Stela of Baal
Could this stone
monument of Baal have been the same image that many Israelites
This stela depicting Baal 'king of the
gods" was discovered at Ras
Shamra (ancient Ugarit). It was found by the Schaeffer archaeological
mission in 1932, along with eight others, not far
from the Temple de Baal. Four
others were discovered near the Temple of Dagon and another ten in
various locations around the city. All date to the Late Bronze Age,
18th - 15th centuries BC.
Baal, the storm god, is seen on this Stele unleashing a storm. He is
holding a club in his right hand and a spear in his left like a
lightning bolt, which extends upward in the form of a tree. It was found
in 1932 at the site of ancient Ugarit, known today as Ras Shamra. Baal
the was supreme male deity that was worshipped by the ancient Canaanites
and Phoenicians, just as Ashtoreth was their supreme female deity. In
many cases Baal was identified with the sun and Ashtoreth with the moon.
Baal worship was prevalent during the time of Moses, especially among
the Moabites, the Midianites, and eventually spread to the Israelites.
During the time of the Kings, the northern Kingdom of Israel were Baal
worshippers as were many of the kings of Judah. Many Temples were
erected to Baal and have been discovered by archaeologists. Places for
worship of Baal were often high places in the hills consisting of an
altar and a sacred tree, stone, or pillar.
16:30-33 "And Ahab the son of Omri did evil in the sight of the LORD
above all that were before him. And it came to pass, as if it had been a
light thing for him to walk in the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat,
that he took to wife Jezebel the daughter of Ethbaal king of the
Zidonians, and went and served Baal, and worshipped him. And he
reared up an altar for Baal in the house of Baal, which he had built in
Samaria. And Ahab made a grove; and Ahab did more to provoke the LORD
God of Israel to anger than all the kings of Israel that were before
"At Ugarit, El was
sovereign, but another god ran things on earth for El as his vizier.
That god’s name was Baal. At Ugarit Baal was known by several titles:
“king of the gods,” “the Most High,” “Prince Baal” (baal zbl), and—most
importantly for our discussion—“the Rider on the Clouds.”" - Wikipedia
Stela of Baal in Biblical archaeology.
Stèle du "Baal au foudre"
The stela depicting the storm god Baal is
the largest and the most significant of the stelae discovered at Ras
Shamra (ancient Ugarit). It was found, along with eight others, not far
from Temple de Baal by the Schaeffer archaeological mission, 1932. Four
others were discovered near the Temple of Dagon and another ten in
various locations around the city. All date to the Late Bronze Age,
eighteenth-fifteenth centuries BC.
The large stela bears the relief carving of a monumental male figure,
towering over a much smaller figure standing on a pedestal. The bearded
lion-clothed main figure is wearing a horned headdress, indicating that
he is a god. He is brandishing a club in his right arm, with left
outstretched carrying a spear, the head of which is stuck in the ground,
while vegetation sprouts out its shaft. Today it is generally agreed
that the scene depicts the god, Baal, unleashing a storm from the club
in the the traditional pose of the storm gods worshiped throughout the
Levant - the Greek god Zeus and the Roman god Jupiter would later take
up the same pose and attributes. The metaphor of the spear sprouting a
plant alludes to the beneficial effects of the rain. The small figure
crouching on the small horned altar is believed to be the king of
Ugarit, in ceremonial dress, his arms crossed in prayer and the
recipient of divine protection. The motifs carved on the two-tiered
altar on which the god stands are more difficult to interpret: is the
monstrous snake who will cause the death of Baal depicted above the
carved waves of the ocean? Or is it the horizon of mountains that
surrounded the kingdom of Ugarit, protected by Baal, whose home is "in
the innermost reaches of Mount Sapon."
Ugarit was an ancient cosmopolitan port city, sited on the Mediterranean
coast of northern Syria a few kilometers north of the modern city of
Latakia. Itsent tribute to Egypt and maintained trade and diplomatic
connections with Cyprus (called Alashiya), documented in the archives
recovered from the site and corroborated by Mycenaean and Cypriot
pottery found there. The polity was at its height from ca. 1450 BC until
Musée du Louvre
British Museum Excerpt:
Bronze Figure of Baal
The god Baal with
raised right arm
This figure is
typical of bronzes from Syria in the second half of the second
millennium BC. Although clearly broken, his pointed cap and
raised right arm suggest that this is a representation of the
god Baal, one of the major deities of the Canaanites. He would
usually be wielding a club, but this example may have held a
smaller object, perhaps a thunderbolt. The eyes were originally
inlaid and the dowel and hole are modern.
The god Baal
embodied royal power and authority. Much of our knowledge about
Canaanite gods comes from the local Canaanite literature,
particularly from the archive of cuneiform tablets from the site
of Ugarit. The Canaanite gods and goddesses continued to be
worshipped during the first millennium BC, though some of their
functions changed. They were worshipped wherever the Canaanites
(Phoenicians) established trading colonies across the
Stele Showing the Storm-God Baal
Some Scriptures mentioning "Baal"
23:5 - And he put down the idolatrous priests, whom the
kings of Judah had ordained to burn incense in the high places in
the cities of Judah, and in the places round about Jerusalem; them
also that burned incense unto Baal, to the sun, and to
the moon, and to the planets, and to all the host of heaven.
10:25 - And it came to pass, as soon as he had made an end
of offering the burnt offering, that Jehu said to the guard and to
the captains, Go in, [and] slay them; let none come forth. And they
smote them with the edge of the sword; and the guard and the
captains cast [them] out, and went to the city of the house of
11:17 - For the LORD of hosts, that planted thee, hath
pronounced evil against thee, for the evil of the house of Israel
and of the house of Judah, which they have done against themselves
to provoke me to anger in offering incense unto Baal.
12:16 - And it shall come to pass, if they will diligently
learn the ways of my people, to swear by my name, The LORD liveth;
as they taught my people to swear by Baal; then shall
they be built in the midst of my people.
23:4 - And the king commanded Hilkiah the high priest, and
the priests of the second order, and the keepers of the door, to
bring forth out of the temple of the LORD all the vessels that were
made for Baal, and for the grove, and for all the host
of heaven: and he burned them without Jerusalem in the fields of
Kidron, and carried the ashes of them unto Bethel.
18:21 - And Elijah came unto all the people, and said, How
long halt ye between two opinions? if the LORD [be] God, follow him:
but if Baal, [then] follow him. And the people
answered him not a word.
18:19 - Now therefore send, [and] gather to me all Israel
unto mount Carmel, and the prophets of Baal four
hundred and fifty, and the prophets of the groves four hundred,
which eat at Jezebel's table.
11:13 - For [according to] the number of thy cities were thy
gods, O Judah; and [according to] the number of the streets of
Jerusalem have ye set up altars to [that] shameful thing, [even]
altars to burn incense unto Baal.
- And Joash said unto all that stood against him, Will ye plead for
Baal? will ye save him? he that will plead for him,
let him be put to death whilst [it is yet] morning: if he [be] a
god, let him plead for himself, because [one] hath cast down his
32:29 - And the Chaldeans, that fight against this city,
shall come and set fire on this city, and burn it with the houses,
upon whose roofs they have offered incense unto Baal,
and poured out drink offerings unto other gods, to provoke me to
- And it came to pass the same night, that the LORD said unto him,
Take thy father's young bullock, even the second bullock of seven
years old, and throw down the altar of Baal that thy
father hath, and cut down the grove that [is] by it:
17:16 - And they left all the commandments of the LORD their
God, and made them molten images, [even] two calves, and made a
grove, and worshipped all the host of heaven, and served Baal.
21:3 - For he built up again the high places which Hezekiah
his father had destroyed; and he reared up altars for Baal,
and made a grove, as did Ahab king of Israel; and worshipped all the
host of heaven, and served them.
- And when the men of the city arose early in the morning, behold,
the altar of Baal was cast down, and the grove was cut
down that [was] by it, and the second bullock was offered upon the
altar [that was] built.
10:22 - And he said unto him that [was] over the vestry,
Bring forth vestments for all the worshippers of Baal.
And he brought them forth vestments.
2 Kings 3:2
- And he wrought evil in the sight of the LORD; but not like his
father, and like his mother: for he put away the image of Baal
that his father had made.
10:18 - And Jehu gathered all the people together, and said
unto them, Ahab served Baal a little; [but] Jehu shall
serve him much.
- Then the men of the city said unto Joash, Bring out thy son, that
he may die: because he hath cast down the altar of Baal,
and because he hath cut down the grove that [was] by it.
18:40 - And Elijah said unto them, Take the prophets of
Baal; let not one of them escape. And they took them: and
Elijah brought them down to the brook Kishon, and slew them there.
16:31 - And it came to pass, as if it had been a light thing
for him to walk in the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, that he
took to wife Jezebel the daughter of Ethbaal king of
the Zidonians, and went and served Baal, and
32:35 - And they built the high places of Baal,
which [are] in the valley of the son of Hinnom, to cause their sons
and their daughters to pass through [the fire] unto Molech; which I
commanded them not, neither came it into my mind, that they should
do this abomination, to cause Judah to sin.
2:8 - The priests said not, Where [is] the LORD? and they
that handle the law knew me not: the pastors also transgressed
against me, and the prophets prophesied by Baal, and
walked after [things that] do not profit.
22:41 - And it came to pass on the morrow, that Balak took
Balaam, and brought him up into the high places of Baal,
that thence he might see the utmost [part] of the people.
7:9 - Will ye steal, murder, and commit adultery, and swear
falsely, and burn incense unto Baal, and walk after
other gods whom ye know not;
1:4 - I will also stretch out mine hand upon Judah, and upon
all the inhabitants of Jerusalem; and I will cut off the remnant of
Baal from this place, [and] the name of the Chemarims
with the priests;
18:25 - And Elijah said unto the prophets of Baal,
Choose you one bullock for yourselves, and dress [it] first; for ye
[are] many; and call on the name of your gods, but put no fire
19:18 - Yet I have left [me] seven thousand in Israel, all
the knees which have not bowed unto Baal, and every
mouth which hath not kissed him.
22:53 - For he served Baal, and worshipped
him, and provoked to anger the LORD God of Israel, according to all
that his father had done.
23:13 - And I have seen folly in the prophets of Samaria;
they prophesied in Baal, and caused my people Israel
- For she did not know that I gave her corn, and wine, and oil, and
multiplied her silver and gold, [which] they prepared for Baal.
Baal - Ancient Canaanite Deity (Bible History Online) - Map of
the Territory of Judah and Judea in Ancient Israel. Judea and the
surrounding territories (Southern Israel). The locations that have
an underline are ...
Easton's Bible Dictionary lord.
(1.) The name appropriated to the principal male god of the
Phoenicians. It is found in several places in the plural BAALIM
(Judg. 2:11; 10:10; 1 Kings 18:18; Jer. 2:23; Hos. 2:17). Baal is
identified with Molech (Jer. 19:5). It was known to the Israelites
as Baal-peor (Num. 25:3; Deut. 4:3), was worshipped till the time of
Samuel (1 Sam 7:4), and was afterwards the religion of the ten
tribes in the time of Ahab (1 Kings 16:31-33; 18:19, 22). It
prevailed also for a time in the kingdom of Judah (2 Kings 8:27;
comp. 11:18; 16:3; 2 Chr. 28:2), till finally put an end to by the
severe discipline of the Captivity (Zeph. 1:4-6). The priests of
Baal were in great numbers (1 Kings 18:19), and of various classes
(2 Kings 10:19). Their mode of offering sacrifices is described in 1
Kings 18:25-29. The sun-god, under the general title of Baal, or
"lord," was the chief object of worship of the Canaanites. Each
locality had its special Baal, and the various local Baals were
summed up under the name of Baalim, or "lords." Each Baal had a
wife, who was a colourless reflection of himself. (2.) A Benjamite,
son of Jehiel, the progenitor of the Gibeonites (1 Chr. 8:30; 9:36).
(3.) The name of a place inhabited by the Simeonites, the same
probably as Baal-ath-beer (1 Chr. 4:33; Josh. 19:8).
Fausset's Bible Dictionary The
chief male deity, as Ashtoreth is the chief goddess, of the
Canaanites and Phoenicians. Baalim, the plural form, expresses the
various aspects of Baal, as different localities viewed him. Baal is
also associated with Aaherah, inaccurately translated "THE GROVE" or
"groves" (Judges 3:7; 2 Chronicles 33:3; 2 Chronicles 34:4; 2 Kings
23:5-6). frontASHERAH.) Baal means lord, in the sense of owner,
possessor; but Adown means lord, master. The Hebrew article
distinguishes the proper name Baal from the common noun; Bel, the
Babylonian idol (Isaiah 46:1), is related. Midian and Moab, as early
as Moses' time, tempted Israel, by Balaam's devilish counsel
(Revelation 2:14; Joshua 13:22; Numbers 25:18), to worship the phase
of the deity called Baal-peor (Numbers 25), from peor, "aperire
hymenem virgineum" corresponding to the Latin, Priapus...
Hitchcock's Bible Names master;
Baal in Naves
Topical Bible 1. An idol of the
Phoenicians, god of the sun The Israelites wickedly worshiped in the
time of the judges Jud 2:10-23; 1Sa 7:3,4 By the kingdom of Israel
2Ki 17:16; Jer 23:13; Ho 1; 2; 13:1 Under Ahab 1Ki 16:31-33; 18:18;
19:18 Under Jehoram 2Ki 3:2 By the Jews 2Ki 21:3; 2Ch 22:2-4; 24:7;
28:2; 33:3 Jeremiah expostulates against the worship of Jer 2:8,23;
7:9 Altars of, destroyed by Gideon Jud 6:25-32 Destroyed by Jehoiada
2Ki 11:18 Destroyed by Josiah 2Ki 23:4,5 Prophets of, slain by
Elijah 1Ki 18:40 All worshipers of, destroyed by Jehu 2Ki 10:18-25
-2. A Benjamite 1Ch 8:30; 9:36 -3. A Reubenite 1Ch 5:5 -4. A city in
the tribe of Simeon 1Ch 4:33 Called BAALATH-BEER Jos 19:8
Smiths Bible Dictionary the supreme male divinity of the
Phoenician and Canaanitish nations, as Ashtoreth was their supreme
female divinity. Some suppose Baal to correspond to the sun and
Ashtoreth to the moon; others that Baal was Jupiter and Ashtoreth
Venus. There can be no doubt of the very high antiquity of the
worship of Baal. It prevailed in the time of Moses among the
Moabites and Midianites, Nu 22:41 and through them spread to the
Israelites. Nu 25:3-18; De 4:3 In the times of the kings it became
the religion of the court and people of the ten tribes, 1Ki
16:31-33; 18:19,22 and appears never to have been permanently
abolished among them. 2Ki 17:16 Temples were erected to Baal in
Judah, 1Ki 16:32 and he was worshipped with much ceremony. 1Ki
18:19,26-28; 2Ki 10:22 The attractiveness of this worship to the
Jews undoubtedly grew out of its licentious character. We find this
worship also in Phoenician colonies. The religion of the ancient
British islands much resembled this ancient worship of Baal, and may
have been derived from it. Nor need we hesitate to regard the
Babylonian Bel, Isa 46:1 or Beaus, as essentially identical with
Baal, though perhaps under some modified form. The plural, BAALIM,
is found frequently, showing that he was probably worshipped under
different compounds, among which appear--
Baal in the
Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE ba'-al:
(ba`al; or Baal): The Babylonian Belu or Bel, "Lord," was the title
of the supreme god among the Canaanites. I. NAME AND CHARACTER OF
BAAL II. ATTRIBUTES OF BAAL III. BAAL-WORSHIP IV. TEMPLES, ETC. V.
USE OF THE NAME VI. FORMS OF BAAL 1. Baal-berith 2. Baal-gad 3.
Baal-hamon 4. Baal-hermon 5. Baal-peor 6. Baal-zebub I. Name and
Character of Baal: In Babylonia it was the title specially applied
to Merodach of Babylon, which in time came to be used in place of
his actual name. As the word in Hebrew also means "possessor," it
has been supposed to have originally signified, when used in a
religious sense, the god of a particular piece of land or soil. Of
this, however, there is no proof, and the sense of "possessor" is
derived from that of "lord." The Babylonian Bel-Merodach was a
Sun-god, and so too was the Can Baal whose full title was Baal-Shemaim,
"lord of heaven." The Phoenician writer Sanchuniathon (Philo Byblius,
Fragmenta II) accordingly says that the children of the first
generation of mankind "in time of drought stretched forth their
hands to heaven toward the sun; for they regarded him as the sole
Lord of heaven, and called him Beel-samen, which means `Lord of
Heaven' in the Phoenician language and is equivalent to Zeus in
Greek" Baal-Shemaim had a temple at Umm el-Awamid between Acre and
Tyre, and his name is found in inscriptions from the Phoenician
colonies of Sardinia and Carthage...
Baal in Wikipedia (Arabic: بعل,
pronounced [ˈbaʕal]) (Hebrew: בעל, pronounced [ˈbaʕal]) (also
spelled Baal in English) is a Northwest Semitic title and honorific
meaning "master" or "lord" that is used for various gods who were
patrons of cities in the Levant, cognate to Akkadian Bēlu. A Baalist
or Baalite means a worshipper of Baal. "Ba‛al" can refer to any god
and even to human officials; in some texts it is used as a
substitute for Hadad, a god of the rain, thunder, fertility and
agriculture, and the lord of Heaven. Since only priests were allowed
to utter his divine name, Hadad, Ba‛al was commonly used.
Nevertheless, few if any Biblical uses of "Ba‛al" refer to Hadad,
the lord over the assembly of gods on the holy mount of Heaven, but
rather refer to any number of local spirit-deities worshipped as
cult images, each called ba‛al and regarded in the Hebrew Bible in
that context as a false god...
Ugarit in Wikipedia
The Impregnable Strength of Jerusalem
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