Jewish Literature in New Testament Times

Timeline of Events

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Historical Timeline - Alexander to the Birth of Jesus

BC   Israel   Greece and Rome   Egypt and the Near East

333

Alexander defeats the Persians at the battle of Issus.

Alexander conquers Egypt

332

Alexander 's Campaign in Israel

Alexander destroys Tyre

331

Alexander takes Babylon

330

Darius III is located and slain

327

Alexander invades India

323

Alexander claims to be the son of Zeus. Death of Alexander. His empire is divided between his four chief generals.

The Ptolemies conquer the Egyptian Kingdom and the Seleucids conquer the Syrian

322

Deaths of Demosthenes and Aristotle

320

Ptolemy Soter captures Jerusalem. Israel subject to Egypt

314

Israel subject to Syria

310

Simon the Just, High Priest

301

Israel reverts to Egypt

Rome becomes a major power in the Mediterranean

284

Beginning of the Septuagint translation of the Old Testament

264

First Punic War (264-241)

218

Second Punic War (218-201)

Colonies of Jews from Babylon transplanted to Asia Minor.

201

198

Antiochus the Great of Syria Dominates Israel

183

Death of Scipio Africanus and of Hannibal

175

Antiochus Epiphanes, king of Syria (175-163)

170

Tyranny of Antiochus Epiphanes

168
Revolt of the Elasmonaeans (Maccabees) led by Mattathias

166
Judas Maccabeus, son of Mattathias, leads the Jewish insurgents, taking and holding Jerusalem

163

Death of Antiochus Epiphanes. Ptolemy Philometor, king of Egypt, on appealing to Rome is re-instated as sole king

160

Judas killed in battle at Eleasa. His brother Jonathan succeeds him

149

Third Punic War

146

Fall of Carthage and Corinth, Greece becomes a Roman province

142

Murder of Jonathan Maccabeus. Hasmonaean dynasty in Judea established under Simon, last of the brothers

134

Murder of Simon Maccabeus : John Hyrcanus succeeds him as High Priest and King

130

Hyrcanus destroys the temple on Mount Gerizim

103

Aristobulus succeeds John Hyrcanus

102

Alexander Jannaeus becomes High Priest and King (102-75).

75

Alexandra, queen (75-67) ; Hyrcanus II High Priest (75-66)

66

Aristobulus II, High Priest and King (66-63)

63

Hyrcanus II restored as High Priest (63-40)

Pompey subjugates Judea

60

The first triumvirate

55

Caesar invades Britain

54

The Temple plundered by Crassus

48

Battle of Pharsalia, death of Pompey

47

Antipater the Idumaean appointed by Caesar procurator of Judea. Herod made governor of Galilee

44

Assassination of Caesar

43

Death of Antipater

40

Hyrcanus banished : Antigonus succeeds (40-37), last of the Hasmonaean priestly line

Herod at Rome appointed king of Judea

37

Herod captures Jerusalem

31

Battle of Actium

30

Egypt becomes a Roman province. Line of Ptolemies ends

27

Augustus made emperor

19

Herod begins to rebuild the Temple

11

The Outer Temple finished

4

Herod dies at Jericho

The Birth of Jesus Christ

 
Also see Synagogues

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Jewish Literature

Esther Scroll

John 10:34 "Jesus answered them, "Is it not written in your law.."

Rabbinical Literature and Second Temple Judaism

Jerusalem Temple CoinThe Rabbinic Writings, The Mishnah, and the Talmud. During the first century A.D. the Pharisaic rabbis created many commentaries on the Torah. When Jesus began his ministry He attacked the Pharisees for putting their traditions above the word of God. All the writings and commentaries of the first two centuries A.D. were compiled and organized into a collection by a man named Judah Hanasi around 200 A.D. forming a collection called the Mishnah. The Pharisaic rabbis were known as the "Tannaim" which in Hebrew is translated teachers, and these men were the teachers who regulated the law. There was another collection of their commentary which was much smaller, it was known as the Tosefta which in Hebrew means "enlargement". The later commentaries on the Mishnah were made by "expositors".

Introduction
Brief Historical Background

The Jews and Torah
The Holy Scriptures
The Apocrypha
The Apocryphal Literature
The Oral Law
The Mishnah
The Gemara
The Halakah
The Haggadah
The Midrash
The Zugoth
The Tannaim
The Amoraim
The Tosefta
The Baraitha
The Talmud
The Tractates of the Mishnah
The Palestinian Talmud
The Babylonian Talmud

The Purpose and Heart of the Law - A Heart Message
Rabbinical Writings Chart
Glossary
Timeline

Historical Timeline

The Persian Period 430-332 B.C.
The Greek Period 331-167 B.C.
The Period of Independence 167-63 B.C.
The Roman Period 63 B.C. to the time of Christ
The Old Testament Canon
The Apocrypha
Other Writings
The Septuagint
The Text of the Old Testament
The Aramaic Language
The Targums
The Talmud
The Great Synagogue
The Sanhedrin
Synagogues
The Dispersion
Pharisees
Sadducees
Scribes
Preparation for Christ

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