus, in 80 C.E. The historian Dio Cassius recounts that 11,000 wild animals were killed in gladiatorial contests during the 100 days of celebration which inaugurated the amphitheater. The building was remodeled further under Vespasian's younger son, the newly designated Emperor Domitian, who constructed the hypogeum, a series of underground tunnels used to house animals and slaves. He also added a gallery to the top of the Colosseum to increase its seating capacity. In 217 C.E., the Colosseum was badly damaged by a major fire (caused by lightning, according to Dio Cassius), which destroyed the wooden, upper levels of the amphitheater's interior. It was not fully repaired until about 240 C.E. and underwent further repairs around 250 and again in 320. An inscription records the restoration of various parts of the Colosseum under Theodosius II and Valentinian III (reigned 425 to 450 C.E.), possibly to repair damage caused by an earthquake in 443 C.E. More work followed in 484 and 508. The arena continued to be used for contests well into the sixth century, with gladiatorial fights last mentioned around 435 C.E. Animal hunts continued until at least 523 C.E. [New World Encyclopedia]
The Colosseum represents the most
elaborate type of amphitheatre created by the architects of the
empire. Its external elevation consisted of four storeys. The three
lowest had arcades whose piers were adorned with engaged columns of
the three Greek orders. The arches numbered eighty. Those of the
basement storey served as entrances; seventy-six were numbered and
allotted to the general body of spectators, those at the extremities
of the major axis led into the arena, and the boxes reserved for the
emperor and the presiding magistrate were approached from the
extremities of the minor axis. The higher arcades had a low parapet
with (apparently) a statue in each arch, and gave light and air to
the passages which surrounded the building. The openings of the
arcades above the principal entrances were larger than the rest, and
were adorned with figures of chariots. The highest stage was
composed of a continuous wall of masonry, pierced by forty small
square windows, and adorned with Corinthian pilasters. There was
also a series of brackets to support the poles on which the awning
was stretched. The interior may be naturally divided into the arena
and the cavea (see annexed plan, which shows the Colosseum at two
different levels). The arena was the portion assigned to the
combatants, and derived its name from the sand with which it was
strewn, to absorb the blood and prevent it from becoming slippery.
Some of the emperors showed their prodigality by substituting
precious powders, and even gold dust, for sand. The arena was
generally of the same shape as the amphitheatre itself, and was
separated from the spectators by a wall built perfectly smooth, that
the wild beasts might not by any possibility climb it. At Rome it
was faced inside with polished marble, but at Pompeii it was simply
painted. For further security, it was surrounded by a metal railing
or network, and the arena was sometimes surrounded also by a ditch
(euripus), especially on account of the elephants. Below the arena
were subterranean chambers and passages, from which wild beasts and
gladiators were raised on movable platforms (pegmata) through
trap-doors. Such chambers have been found in the amphitheatres of
Capua and Pozzuoli as well as in the Colosseum. Means were also
provided by which the arena could be flooded when a sea-fight (naumachia)
was exhibited, as was done by Titus at the inauguration of the
Colosseum. The part assigned to the spectators was called cavea. It
was divided into several galleries (maeniana) concentric with the
outer walls, and therefore, like them, of an elliptical form. The
place of honour was the lowest of these, nearest to the arena, and
called the podium. The divisions in it were larger, so as to be able
to contain movable seats. At Rome it was here that the emperor sat,
his box bearing the name of suggestus, cubiculum or pulvinar. The
senators, principal magistrates, vestal virgins, the provider
(editor) of the show, and other persons of note, occupied the rest
of the podium. At Nîmes, besides the high officials of the town, the
podium had places assigned to the principal gilds, whose names are
still seen inscribed upon it, with the number of places reserved for
each. In the Colosseum there were three maeniana above the podium,
separated from each other by terraces (praecinctiones) and walls (baltei),
and divided vertically into wedge-shaped blocks (cunei) by stairs.
The lowest was appropriated to the equestrian order, the highest was
covered in with a portico, whose roof formed a terrace on which
spectators found standing room. Numerous passages (vomitoria) and
small stairs gave access to them; while long covered corridors,
behind and below them, served for shelter in the event of rain. At
Pompeii each place was numbered, and elsewhere their extent is
defined by little marks cut in the stone. The spectators were
admitted by tickets (tesserae), and order preserved by a staff of
officers appointed for the purpose. The height of the Colosseum is
about 160 ft.; but the fourth storey in its present form is not
earlier in date than the 3rd century A.D. It seems to have been
originally of wood, since an inscription of the year A.D. 80
mentions the summum maenianum in ligneis. It is stated in the
Notitia Urbis Romae (4th century) that the Colosseum contained
87,000 places; but Huelsen calculates that the seats would
accommodate 45,000 persons at most, besides whom 5000 could find
standing room. The exaggerated estimate is due to the fact that
space was allotted to corporate bodies, whose numbers were taken as
data. The greatest length is about 615 ft., and the length of the
shorter axis of the ellipse about 510 ft. The dimensions of the
arena were 281 ft. by 177 ft. [1911 Encyclopedia Britannica]
Key Dates From Nero to the Colosseum
54 AD Nero becomes Emperor of Rome
55 AD Britannicus (childhood friend of Titus) is poisoned+ by Nero
57-59 AD Titus is tribune in Germania
59 The apostle Paul is imprisoned at Caesarea
61 Paul a prisoner at Rome
63 AD Titus returns to Rome and marries Arrecina Tertulla
64 AD The great fire of Rome, Christians are blamed
65 AD Tertulla dies, Titus marries Marcia Furnilla
65 AD Nero kicks his wife Poppaea in a rage and kills her
65 AD Titus divorces Marcia never to remarry
66 AD The Jews of Judea revolt against Rome
67 AD Nero appoints Vespasian to head campaign against Jews
67 AD Paul the Apostle is martyred in Rome
68 (June 9) Nero is forced to commit suicide (end of Julio-Claudian dynasty).
69 AD Vespasian enters Rome to become sole emperor until 79
69 AD Jerusalem besieged by the Romans
69 AD Jochanan ben Zakkai seeks an audience with Vespasian70 AD Siege and fall of Jerusalem under military leadership of Vespasian's son, Titus.
70 AD Jerusalem falls; the Temple burned; the Jews deported
70 AD Coliseum begun by Emperor Vespasian (funded by Jewish defeat).
73 AD Masada the final Jewish stronghold is captured after a long siege.
76 AD Birth of the Emperor Hadrian in Rome.
77 AD Josephus publishes The War of the Jews
79 AD Vespasian dies and Titus succeeds his father as the tenth Roman Emperor.
79 AD Mt. Vesuvius erupts burying the towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Pliny the Elder dies by getting too close.
80 AD The Colosseum is dedicated by Titus.
80 AD A mighty fire threatens Rome.
81 AD on September 13 Titus dies of a fever on his way to the Sabine territories.
81 AD Domitian becomes Roman emperor
81 AD Construction of the Arena, Colosseum is complete by 96 AD
Titus (79–81 C.E.) Titus, the eldest son of Vespasian, had been groomed to rule. He had served as an effective general under his father, helping to secure the east and eventually taking over the command of Roman armies in Syria and Iudaea, quelling the significant Jewish revolt going on at the time. He shared the consul for several years with his father and received the best tutelage. Although there was some trepidation when he took office because of his known dealings with some of the less respectable elements of Roman society, he quickly proved his merit, even recalling many exiled by his father as a show of good faith. However, his short reign was marked by disaster: in 79 C.E., Mount Vesuvius erupted in Pompeii, and in 80, a fire destroyed much of Rome. His generosity in rebuilding after these tragedies made him very popular. Titus was very proud of his work on the vast amphitheater begun by his father. He held the opening ceremonies in the still unfinished edifice during the year 80, celebrating with a lavish show that featured 100 gladiators and lasted 100 days. Titus died in 81 C.E., at the age of 41 of what is presumed to be illness; it was rumored that his brother Domitian murdered him in order to become his successor, although these claims have little merit. Whatever the case, he was greatly mourned and missed. [ New World Encyclopedia]
TITUS (full name, Titus Flavius Sabinus
While Vespasian was operating in
Galilee, the news of the death of Nero (June 9, 68) was received;
and Titus, accompanied by Agrippa II., was sent to Rome to swear
allegiance to Nero's successor. Galba was murdered in the meantime,
however; and Titus hastened back to Judea, where the Egyptian and
Syrian troops proclaimed Vespasian emperor, an occurrence which
Josephus declares he had predicted in the presence of Titus himself
(Josephus, "B. J." iii. 8, § 9; comp. Suidas, s.v. Ἰώσητος; in Dion
Cassius, lxvi. 1, Titus is not mentioned). It was Titus, moreover,
who, under the leadership of his father, reduced the cities of
Jotapata, Taricheæ, and Giscala, where he displayed, on the one
hand, great courage and contempt of death, and, on the other, bitter
cruelty toward the conquered; when, therefore, Vespasian went to
Rome as emperor, Titus was left to prosecute the Jewish war.
With a considerable force he left
Cæsarea andreached the walls of Jerusalem a few days before the
Passover festival of the year 70. Omitting the details of this
memorable war, only those events which concern Titus personally need
be mentioned here. Together with 600 horsemen he rode ahead of his
main army to reconnoiter the surrounding country, and had ventured
so far in advance that only his valor saved him from capture in a
Jewish attack ("B. J." v. 2, § 2). He endeavored at first to
persuade the Jews to submit by making promises to them (Dion
Cassius, lxvi. 4); and Josephus was sent to them several times with
messages to that effect. They refused all overtures, however; and
batteringrams were then set in action, and the beleaguerment of
Jerusalem began. The Jews often destroyed these siege-works, and
during one of their sorties Titus himself was so severely wounded in
the left shoulder by a stone that his hand remained weak ever
afterward (Dion Cassius, l.c. § 5; Josephus in "B. J." v. 6, § 2
relates a similar occurrence, although he does not mention the
wounding of Titus). According to Dion Cassius, the Romans refused to
attack the Temple on account of their respect for its sanctity; and
Titus had to force them to do so. Josephus, on the other hand,
differs on this point also, stating instead that Titus first held a
council of war with his commanding officers, among them Tiberius
Julius Alexander, and that certain generals advised the destruction
of the Temple. He himself, however, wished to spare it ("B. J." vi.
4, § 3), and gave orders to extinguish the fire which had begun to
consume the cloisters, apparently displaying this mildness either on
account of Berenice or to show his friendship for Agrippa. Against
this stands the narrative of the monk Sulpicius, who is said to have
drawn his information from Tacitus; and, following this authority,
Jacob Bernays ("Programm des Jüdisch-Theologischen Seminars in
Breslau," 1861, p. 48) charges Josephus with untruthfulness; Grätz,
however ("Gesch." iii. 539), is inclined to believe in the veracity
of Josephus' statement.
On the following day (the tenth of Ab,
70) the Jews made a desperate sortie, and one of the Roman soldiers,
weary of fighting, threw a burning piece of wood into the Temple. In
vain did Titus give orders to extinguish the flames; his voice was
drowned in the uproar. Titus himself, impelled by curiosity, entered
the Sanctuary, but the smoke forced him to withdraw; and thus the
destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem became associated with his
name. On the ruins of the Sanctuary Titus was proclaimed emperor by
his soldiers ("B. J." vi. 6, § 1; Dion Cassius, l.c. § 7; Suetonius,
"Titus," v.), although both he and his father refused the epithet "Judaicus,"
because the word might suggest an inclination toward the Jewish
religion (see, however, Joël, "Blicke in die Religionsgeschichte,"
Even Josephus was able to point to only scanty traces of mildness in the life of Titus, while, on the other hand, cruelties are recorded which must be attributed to personal hatred on his part, and not to the unavoidable harshness of war. In Cæsarea in Palestine, in Cæsarea Philippi, and in Berytus he forced the captive Jews to fight against wild animals and also against one another; and many thousands more were slain to please the revengeful Syrians and Greeks. It was in Rome, however, that he celebrated his triumphs, together with his father and his brother Domitian; there 700 Jews of splendid physique and the leaders of the Zealots, John of Giscala and Simon bar Giora, helped to grace his procession. Two triumphal arches were erected in his honor. Of these, one no longer exists, and is remembered only on account of the inscription which it bore ("C. I. L." vi. 444), but the other, a beautiful structure, still stands in Rome, and on it may be seen representations of the captured vessels of the Temple. See Titus, Arch of.
The Jews hated Titus on account of
his share in the destruction of the Temple; and the Rabbis
accordingly termed him "Titus the miscreant," thus contrasting
sharply with the statements of the classical writers, who regarded
him as an ornament of the human race. It may be proved, however,
that he was anything but upright while he was crown prince; indeed,
he was cruel, licentious, and ambitious, and was even suspected of
having sought to poison his father. Only during the latter part of
his reign did he display praiseworthy qualities. A significant
saying of frequent recurrence in rabbinic sources is to the effect
that he was honored in Rome as the conqueror of the barbarians (υικητὴς
βαρβάρων; Gen. R. x.; Lev. R. xxii. 3; Lam. R., Introduction, No.
23, etc.), thus showing that the Jews were regarded as an inferior
and barbarous nation. All the other accounts of Titus in rabbinical
literature are purely legendary, and their utter unreliability is
shown by the fact that he is called the nephew instead of the son of
Vespasian, a view which was repeatedin medieval chronicles (Neubauer,
"M. J. C." i. 50, 70). In the Holy of Holies, moreover, he was said
to have pierced the veil of the Ark, to have had intercourse with
two courtezans (a reminiscence of his relations with Berenice), and
to have defiled the Torah (ib.; Giṭ. 56b); in short, to have
blasphemed God. That he packed the sacred vessels in a basket and
took them on board his ship was also stated in rabbinical tradition.
As he stepped from his bath—so runs a legend—a drink was handed to
him, when suddenly a gnat () stung him in the nose, and thus caused
his death (Ab. R. N., Recension B, vii.; it is noteworthy that this
form of retribution also figures in Arabic legends, which often
confuse Titus with Nebuchadnezzar, who likewise destroyed the
Temple; "R. E. J." lxix. 212). This has been interpreted as implying
that Titus became melancholy and insane in his declining years
(Hamburger, "R. B. T." s.v.); but such an explanation seems
inadmissible. Despite the Jewish hatred of Titus, many Jews as well
as Christians have borne his name (in the New Testament, Titus i. 4;
Gal. ii. 3; II Cor. ii. 13, and elsewhere; for the Jews, see Krauss,
"Lehnwörter," ii. 262); and in later times four prominent Jewish
families of Italy have traced their descent from prisoners taken by
him (see Rome).
Titus in Wikipedia (Latin: Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus; 30 December 39 – 13 September 81), was Roman Emperor from 79 to 81. A member of the Flavian dynasty, Titus succeeded his father Vespasian upon his death, thus becoming the first Roman Emperor to come to the throne after his own father. Prior to becoming Emperor, Titus gained renown as a military commander, serving under his father in Judaea during the First Jewish-Roman War. The campaign came to a brief halt with the death of emperor Nero in 68, launching Vespasian's bid for the imperial power during the Year of the Four Emperors. When Vespasian was declared Emperor on 1 July 69, Titus was left in charge of ending the Jewish rebellion. In 70, he successfully laid siege to and destroyed the city and Temple of Jerusalem. For this achievement Titus was awarded a triumph; the Arch of Titus commemorates his victory to this day. Under the rule of his father, Titus gained notoriety in Rome serving as prefect of the Praetorian Guard, and for carrying on a controversial relationship with the Jewish queen Berenice. Despite concerns over his character, Titus ruled to great acclaim following the death of Vespasian in 79, and was considered a good emperor by Suetonius and other contemporary historians. As emperor, he is best known for completing the Colosseum and for his generosity in relieving the suffering caused by two disasters, the Mount Vesuvius eruption of 79 and a fire in Rome in 80. After barely two years in office, Titus died of a fever on 13 September 81. He was deified by the Roman Senate and succeeded by his younger brother Domitian. [Wikipedia]
TITUS FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS, the eldest son of the emperor Vespasian, was born on the 29th of December, a.d. 40, and was educated at the court of Nero, along with Britannicus, and contracted a great friendship with that unfortunate prince, who was poisoned by Nero in a.d. 55. He distinguished himself at an early age as tribunus militum in Britain and Germany. He became afterwards quaestor; and in a.d. 67, he commanded one of the legions, under his father, in Palestine, where he showed much military skill and personal courage in the siege and capture of the towns of Taricheae and Gamala. After the murder of Nero, (a.d. 69,) he was sent by his father to Rome, in order to gain the favour of Galba, the new emperor. He had proceeded as far as Corinth, when he was informed that Galba had been murdered. He thereupon returned to Judaea. On the termination of the short reign of Vitellius, Vespasian was, by the support of Mucianus, the pro-consul of Syria, Tiberius Alexander, and Titus, proclaimed emperor by the army in the East, while his brother Flavius Sabinus occupied for him the Capitol in Rome, and compelled Vitellius to lay down the imperial diadem. Vespasian left Judaea for Rome ; and the command of the army of Judaea, and the continuation of the war, devolved upon Titus. As soon as Vespasian had taken possession of the imperial authority, he declared Titus his colleague in the consulate, a.d. 70. In the mean time that prince was carrying on the arduous siege of Jerusalem, which city, after suffering the most horrible calamities, was taken on the 2nd September, in that year, with the destruction of the Temple, which Titus in vain attempted to save. The cruelties of that memorable siege, in which Jews fought against Jews with more ferocity than against the common enemy, are scarcely paralleled in history. After the reduction of Jerusalem he went to Alexandria, where he assisted at the consecration of the ox Apis. But finding that his delays occasioned some sinister rumours, he hastened back to Rome, where his father and himself were honoured with a magnificent triumph for their victories over the Jews, in commemoration of which a triumphal arch was erected, which is still one of the finest monuments of antiquity at Rome.
Vespasian now took Titus for his colleague in the empire; and he exercised a large share of the imperial power in perfect concert with his father. If Suetonius, however, is to be credited, his conduct during this part of his life was very far from being unblemished. During the Jewish war he had contracted a violent passion for Berenice, daughter of Agrippa I. king of the Jews, and widow of Herod, king of Chalcis, who followed him to Rome ; and the Roman people were much displeased by this attachment to a foreign queen of a doubtful reputation. But he sent, invitus invitam, Berenice back to Judaea, and by this proved that his passion for her did not prevent him from doing his duty. He gave soon after still more decisive proofs of the excellence of his character. Vespasian died a.d. 79, and Titus immediately succeeded to the whole sovereign power ; and the accounts transmitted to us of his short reign present little more than a series of deeds of princely beneficence. One of his first acts was the confirmation of all the grants and donations which had been made by his predecessors, and which it had formerly been customary to regard as annulled at the demise of each sovereign till they were renewed by the successor. His example in this point became a rule to all succeeding emperors. When he took possession of the office of chief pontiff, he made a declaration that he received it as a solemn engagement never to imbrue his hands in the blood of a citizen. A more extensive benefit was his abrogation of the law of majesty, or high-treason, 254 with respect to all accusations for words or writings against the person or dignity of the emperor — a fertile source in many preceding reigns of disquiet and ruin to exalted individuals. The principal public events of this reign were, the great eruption of Mount Vesuvius, in which Herculaneum, Stabiae, Pompeii, and other towns, were buried, (August, a.d. 79 ;) and a dreadful conflagration in Rome, followed by a fatal epidemic disorder (a. d. 80). These calamities called forth the bounty of Titus to relieve the sufferers in property, and his humanity and compassion, in alleviating other distresses. In this reign, also, Agricola restored tranquillity to Britain, and penetrated as far as the Frith of Tay, (a.d. 80 ;) and in the following year he constructed the wall between the Frith of Clyde and the Frith of Forth, in order to protect Britain from the incursions of the Caledonians. Still the object of the warm affection of his subjects, and unstained by a single act of injustice or oppression, Titus was seized with a fever on a visit to the country of the Sabines, which soon exhibited dangerous symptoms. It is said, that, opening his litter as he travelled, and looking towards heaven, he complained of his early doom, adding, " for I have nothing with which to reproach myself in my life, except a single action." What this was he did not explain, and it can be only a matter of conjecture. He died on the 13th September, a.d. 81, at a villa near Reate, the same family-seat at which his father expired, in the 41st year of his age, and after a reign of two years and less than three months, leaving no male offspring. His death was deplored at Rome as a general calamity. He was succeeded by his brother Domitian. [Biographical Dictionary]
Titus (a.d. 79-81 ). In a short reign of two years Titus won the title of "the Friend and the Delight of Mankind." He was unwearied in acts of benevolence and in bestowal of favors. His reign was signalized by two great disasters. The first was a conflagration at Rome, which was almost as calamitous as the Great Fire in the reign of Nero. The second was the destruction, by an eruption of Vesuvius, of the Campanian cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. The cities were buried beneath showers of cinders, ashes, and streams of volcanic mud. Pliny the Elder, the great naturalist, venturing too near the mountain to investigate the phenomenon, lost his life. [From Tiberius to the Accession of Diocletian]
REIGN OF TITUS, A.D. 79-81. Titus was one of the most accomplished and benevolent of men. Eloquent, warlike, moderate in his desires, he was called _Amor et deliciae humani generis_, "The love and the delight of the human race." In early life he had been thought inclined to severity, and his treatment of the Jews, at the fall of their city, does not seem in accordance with his character for humanity. But no sooner had he ascended the throne than he won a general affection. Such was the mildness of his government that no one was punished at Rome for political offenses. Those who conspired against him he not only pardoned, but took into his familiarity. He was so generous that he could refuse no request for aid. He was resolved, he said, that no one should leave his presence sorrowful; and he thought that day lost in which he had done no good deed. Titus wrote poems and tragedies in Greek, and was familiar with his native literature. During his reign, A.D. 79, occurred a violent eruption of Vesuvius, together with an earthquake, by which Herculaneum, Stabiae, and Pompeii, three towns on the Bay of Naples, were destroyed. The emperor was so touched by the sufferings of the inhabitants that he expended nearly his whole private fortune in relieving their wants. Pompeii and Herculaneum, which were covered by lava or ashes, were thus preserved from farther decay, and, having been partially excavated and restored, enable us to form a truthful conception of the domestic life of the Roman cities in the age of Titus. We here enter the villas of the rich or the humble homes of the poor, and find every where traces of comfort, elegance, and taste. The next year after the destruction of these cities, a fire broke out in Rome, which raged for three days, desolating the finest regions of the city. The Capitoline Temple was again destroyed, together with many buildings in the Campus Martius. A pestilence followed soon after, which ravaged Rome and all Italy. In A.D. 81 Titus dedicated the Colosseum, which was now completed, and also his famous baths, the ruins of which may still be visited at Rome. Splendid games and spectacles were exhibited in honor of these events. Few military events occurred during this reign, the empire being perfectly quiet, except where the active Agricola was subduing the wandering tribes of Scotland. At length Titus, having gone to the Sabine villa where his father Vespasian died, was himself suddenly arrested by death. It was believed that his brother Domitian was the cause of this unhappy event, and all the people lamented their emperor as if they had lost a father or a friend. Titus died September 13, A.D. [SM History of Rome]
THE SACRA VIA AND THE VELIA. The Sacra via, the oldest and most famous street in Rome, began at the sacellum Streniae a shrine mentioned only in this connection, and undoubtedly near the lucus Streniae in the Colosseum valley, and ran northwest to the summit of the Velia, which it crossed near the arch of Titus. This was the summa Sacra via, and from here the street curved toward the north and entered the Forum at the fornix Fabianus. Its course from this point to the Capitol has been described . Originally the name Sacra via was given only to that part of the street which was between the Velia and the Forum, but it was soon made to include the whole extent from the Colosseum to the Forum, and in modern times even the part within the Forum. The part from the Forum to the Velia was also called the Sacer clivus. [Topography of Ancient Rome 1911]
The Death of Titus
History* records Titus as saying these last words at his death: "I have made but one mistake". The exact meaning is not certain, but many believe he was murdered by Domitian and these words were directed at him.
* See Suetonius and Cassius Dio
Jewish Account of the Death of Titus. According to the Babylonian Talmud (Gittin 56b), an insect flew into Titus's nose and picked at his brain for seven years. He noticed that the sound of a blacksmith hammering caused the ensuing pain to abate, so he paid for blacksmiths to hammer nearby him; however, the effect wore off and the insect resumed its gnawing. When he died, they opened his skull and found the insect had grown to the size of a bird. The Talmud gives this as the cause of his death and interprets it as divine retribution for his wicked actions. [Wikipedia]
Vespasian (69 a. d.) was made emperor by his army in Judea. An old-fashioned Roman, he sought to revive the ancient virtues of honesty and frugality. His son Titus, after capturing Jerusalem (pp. 85, 284), shared the throne with his father, and finally succeeded to the empire. His generosity and kindness won him the name of the Delight of Mankind. He refused to sign a death-warrant, and pronounced any day lost in which he had not done some one a favor. During this happy period, Agricola conquered nearly all Britain, making it a Roman province; the famous Colosseum at Rome was finished ; but Pompeii and Herculaneum were destroyed by an eruption of Mount Vesuvius. [Political History of Rome]
TITUS Vespasian, son of Vespasian and Flavia Domitilla, became known by his valor in the Roman armies, particularly at the siege of Jerusalem. In the 79th year of the Christian era, he was invested with the imperial purple, and the Roman people had every reason to expect in him the barbarities of a Tiberius, and the debaucheries of a Nero. When raised to the throne, he thought himself bound to be the father of his people, the guardian of virtue, and the patron of liberty ; and Titus is, perhaps, the only monarch who, when invested with uncontrollable power, bade adieu to those vices, those luxuries, and indulgences, which, as a private man, he never ceased to gratify. All informers were banished from his presence, and even severely punished. A reform was made in the judicial proceedings, and trials were no longer permitted to be postponed for years. To do good to his subjects was the ambition of Titus ; and it was at the recollection that he had done no service, or granted no favor one day, that he exclaimed in the memorable words of, "My friends, I have lost a day" Two of the senators conspired against his life, but the emperor disregarded their attempts. He made them his friends by kindness, and, like another Nerva, presented them with a sword to destroy him. During his reign, Rome was three days on fire ; the towns of Campania were destroyed by an eruption of Vesuvius ; and the empire was visited by a pestilence, which carried off an infinite number of inhabitants. In this time of public calamity, the emperor's benevolence and philanthrophy were conspicuous. The Romans, however, had not long to enjoy the favors of this magnificent prince. Titus was taken ill; and as he retired into the country of the Sabines, to his father's house, his indisposition was increased by a burning fever. He died the 13th of September, A.D. 81, in the 41st year of his age, after a reign of two years, two months, and twenty days. [Historical and Biographical]
Vespasian (a.d. 69-79). A short troublous period followed the reign of Nero and then the imperial purple was assumed by Flavius Vespasian, the old and beloved commander of the legions in Palestine. One of the most memorable events of Vespasian's reign was the capture and destruction of Jerusalem. After one of the most harassing sieges recorded in history, the city was taken by Titus, son of Vespasian. A vast multitude of Jews who had crowded into the city—it was the season of the Passover — perished. In imitation of Nebuchadnezzar, Titus robbed the temple of its sacred utensils and bore them away as trophies. Upon the triumphal arch at Rome that bears his name may be seen at the present day the sculptured representation of the seven-branched golden candlestick, which was one of the memorials of the war. After a most prosperous reign of ten years Vespasian died a.d. 79, the first Emperor after Augustus who had not met with a violent death. [From Tiberius to the Accession of Diocletian]
(Titus Flavius,) an obscure native of Reate, in the country of the
Sabines, was born a.d. 9. In a.d. 39, in the third year of Caligula,
he was made praetor. By his merits and virtues he rose to
consequence in the Roman armies, and headed the expedition against
Jerusalem. On the death of Vitellius a.d. 69, he was proclaimed
emperor by his soldiers; and the wisdom, moderation, and firmness of
his reign showed the propriety of the choice. This virtuous monarch,
the liberal patron of learning, and the friend of morality and
order, died a.d. 79, in the seventieth year of his age.
REIGN OF T. FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS, A.D. 69-79.--Vespasian, the founder of the first Flavian family of emperors, was a soldier of fortune, who had risen from a low station to high command in the army. He was brave, active, free from vice, and, although fond of money, was never charged with extortion or rapacity. Toward the close of the summer, A.D. 70, he arrived in Rome, and received the imperium from the Senate. He began at once to restore discipline in the army, and raised to the rank of Senators and Equites illustrious men from the provinces, as well as from Italy and Rome, thus giving to the provincials a certain share in the government. The courts of justice were purified, the _Delatores_, or spies, were discountenanced, and trials for treason ceased. To increase his revenues, Vespasian renewed the taxes in several provinces which had been exempted by Nero, and he introduced economy and good order into the administration of the finances. Yet he expended large sums in rebuilding the Capitoline Temple, and also in completing the Colosseum, whose immense ruins form one of the most remarkable features in the modern scenery of Rome. He built, too, the Temple of Peace and a public library. He appointed lecturers upon rhetoric, with a salary of 100 sesterces, but was possessed himself of little mental cultivation. He is even said to have disliked literary men, and, in the year A.D. 74, expelled the Stoic and Cynic philosophers from Rome. In A.D. 70, September 2, his son Titus took the city of Jerusalem, after a brave defense by the Jews, who were finally betrayed by their own factions. The city was totally destroyed, and nearly half a million of the Jews perished in the siege. Those who survived, being forbidden to rebuild their city, were scattered over the empire, and each Jew was compelled to pay a yearly tax of two drachmae, which was appropriated to rebuilding the Capitoline Temple. The Arch of Titus, which still exists at Rome, was erected in commemoration of the fall of Jerusalem. Vespasian's generals repressed an insurrection of the Germans, and in A.D. 71 C. Julius Agricola, father-in-law of the historian Tacitus, entered Britain as legate to Petilius Cerialis. He was made governor of the province in A.D. 77, and led his victorious armies as far north as the Highlands of Scotland. This excellent character, by his justice and moderation, reconciled the Britons to the Roman yoke. By his first wife, Flavia Domatilla, Vespasian had three children--Titus, Domitian, and Domatilla. When she died he formed an inferior kind of marriage with Coenis, a woman of low station, who, however, seems to have deserved his esteem. He died 23d of June, A.D. 79, at the age of seventy. Although never a refined or cultivated man, Vespasian, by his hardy virtues, restored the vigor of the Roman government, and gave peace and prosperity to his subjects; while he who founded a library and established schools of rhetoric can not have been so wholly illiterate as some writers have imagined. [SM History of Rome]
The Destruction of Jerusalem under Titus
The Destruction of Jerusalem. Vespasian committed the care of the war against the Jews to his son Titus ; for after the ascension of our Saviour, the Jews, in addition to their wickedness against him, were now incessantly plotting mischief against his apostles. First they slew Stephen by stoning him, next James, who first obtained the episcopal seat at Jerusalem, after the ascension of our Saviour. . . . But the rest of the apostles they harassed in many ways with a view to destroying them, and they drove them from the land of Judea. These apostles accordingly went to preach the gospel to all nations, relying upon the aid of Christ, when he said, " Go and teach all nations in my name." The whole body of the church at Jerusalem, however,— when commanded by a divine revelation given to men of approved piety there before the war, — removed from the city, and dwelt at a certain town called Pella beyond the Jordan. The Jews formed their line close under their walls, whence if successful they might venture to advance, and where if repulsed they had a refuge at hand. . . . The Romans then began to prepare for an assault. It seemed beneath them to await the result of famine. . . . But the commanding situation of the city the Jews had strengthened by enormous works which would have been a thorough defense even for level ground. Two hills of great height they fenced in with walls skillfully bent inward in such a manner that the flank of an assailant was exposed to missiles. The work ended in a precipice ; the towers they had raised to a height of sixty feet where the hill lent its aid to the fortification ; where the ground fell, they were a hundred and twenty feet high. These towers presented a marvelous appearance, and to a distant spectator seemed to be of uniform height. There had been prodigies, which this nation, prone to superstition but hating all religious rites, did not deem it lawful to expiate by offerings and sacrifice. They had seen hosts joining battle in the skies, the fiery gleam of arms, the temple illuminated by a sudden radiance from the clouds. The doors of the inner shrine suddenly opened, and a voice of more than mortal tone was heard to cry that the Gods were going away. At the same instant there was a mighty stir as of departure. A few put a fearful meaning on these events, but in most people was a firm persuasion that the ancient records of their priests contained a prediction that at this very time the East was to grow powerful, and rulers from Judea were to acquire universal empire. These mysterious prophecies had pointed to Vespasian and Titus ; but the common people, with the usual blindness of ambition, had interpreted these mighty omens in their own favor, and could not be brought even by disasters to believe the truth. In computing the whole number of the slain, the historian says, that eleven hundred thousand perished by famine, and that the rest, including factions and robbers, mutually informing against each other after the capture, were put to death. Of the young men the tallest and those distinguished for beauty were kept for the triumph. Of the remaining multitude all above seventeen were sent as prisoners to labor in the mines of Egypt. Great numbers, however, were distributed among the provinces, to be destroyed by the sword or by wild beasts in the theatres. Those under seventeen were carried away to be sold as slaves. In the last named class alone were as many as ninety thousand. Vespasian died on the eighth of the calends of July at the age of sixty-nine years. [Story of Rome]
The First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called The Great Revolt (Hebrew: המרד הגדול, ha-Mered Ha-Gadol), was the first of three major rebellions by the Jews of Judaea Province (Iudaea), against the Roman Empire. The second was the Kitos War in 115–117 CE; the third was Bar Kokhba's revolt of 132–135 CE). The Great Revolt began in the year 66 CE, initially due to Greek and Jewish religious tensions, but later escalated due to anti-taxation protests and attacks upon Roman citizens. The Roman military garrison of Judaea was quickly overrun by rebels and the pro-Roman king Agrippa II fled Jerusalem, together with Roman officials to Galilee. Cestius Gallus, the legate of Syria, brought the Syrian army, based on XII Fulminata, reinforced by auxiliary troops, to restore order and quell the revolt. The legion, however, was ambushed and defeated by Jewish rebels at the Battle of Beth Horon, a result that shocked the Roman leadership. The Roman command of the revolt's suppression was then handed to general Vespasian and his son Titus, who assembled four legions and began cleansing the country, starting with Galilee, in the year 67 CE. The revolt ended when legions under Titus besieged and destroyed the center of rebel resistance in Jerusalem in the year 70 CE, and defeated the remaining Jewish strongholds later on. [Wikipedia]
The Fall of Jerusalem. The siege of Jerusalem, the capital city, had begun early in the war, but had turned into a stalemate. Unable to breach the city's defences, the Roman armies established a permanent camp just outside the city, digging a trench around the circumference of its walls and building a wall as high as the city walls themselves around Jerusalem. Anyone caught in the trench attempting to flee the city would be captured, crucified, and placed in lines on top of the dirt wall facing into Jerusalem. The two Zealot leaders, John of Gischala and Simon Bar Giora, only ceased hostilities and joined forces to defend the city when the Romans began to construct ramparts for the siege. Those attempting to escape the city were crucified, with as many as five hundred crucifixions occurring in a day. Titus Flavius, Vespasian's son, led the final assault and siege of Jerusalem. During the infighting inside the city walls, a stockpiled supply of dry food was intentionally burned by Sicarii to induce the defenders to fight against the siege instead of negotiating peace; as a result many city dwellers and soldiers died of starvation during the siege. Zealots under Eleazar ben Simon held the Temple, Sicarii led by Simon Bar Giora held the upper city. Titus eventually wiped out the last remnants of Jewish resistance. By the summer of 70, the Romans had breached the walls of Jerusalem, ransacking and burning nearly the entire city. The Romans began by attacking the weakest spot: the third wall. It was built shortly before the siege so it did not have as much time invested in its protection. They succeeded towards the end of May and shortly afterwards broke through the more important second wall. The Second Temple (the renovated Herod's Temple) was destroyed on Tisha B'Av (29 or 30 July 70). Tacitus, a historian of the time, notes that those who were besieged in Jerusalem amounted to no fewer than six hundred thousand, that men and women alike and every age engaged in armed resistance, everyone who could pick up a weapon did, both sexes showed equal determination, preferring death to a life that involved expulsion from their country. All three walls were destroyed and in turn so was the Temple, some of whose overturned stones and their place of impact can still be seen. John of Giscala surrendered at Agrippa II's fortress of Jotapata and was sentenced to life imprisonment. The famous Arch of Titus still stands in Rome: it depicts Roman legionaries carrying the Temple of Jerusalem's treasuries, including the Menorah, during Titus's triumphal procession in Rome... The defeat of the Jewish revolt altered the Jewish diaspora, as many of the Jewish rebels were scattered or sold into slavery. Josephus claims that 1,100,000 people were killed during the siege, a sizeable portion of these were at Jewish hands and due to illnesses brought about by hunger. "A pestilential destruction upon them, and soon afterward such a famine, as destroyed them more suddenly." 97,000 were captured and enslaved and many others fled to areas around the Mediterranean. The Jewish Encyclopedia article on the Hebrew Alphabet states: "Not until the revolts against Nero and against Hadrian did the Jews return to the use of the old Hebrew script on their coins, which they did from motives similar to those which had governed them two or three centuries previously; both times, it is true, only for a brief period." Titus reportedly refused to accept a wreath of victory, claiming that he had "lent his arms to God". [Wikipedia]
Josephus Describes the Siege. "Now as soon as the army had no more people to slay or to plunder, because there remained none to be the objects of their fury (for they would not have spared any, had there remained any other work to be done), [Titus] Caesar gave orders that they should now demolish the entire city and Temple, but should leave as many of the towers standing as they were of the greatest eminence; that is, Phasaelus, and Hippicus, and Mariamne; and so much of the wall enclosed the city on the west side. This wall was spared, in order to afford a camp for such as were to lie in garrison [in the Upper City], as were the towers [the three forts] also spared, in order to demonstrate to posterity what kind of city it was, and how well fortified, which the Roman valor had subdued; but for all the rest of the wall [surrounding Jerusalem], it was so thoroughly laid even with the ground by those that dug it up to the foundation, that there was left nothing to make those that came thither believe it [Jerusalem] had ever been inhabited. This was the end which Jerusalem came to by the madness of those that were for innovations; a city otherwise of great magnificence, and of mighty fame among all mankind... And truly, the very view itself was a melancholy thing; for those places which were adorned with trees and pleasant gardens, were now become desolate country every way, and its trees were all cut down. Nor could any foreigner that had formerly seen Judaea and the most beautiful suburbs of the city, and now saw it as a desert, but lament and mourn sadly at so great a change. For the war had laid all signs of beauty quite waste. Nor had anyone who had known the place before, had come on a sudden to it now, would he have known it again. But though he [a foreigner] were at the city itself, yet would he have inquired for it... The slaughter within was even more dreadful than the spectacle from without. Men and women, old and young, insurgents and priests, those who fought and those who entreated mercy, were hewn down in indiscriminate carnage. The number of the slain exceeded that of the slayers. The legionaries had to clamber over heaps of dead to carry on the work of extermination." [Josephus]
Judaea Capta coins were originally issued by the Roman Emperor Vespasian to commemorate the capture of Judaea and the destruction of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem by his son Titus in 70 AD during the First Jewish Revolt.
Josephus. The main account of the revolt comes from Josephus, the former Jewish commander of Galilee who, after capture by the Romans after the Siege of Yodfat, attempted to end the rebellion by negotiating with the Judeans on Titus's behalf. Josephus and Titus became close friends, and later Josephus was granted Roman citizenship and a pension. He never returned to his homeland after the fall of Jerusalem, living in Rome as a historian under the patronage of Vespasian and Titus. He wrote two works, The Jewish War (c. 75) and Jewish Antiquities (c. 94) which, on occasion, are contradictory. These are the only surviving source materials containing information on specific events occurring during the fighting. But the material has been questioned because of claims that cannot be verified by secondary sources and because of Josephus' potential bias as a client of the Romans and defender of the Roman cause. Only since the discovery of the Dead Sea scrolls has some solid confirmation been given to the events he describes. [Wikipedia]
DOMITIAN. Unfortunately for Rome, after a short reign the noble ruler Titus was succeeded by his cruel brother Domitian (81-96), a gloomy, misanthropic tyrant and a cowardly profligate, who disgraced the warlike fame of Rome; for, after an ignominious campaign on the Danube, he purchased peace from the Marcomanni and the Dacians by a yearly payment of money; and nevertheless caused himself to be honoured by an ostentatious triumph, with festive games and magnificent arches. Caring only for wild beast fights, the combats of gladiators, and savage pleasures, he stifled all nobler emotions in his proud, despotic nature, lent ear to evil counsellors, informers, flatterers, and spies, and took delight in torturings and executions, "The sea was covered with the banished," says Tacitus, " the rocks were stained with the and dismay prevailed in Rome." Perturbed and restless through fear of men and sinister suspicion, he was at last murdered in his own palace by the ministers and companions of his cruelty and pleasures, at the instigation of his beautiful and talented but immoral wife Domitia. [Roman World]
The Bible mentions believers being "persecuted":
Lamentations 3:43 - Thou hast covered with anger, and
persecuted us: thou hast slain, thou hast not pitied.
The Bible also mentions a lot regarding "persecution":
Acts 8:1 - And Saul was consenting unto his death. And at
that time there was a great persecution against the
church which was at Jerusalem; and they were all scattered abroad
throughout the regions of Judaea and Samaria, except the apostles.
The Bible also mentions a lot regarding "persecute":
69:26 - For they persecute [him] whom thou
hast smitten; and they talk to the grief of those whom thou hast
The Word "Caesar" is Mentioned many Times in the Bible
Luke 3:1 - Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene.
Matthew 22:21 - They
say unto him, Caesar's. Then saith he unto them,
Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are
Caesar's; and unto God the things that are God's.
Some Scriptures mentioning the word "Rome"
- And the night following the Lord stood by him, and said, Be of
good cheer, Paul: for as thou hast testified of me in Jerusalem, so
must thou bear witness also at Rome.
Daniel 2:40 - "And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron: forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces and subdueth all [things]: and as iron that breaketh all these, shall it break in pieces and bruise."
Acts 23:11 - And the night following the Lord stood by him, and said, Be of good cheer, Paul: for as thou hast testified of me in Jerusalem, so must thou bear witness also at Rome.
Flavian Amphitheatre (Bible History Online) - The Colosseum was known in ancient Rome as the Flavian Amphitheatre, named after the Flavian family who reigned in Imperial Rome. The building of the ...
Arch of Titus Menorah Relief - Biblical Archaeology in Rome - This wall relief on the Arch of Titus reveals one of the most troubling scenes in all history, Roman soldiers carrying
spoils from the destruction of the Temple of ...
Bible History Online - Arch of Titus Menorah Relief - 1 - This wall relief on the Arch of Titus reveals one of the most troubling scenes in all history, Roman soldiers carrying
spoils from the destruction of the Temple of ...
Also see Roman Emperors - Photos, information , coins